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the shire of Perth; and, on the 9th of September, he proclaimed the Pretender, and erected his standard at the small markettown of Kirk Michael. The same ceremony was performed five days after at Moulin, where the insurgents stayed fourteen days, and then proceeded to Logarett, and thence to Dunkeld, where they established their head-quarters. On his arrival at Dunkeld, Mar was at the head of only 1000 men; but at this place his army was increased by 2000 Highlanders, commanded by the Marquis of Tullibardine and the Earl of Bredalbain. Soon after the accession of these forces, receiving intelligence that the Earl of Rothes was assembling troops for the purpose of occupying the town of Perth on behalf of King George, he resolved to anticipate him, and detached for that purpose Mr. Hay, brother to the Earl of Kinnoul, who, at the head of a strong party, took possession of that town, which gave him the command of the passage over the Tay, and opened to him the fruitful province of Fife.

Mar now removed his head quarters to Perth, where he was joined by the Marquis of Huntley, the Earl of Seaforth, the Mackintoshes, and the Earl Mareschal. These chieftains were accompanied by the fighting men of their respective clans, who swelled the number of the rebel army to about 12,000 men. The Earl of Rothes, being unable to make head against so large a body, was obliged to retire to Stirling; and the insurgents took Burnt Island, and all the towns on the coast of Fife; thus extending their conquests to the mouth of the Firth of Forth.

The confederated chiefs, having received intelligence that their friends were ready to rise in the south of Scotland and the north of England, determined to send a strong detachment across the Firth of Forth to co-operate with them. This movement was a perilous one, as three men of war were stationed at the mouth of the estuary. But, taking advantage of the state of the tide, on the nights of the 11th and 12th of October they embarked 2500 men, under the command of Brigadier Mackintosh, in boats collected for that purpose. Of these, 1000 were driven back to the Fifeshire coast; but 1500 of them landed at North Berwick, and other places in Lothian, and took up their quarters at Haddington and Travent. Hence they marched to Edinburgh ; but, being disappointed in their expectations of being joined by the populace of that city, and receiving intelligence that the Duke of Argyle was hastening from Stirling to oppose them, they turned off to the right, and marching to Leith, they took that town without opposition. Having fortified the place with such works as could be hastily thrown up, they continued to occupy it during the 13th and 14th of October. On the latter day, the Duke of Argyle, at

the head of 1120 men, appeared before their fortifications; but, finding the rebels too strongly posted, he returned to Edinburgh to collect more forces, intending to attack them with artillery the next day. But Mackintosh, having received intelligence of his design, drew off his small party by a night march to Seaton house. On Sunday, the 16th of October, and on the following day, their position was reconnoitered by a division of the king's troops, who, however, did not venture to attack them, as the Duke of Argyle, with the main body of his forces, had been obliged to return to Stirling, which was threatened by a movement made by Mar upon Dumblain, for the purpose of making a diversion in favour of such of his troops as had crossed the Firth. On Monday, the 17th, Brigadier Mackintosh received orders from the rebel commanders to quit Seaton, and march for England, for the purpose of joining the friends of the Pretender, who had risen in Northumberland ; and, having on the next day received despatches from that county, urging him to hasten his march to the southward, he quitted Seaton house on the 19th; and, though he was pursued by a part of the garrison of Edinburgh, he passed in safety through Dunse; and on the 22d arrived at Kelso, where, on the evening of the above-mentioned day, he was joined by the Northumberland and Nithsdale rebels.

The English insurgents were headed by the Earl of Derwentwater and Mr. Forster. These zealous partizans of the exiled family had for some time been engaged in preparing their associates for a revolt, by means of emissaries, who traversed the king. dom in the guise of gentlemen travelling for their amusement. But, understanding that the government had received intelligence of their machinations, they concealed themselves in various places of refuge, till, despairing of any other means of safety than open resistance to authority, they privately summoned their immediate friends to meet them in arms on the 6th of October at a place called Greenrig. Mr. Forster appeared first at the rendezvous, and was soon joined by the Earl. Though their united forces amounted only to sixty men, they resolved to stand the hazard of the die, and proceeded in warlike array to Warkworth, where they arrived on Friday, the 7th of October.

“ Here,” says Mr. Patten, “ they continued till Monday, during which time nothing material happened, except that, on Sunday morning, Mr. Forster, who now styled himself general, sent Mr. Buxton, their chaplain, to Mr. Ion, the parson of the parish, with orders for him to pray for the Pretender, as king; and, in the Litany, for Mary, queen-mother, and all the dutiful branches of the royal family; and to omit the usual names of King George, the Prince, and Princess; which Mr. Ion wisely declining, Mr. Buxton took possession of the

church, read prayers, and preached. Meanwhile the parson went to Newcastle, to consult his own safety, and acquaint the government with what had happened.”

From Warkworth, Forster marched to Morpeth. On his way to that town he received such additions of recruits, that he entered it at the head of 300 horse. His numbers, indeed, would have been much more considerable, had he been provided with arms to distribute to those of the lower class who voluntered their services. In his present circumstances, he could only accept the aid of those who could furnish their own accoutrements. Relying, however, on his partisans in the town of Newcastle, he was in hopes of making himself master of that important place, the occupation of which would have put him in possession of abundance of arms and military stores. With a view of taking it by surprise, he advanced to a heath adjoining to Dilston, the seat of Lord Derwentwater. But, on receiving the unwelcome tidings that the magistrates had put the town in a posture of defence, and that they were seconded in their preparations by the inhabitants, and especially by the keel-men, who, as Mr. Patten observes, “ were mostly dissenters," he retired with his little army to Hexham, where he had taken up his quarters the preceding night. Here he staid three days, which time he employed in making levies of arms and horses upon the friends of the House of Hanover who resided in the town and neighbourhood ; and, on the eve of his departure, he solemnly proclaimed the Pretender at the market-cross.

