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downe an unresistable tempest, about the breake of day wee escaped their furious designes, and were enforced to seeke into the bay of Largastolo, in Cephalonia, both because of the violent weather, and also for that a great leak was stricken into our ship. In this fight there was of us killed, three Italians, two Greekes, and two Jewes, with eleven others deadly wounded, and I also hurt in the right arme with a small shot. But what harme was done by us amongst the infidels, we are not assured thereof, save only this, wee shot away their middle mast, and the hinder part of the poupe, for the Greeks are not expert gunners, neither could our harquebusadoes much annoy them, in respect they never boarded. But, howsoever it was, being all disbarked on shore, we gave thanks to the Lord for our unexpected safety, and buried the dead Christians in a Greekish church-yard, and the Jewes were interred by the sea side.”
He proceeds to Zante, where a Greek chirurgeon undertakes the cure of his arm, and “ performed condition within time.” Passing into the Morea, he arrives at a place he calls Peterasso, (Patras,) the place which now almost alone holds out against the Greeks.
“ After my arrivall in Peterasso, the metropolitan of Pelopenesus, I left turmoyling dangers of the intricated iles of the Ionean and Adriaticall seas, and advised to travell in the firme land of Greece, with a caravan of Greekes that were bound for Athens.
“ Peterasso is a large and spacious city, full of merchandise, and greatly beautified with all kinds of commercers. Their chiefe commodities are, raw silkes, cloth of gold and silver, silken grow-grams, rich damask, velvets of all kinds, with sattins and taffaties, and especially a store-house for graine. The Venetians, Ragusans, and Marseillians, have great tradings with them. Here, I remember, there was an English factor lying, whom the Subbassa, or governour of the town, a Turke, caused privately afterward, upon malice, to be poysoned, even when I was wintring at Constantinople; for whose death, the worthy and generous ambassadour, Sir Thomas Glover, my patron and protector, was so highly incensed, that he went hither himselfe to Peterasso, with two janizaries, and a warrant sent with him from the emperour, who, in the midst of the market-place of Peterasso, caused one of these two janizaries to strike off the head from the shoulders of that Sanzack, and put to death divers others, also, that had beene accessary to the poysoning of the English consull; and the ambassadour returning againe to Constantinople, was held in singular reputation, even with the Turkes, for prosecuting so powerfully the sword of justice, and would not shrinke for no respect, I being domesticke with him the selfe same time.”
From Patras he traverses Peloponnesus. At Argos, “ he had the ground to be a pillow, and the world-wide fields to be a chamber; the whirling windy skies to be a roofe to his winter
blasted lodging, and the humid vapours of cold Nocturna to accompany the unwished-for bed of his repose.”
Our painefull traveller' remains some time in Crete. Proceeding to Canea, he meets with an adventure.
“ Having learned of the theevish way I had to Canea, I'advised to put my money in exchange, which the captaine of that strength very courteously performed, and would, also, have disswaded me from my purpose, but I, by no perswasion of him, would stay. From thence departing all alone, scarcely was I advanced twelve miles in my way, when I was beset on the skirt of a rocky mountaine, with three Greeke murthering renegadoes, and an Italian bandido, who, laying hands on me, beat me most cruelly, robed me of all my cloaths, and stripped me naked, threatning me with many grievous speeches.
" At last, the respective Italian perceiving I was a stranger, and could not speak the Cretan tongue, began to aske me, in his owne language, where was my money? To whom I soberly answered, I had no more than hee saw, which was fourescore bagantines, which scarely amounted to two groats English ; but hee, not giving credit to these words, searched all my cloathes and budgeto, yet found nothing, except my linnen, and letters of recommendations I had from divers princes of Christendome, especially the Duke of Venice; whose subjects they were, if they had beene lawfull subjects; which, when hee saw, did move him to compassion, and earnestly entreated the other three theeves to grant me mercy, and to save my life. A long deliberation being ended, they restored backe againe my pilgrimes cloathes and letters, but my blew gowne and bagantines they kept. Such, also, was their theevish courtesie towards me, that, for my better safeguard in the way, they gave me a stamped piece of clay, as a token to shew any of their companions, if I encountred with any of them; for they were about twenty rascalls of a confederate band, that lay in this desart passage.
