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cloths : Rye, in Sussex, as the most frequented passage into: France ! “ The town of Romney, one of the five ports, in our grandfather's time, lay close upon the sea, but now is almost two® miles distant from the same." “ The town of Stony Stratford, is well known for its fair inns and stately bridge of stone.” “ The little city of Westminster, of old, more than a mile distant from London, is now, by fair buildings, joined to it. The city of London hath the sumptuous church of St. Paul, beautified with rich sepulchres, and the Bourse, or Exchange, a stately house, built for the meeting of merchants; a very sumptuous and wonderful bridge, built over the Thames; rich shops of goldsmiths, in Cheapside, and innumerable stately palaces, whereof great part lie scattered in unfrequented lanes.” Lynn, in Norfolk, he represents as famous for the safety of its haven, most easy to be entered, for the concourse of merchants, and the fair buildings.” Cambridgeshire was famous for its barley, “ of which, steeped till it spring again, they make great quantity of malt, to brew beer, in such quantity, as the beer is much exported even into foreign parts, and there highly esteemed." The ale of Derby is, for goodness, proverbially preferred before that kind of drink in any other town. Coventry “ is, at this day, the fairest city within land, wḥereof the chief trade of old was, making round caps of wool, but the same being now very little used, the trade is decayed. Towards the South of Staffordshire there are pit coals, and some veins of iron; but the greatest quantity and best kind of pit coals is in Notting hamshire. No other county has so many knights' houses as Cheshire : it is rich in pastures, and send great quantities of cheeses to London.” “I know that Worcester cheeses are most esteemed, but there is not such quantity to transport them.I know that Suffolk, and the fens of Essex, yield huge cheeses, in great number, to be exported, but they are not so pleasing to the taste as these. Whereas, Cheshire yields great quantity of very good cheeses, comparable to those of Holland, serving the greatest part of London therewith, and exporting the same into other parts.” “Herefordshire so much aboundeth with all things necessary for the life of man, as it is not content, in that respect, to have the second place among all the counties of England. Leicester justly boasteth of the sheeps' wool, feeding in those grounds, with which no part of Europe can compare, excepting Apulia and Tarentum. It yields excellent flax, and so good wheat, as the bread of Leicester and drink of Weably, (a neighbour town) are proverbially praised above all others.” Red deer, which are now found only in the moors that border on Cornwall and Devonshire, in the New Forest, and in the woods and hills of Martindale, near Ulswater, and there in such numbers, our author represents, as existing in great herds in Richmondshire, the northern district of Yorkshire. “Manchester is an old town, fair, and well inhabited, rich in the trade of making woollen cloth, and the cloths called Manchester cottons are vulgarly known.” These cottons, however, were, in fact, woollen goods. The manufacture of real cotton goods was not begun there till about the middle of the 17th century (Anderson's History of Commerce ii. 415.) Cumberland has mines of brass and veins of silver, in all parts yielding black lead, used to draw black lines. “ The empiric surgeons of Scotland come yearly to the fieids near the Pict's Wall, to gather herbs, good to heal wounds, and planted there by the bordering soldiers of the Romans, the nature of which herbs they wonderfully extol.”

. But the length to which this article has run, warn us to bring it to a conclusion, (though there is much curious matter in store,) by giving our author's account of the mode of living and manners of the Scotch.

“ Myself was at a knight's house, who had many servants to attend him, that brought in his meat with their heads covered with blue caps, the table being more than half furnished with great platters of porridge, each having a little piece of sodden meat; and when the table was served, the servants did sit down with us; but the upper mess instead of porridge, had a pullet with some prunes in the broth. And I observed no art of cookery, or furniture of household stuff, but rather rude neglect of both, though myself and my companion, 'sent from the governor of Berwick about bordering affairs, were entertained after their best manner. The Scots living then in factions, used to keep many followers, and so consumed their revenue of victuals, living in some want of money. They vulgarly eat hearth cakes of oats, but in cities have also wheaten bread, which for the most part was bought by courtiers, gentlemen, and the best sort of citizens, When I lived at Berwick, the Scots weekly upon the market day obtained leave in writing of the governor to buy peas and beans, whereof, as also of wheat, their merchants at this day send great quantity from London into Scotland.

“They drink pure wines, not with sugar as the English, yet at feasts they put comfits in the wine, after the French manner, but they had not our vintner's fraud to mix their wines. I did never see nor hear that they have any public inns with signs hanging out; but the better sort of citizens brew ale, their usual drink (which will distemper a stranger's body), and the same citizens will entertain passengers upon acquaintance or entreaty. Their bedsteads were then like cupboards in the wall, with doors to be opened and shut at pleasure, so as we climbed up to our beds. They used but one sheet, open at the sides and top, but close at the feet, and so doubled. Passengers did seek a stable for their horses in some other place, and did there buy horse-meat, and if, perhaps, the same house yielded a stable, yet the payment for the horse did not make them have beds free as in VOL XI. PART. II.

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England. I omit to speak of the inns and expences therein, having dilated the same in the itinerary of the first part, and a chapter in this part, expressly treating thereof. When passengers go to bed, their custom was to present them with a sleeping cup of wine at parting. The country people and merchants used to drink largely, the gentlemen somewhat more sparingly; yet the very courtiers, at feasts, by night meetings, and entertaining any stranger, used to drink healths not without excess, and, to speak truth without offence, the excess of drinking was then far greater in general among the Scots than the English. Myself being at the court invited by some gentlemen to supper, and being forewarned to fear this excess, would not promise to sup with them, but upon condition that my inviter would be my protection from large drinking, which I was many times forced to invoke, being courteously entertained, and much provoked to carousing, and so for that time avoided any great intemperance. Remembering this, and having since observed in my conversation at the English court with the Scots of the better sort, that they spend great part of the night in drinking, not only wine, but even beer, as myself will not accuse them of great intemperance, so I cannot altogether free them from the imputation of excess, wherewith the popular voice chargeth them.”

ART. VIII.The Totall Discourse, of the Rare Adventures, and

painefull Peregrinations of long Nineteene Yeares Truvailles from Scotland, to the most famous Kingdomes in Europe, Asia, and Affrica. Perfited by three deare bought Voyages, in surveying forty eight Kingdomes, Ancient and Modern; twenty one Rei-publicks, ten absolute Principalities, with two hundred Islands. The particular Names whereof are described in each Argument of the ten Divisions or Parts of this History; and is also divided into three Bookes : being newly corrected, and augmented in many severall places, with the addition of a Table thereunto annexed of all the chiefe Heads. Wherein is contayned an exact Relation of the Lawes, Religions, Policies and Governments of all their Princes, Potentates and people. Together with the grievous Tortures he suffered by the Inquisition of Malaga in Spaine: his miraculous Discovery and Delivery. And of his last and late Returne from the Northern Isles, and other Places adjacent. By William Lithgow. Imprinted at London by I. Okes, 1640.

William Lithgow belongs to a class of travellers which, though not exceedingly rare in his own times, had become extinct, until Captain Cochrane, and, later still, the blind traveller, Holman, have once more afforded specimens of it. Without any peculiar qualifications for foreign travel; without any scientific or literary object, or, indeed, without any purpose what= ever, such men as Tom Coryate and William Lithgow traversed every quarter of the globe. An inextinguishable restlessness alone seems to have been their inoving principle; added to which, vagabond habits, and an unmeaning curiosity, and the perpetual motion of such men, is pretty well accounted for. Travelling, whether in Europe or in the more remote parts of the globe, in the reign of James I. and Charles I. of England, was not dull and common-place locomotion, as it has since become. All places are now pretty much alike; manners do not differ exceedingly; and personal safety is as common as it is comfortable. The change that has taken place in Europe, and in most parts of the world, within a couple of centuries, is most extraordinary and most encouraging. To a very attentive and sharp-sighted observer, men now are as various, or, perhaps, more distinctly marked, than they were in the rude times of which we are speaking : but the observation is a delicate one, and requires time and patience. The cursory traveller can have neither: he can observe but the surface ; and that bears, at least in European quarters, a pretty even polish. It was very different when Lithgow travelled : every thing was striking, rude, and remarkable. Personal risk was run at every moment; manners every where were characterized by violence; and every turn of the road threw the traveller into some petty convulsion. Warfare is scarcely more adventurous or dangerous than was the voyaging and travelling of an unprotected pedestrian, in the good old times, which we so often hear regretted by poets and ignorant sentimentalists. Adventure and danger naturally produce considerable excitement; which was, doubtless, the reward and the inducement to encounter hair-breadth escapes and imminent risks, with such men as William Lithgow.