" Leaving them with many counterfeit thankes, I travailed that day seven and thirty miles, and, at night, attained to the unhappy village of Pickehorno, where I could have neither meate, drinke, lodging, nor any refreshment to my wearied body. These desperate Candiors thronged about me, gazing (as though astonished) to see me both want company and their language, and by their cruell looks they seemed to be a barbarous, uncivill people ; for all these highlanders of Candy are tyrannicall, blood-thirsty, and deceitfull. The consideration of which, and the appearance of my death, signed to mee secretly by a pittifull woman, made mee to shunne their villany, in stealing forth from them in the darke night, and privately sought for a secure place of repose in a umbragious cave by the sea-side, where I lay till morning, with a fearefull heart, a crased body, a thirsty stomacke, and a hungry belly."
It is creditable to Lithgow, that many of his misfortunes were brought on by his humanity. He leads the life of a pe
destrian knight-errant-fighting and running away, cudgelling and being cudgelled-all for the sake of relieving distress and exploring the unknown regions of the world. The following extract affords an instance.
“In my first abode in Canea, being a fortnight, there came six gallies from Venice, upon one of which there was a young French gentleman, a protestant, borne neare Monpeillier, in Langadocke ; who being, by chance, in company with other foure of his countreymen in Venice, one of them killed a young noble Venetien, about the quarrell of a curtezan; whereupon, they Aying to the French ambassadours house, the rest escaped, and he onely apprehended by a fall in his flight, was afterward condemned by the senators to the gallyes induring life. Now, the gallyes lying here sixe dayes, he got leave of the captaine to come ashoare with a keeper when he would, carrying an iron-bolt on his legge. In which time, wee falling in acquaintance, he complained heavily of his hard fortune, and how, because he was a protestant, (besides his slavery) he was severely abused in the galley, sighing forth these words, with tears :-Lord, have mercy upon mee, and grant me patience, for neither friends nor money can redeeme mee. At which expression I was both glad and sorrowfull; the one moving my soule to exult in joy for his religion; the other, for his misfortunes, working a Christian condolement for intollerable affliction; for I was in Venice at that same time when this accident fell out, yet would not tell him so much ; but pondering seriously his lamentable distresse, I secretly advised him the manner how he might escape, and how farre I would hazard the liberty of my life for his deliverance, desiring him to come a shoare early the next morning. Meanewhile I went to an old Greekish woman, with whom I was friendly inward, for shee was my landresse, and reciting to her the whole businesse, she willingly condiscended to lend me an old gowne and a blacke vaile for his disguisement. The time came, and we met. The matter was difficult to shake off the keeper; but such was my plot; I did invite him to the wine, where, after tractall discourses, and deepe draughts of Leatick, reason failing, sleepe overcame his sences. Whereupon, conducting my friend to the appointed place, I disburdened him of his irons, clothed him in a female habite, and sent him out before mee, conducted by the Greekish woman, and, when securely past both guard and gate, I followed, carrying with mee his cloathes, where; when accoasting him by a field of olives, and the other returned backe, we speedily crossed the Vale of Suda, and, interchanging his apparrell, I directed him the way over the mountaines to a Greekish convent on the south side of the land, a place of safeguard, called, commonly, the Monastery of Refuge, where hee would kindly bee entertained, till either the gallyes or men-of-war of Malta arrived; it being a custome at their going or comming from the Levante to touch heere, to releeve and carry away distressed men. This is a place whereunto bandits, men-slayers, and robbers repaire for reliefe.
“ And now many joyfull thankes from him redounded, I returned,
keeping the highway; where, incontinent, I encountred two English souldiers, John Smith and Thomas Hargrave, comming of purpose to informe me of an iminent danger, shewing me that all the officers of the gallyes, with a number of souldiers, were in searching the city, and hunting all over the fields for me. After which relation, consulting with them what way I could come to the Italian monastery, Saint Salvator, for there I lay (the vulgar towne affording neither lodging nor beds); they answered me, they would venture their lives for my liberty, and I should enter at the easterne (the least frequented) gate of the city, where three other Englishmen lay that day on guard, for so there were five of them here in garison; where, when wee came, the other English, accompanied with eight French souldiers, their familiars, came along with us also; and, having past the market-place and neare my lodging, four officers and sixe gally souldiers runne to lay hold on mee; whereat, the English and French unsheathing their swords, valiantly resisted their fury, and deadly wounded two of the officers. Meane while, fresh supply comming from the gallyes, John Smith runne along with me to the monastery, leaving the rest at pell mell, to intercept their following. At last, the captaines of the garrison approaching the tumult, relieved their own souldiers, and drove backe the other to the gallyes. A little thereafter, the generall of the gallyes came to the monastary, and examined mee concerning the fugitive; but I clearing myselfe so, and quenching the least suspition hee might conceive (notwithstanding of my accusers), hee could lay nothing to my charge. Howsoever it was, hee seemed somewhat favourable ; partly, because I had the Duke of Venice his pasport; party, lbecause of my intended voyage to Jerusalem; partly, because he was a great favourer of the French nation; and, partly, because he could not mend himselfe, in regard of my shelter and the governours favour. Yet, neverthelesse, I detained myselfe under safeguard of the cloyster untill the gallyes were gone.”
He gives a pleasing account of the police of Candia.
“ In this time there was no vice-roy, the former being newly dead, and the place vacant. The souldiers kept a bloody quarter among themselves, or against any whomsoever their malignity was intended ; for in all the time I stayed there, being ten dayes, it was nothing to see every day foure or five men killed in the streetes. Neither could the rector nor the captains helpe it, so tumultuous were the disordered souldiers, and the occasions of revenge and quarrelling so influent. This commonly they practise in every such like vacation, which otherwise they durst never attempt, without death and severe punishment; and, truely, me thought it was as barbarous a governed place, for the time, as ever I saw in the world, for hardly could I save my owne life free from their dangers, in which I was twice miserably involved.”
On his return to Canea, he meets with a moralist, whose tenets were not uncommon in those barbarous days.
" I was forced to returne to Canea the same way I went. When come, I was exceedingly merry with my old friends the English-men. Meanewhile there arrived from Tunnis, in Barbary, an English runa. gate, named Wolson, bound for the Rhodes; where, after short acquaintance with his natives, and understanding what I was, he imparted these words :- I have had my elder brother, said hee, the master (or captaine) of a ship, slaine at Burnt Iland, in Scotland, by one called Keere; and, notwithstanding he was beheaded, I have long since sworne to be revenged of my brothers death on the first Scotsman I ever saw or met, and my designe is to stab him with a knife this night, as he goeth late home to his lodging, desiring their assistance. But Smith, Hargrave, and Horsfeild refused ; yet Cooke and Rollands yeelded. Meanwhile, Smith knowing where I used sometimes to diet, found me at supper in a suttlers, a souldiers house, where, acquainting me with this plot, the host, he, and three Italian souldiers conveighed me to my bed, passing by the arch-villaine and his confederates, where he was prepared for the mischiefe; which when he saw his treachery was discovered, he fled away, and was seene no more here.
“ Remarking the fidelity and kindnesse that Smith had twice shewne me, first from freeing me from the danger of galley-slavery, and now in saving my life, I advised to do him a good deed in some part of acquittance, and thus it was.-At his first comming to Venice, he was taken up as a souldier for Candy; where, when transported, within a small time, he found the captaines promise and performance different, which inforced him at the beginning to borrow a little money of his lieutenant. The five yeares of their abode expired, and fresh companies come from Venice to exhibite the charge. Smith not being able to discharge his debt, was turned over to the new captaine for five yeares more, who paied the old captaine his mony; and his time, also, worne out, the third captaine came, where, likewise, he was put in his hands, serving him five yeares longer.
“ Thus, having served three captains fifteene yeares, and never likely able (for a small trifle) to attaine his liberty, I went to the captaine and payed his debt, obtaining, also, of the rector his licence to depart, and the allowance of the state for his passage, which was wine and biscot-bread. Thereafter I imbarked him for Venice, in a Flemish ship, the master being a Scotsman, John Allen, borne in Glasgow, and dwelt at Middleborough, in Zeland. His debt was onely forty-eight shillings sterling.”
Arriving at Angusa, in Paros, he seems to have been unfortunate in meeting with unfurnished lodgings. His abode, such as it was, the Greek Islanders were unwilling that he should make the best of.
“In Angusa I stayed sixteene dayes, storme-sted with northernely winds, and in all that time I never came in bed; for my lodging was in a little chappell, a mile without the village, on hard stones, where I,