We are not exactly informed of the immediate cause which propelled Mr. Lithgow to · forraigne travell. He speaks very obscurely on this head, but would give us to understand, that political reasons induced him to fly from evil at home, to seek grace abroad. He writes thus mysteriously:

“And thus (have I) in the late dayes of my younger yeeres beene grievously afflicted? Ah, yea, and with more then disastrous injuries over-clowded, 0 heavy underprop'd wrongs. But hath not the like accident befalne to man before ? yea, but never the like condition of murther : Nay, but then preponderate seriously this consequent. May not the scelerate hands of foure blood-shedding wolves, facily devoure, and shake a peeces one silly stragling lamb? yea, and most certaine, that, unawares, the harmelesse innocent, unexpecting evill, may suddenly bee surprized by the ambushment of life-betraying foes.. All this I acknowledge ; but whereupon grew this thy voluntary

wandring, and unconstrained exile? I answere, that being young, and within minority, in that occurrent time, I was not onely inveigled, but by seducements inforced, even by the greatest powers, then living in my country, to submit my selfe to arbitrement, satisfaction, and reconciliation. But afterward growing in yeares, and understanding better the nature of such unallowable redresses, and the hainousneśse of the offence; I choosed rather, roti causa, to seclude myselfe from my soyle, and exclude my relenting sorrowes, to be entertained with strangers, than to have a quotidian uccular inspection, in any obvious object of disastrous misfortune; or, perhaps, any vindicable action, might from an unsettled ranckour bee conceived. O! a plaine demonstraté cause, and good resolution; for, true it is, that the flying from evill, is a flying to grace; and a godly patience is a victorious freedome, and an undaunted conquerour over all our wrongs. Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord, and I will repay it. To this I answere, mine eyes have seene the revenging hand of God upon mine adversaries, and these night-gaping foes are trampled under foot; while I, from strength to strength, doe safely goe through the fiery tryall of calamities. My consolation arising from the eternall dictum, quos amo castigo, whom I love I correct.”

However this may be, after two voyages to the Orcades and the Shetland Isles, and, after surveying, “ in the stripling age of his adolescence,”all Germany, Bohemia, Switzerland, and the Low Countries, he visited Paris. From Paris, he commences the description of his travels; and it is certainly the most extraordinary narrative we ever remember to have read. Every page has its adventure: he is beaten, robbed, and kicked, in each succeeding chapter. The interference of Providence always saves him from a fatal termination of the catastrophe. The mercy of God likewise shews itself in sundry benefactions and hospitable receptions. He depends, too, upon Heaven, generally, for his support; for he appears to be, in the first instance, very slenderly provided; is often reduced to extreme penury, and as often appears to be replenished: respecting the manner that the latter miracle is performed, he is not especially explicit. The expenses of his journeyings cannot, however, have been very considerable; for Lithgow was a Scotchman, who treated privation as a luxury, and who preferred the pedestrian mode of travelling. His pil. grimage was really performed on foot, and many instances occur in which he stubbornly refuses to ride ; unlike Captain Cochrane, who has lately termed his undertakings a Pedestrian Tour in Siberia, whereas, it appears from the book itself, that the gallant Captain only walked when he could do nothing else.

In the year of God, 1609, March 7, Lithgow set forward from Paris, being accompanied three leagues on his way by three of his countrymen. “ When his kindest thanks had overclouded their courtesies, and farewell was bid on both sides, he be

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