At Hexham Mr. Forster received intelligence that the flame of insurrection had broken out in Nithsdale, and that Viscount Kenmure and the Earls of Nithsdale and Carnwath had entered England, and were advanced to Rothbury, with a view of forming a junction with his forces. Of these noblemen, Lord Kenmure had been the earliest in taking the field, having led the way in proclaiming the Pretender at Moffatt. The standard which was borne at the head of his party was very handsome, one side being blue, with the Scotch arms wrought in gold :-the other bore a thistle, with the usual motto, “ Nemo me impune lacessit,” to which was added the vulgar watch-word of “ No Union.” To the standard were attached pendants of white ribbon, one of which bore the inscription, * For our wronged King and oppressed Country:"-the other, For our Lives and Liberties.” On the 13th of October, the earls above-mentioned having joined him, Kenmure attempted to surprise the town of Dumfries; but being baffled in this enterprise by the vigilance and spirit of the Marquis of Annandale, he retired to Loughmaben, and on the 14th marched to Ecclefechan, whence he proceeded to Langholme; and then

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turning to the north, he marched to Hawick, his numbers, which had not originally exceeded two hundred men, increasing as he advanced. At Hawick, the rebel lords were alarmed by intelligence of the approach of some of the king's troops from Edinburgh, and, after some disputes amongst themselves, they agreed to retrace their steps; but they had hardly commenced their retrograde march, when, on receiving an express from Mr. Forster, bearing an invitation to meet him at Rothbury, they faced about, and marched to Jedburgh; and from Jedburgh they proceeded, by a tedious, mountainous, and marshy route, to the place of rendezvous indicated by their Northumbrian friends. Mr. Forster, having been apprised of their arrival, and being, moreover, informed that General Carpenter had brought a body of troops, by forced marches, to Newcastle, and was preparing to attack him, broke up from Hexham on the 19th of October, and, making a long march, joined the Scotch lords that night at Rothbury. The next day the united forces of the rebels marched to Wooler, in the county of Northumberland. It was at this place that the rebel army was joined by the Rev. Robert Patten, who, not relying solely on the sword of the spirit, had contrived, in the course of his journey from Allandale, to pick up some recruits. The circumstances of his encountering these volunteers, who were keel-men from Newcastle, and the generalship which he evinced in marching at their head from Rothbury to Wooler, we shall detail in his own words.

“I suspected them for some of the militia, and kept at a distance; but, discovering they had no arms, made up to them, and asked them what news, and whither they designed? They answered, (but especially one, a brave stout young fellow,) · We are Scotsmen, going to our homes, to join our countrymen that are in arms for King James.' I told him, he was very bold." Sir,' says he, “ I'll drink his health just now: so with his bonnet, which he dipt into a runner, he said,

Here is King James's health,' which all his partners did. After this I told them, if they were sincere, and would follow me, I would bring them to their countrymen, which they promised to do. I gave each of them a shilling. Drawing near the town, Rothbury, I left them under a hedge, till I could inquire what was become of the rebels, and if we could by ourselves lodge safely there. I inquired for the best inn: being directed there, where I found Mr. Charles Wogan's man, who came with me from Hexham, but parted for fear of being taken. He gave me a pair of pistols : so I returned to my companions, and brought them quietly into town, both wet and weary, and immediately went to the head constable, and told him, that if he would give us no disturbance, we would stay all night civilly, paying for what we had; but if he intended to make a prey of us, our friends being gone, we would then follow them. He made fair promises ; but not daring to trust him too much, we made him sure in his own

house; so that we watched him by turns till early next day: we set out from this town, Rothbury, for Wooler, and there joined the English and Scots' horse, and were kindly entertained by the chiefs."

Soon after this junction of the rebel forces at Wooler, their commanders received an account of the Highlanders, under Mackintosh, being arrived at Dunse, in consequence of which they hastened to Kelso. They had scarcely established themselves in that town, before they had the satisfaction to see Mackintosh and his men march into the place with bag-pipes playing, and colours flying. On the ensuing day, Oct. 23rd, the Rev. Robert Patten opened his spiritual commission, being ordered by Lord Kenmure, who held the chief command in Scotland, to preach at the great kirk at Kelso. On this solemn occasion, all the men attended the service. Mr. Buxton read prayers, and his co-pastor held forth from a most appropriate text, viz. Deut. xxi. 17.The right of the first-born is his.It may be presumed, that Mr. Patten's audience were well satisfied with his performance. Certain it is, that this militant divine was pleased with his audience; for he observes—“it was very agreeable to see how decently and reverently the very common Highlanders behaved, and answered the responses according to the Rubrick, to the shame of many that pretend to more polite breeding.” In the afternoon, Mr William Irwine, a Scotch Nonjuring clergyman, read prayers, and preached a sermon, full of exhortations to his hearers to be zealous and steady in the cause.

This Irwine was a veteran in rebellion, and his sermon had already done good service, as he had formerly delivered the very same discourse to Lord Viscount Dundee and his army a little before the battle of Gilliecrankie.

“ The next morning,” says our author, “the Highlanders were drawn

up in the church-yard, and so marched in order to the market place, with colours Aying, drums beating, and bag-pipes playing, and there formed a circle, the lords and other gentlemen standing in the centre. There was an inner circle also formed by the gentlemen volunteers. Then silence being enjoined, the trumpet sounded; after, which, the Pretender was proclaimed by one Seaton Barnes, who assumed the title of Earl of Dumfermling. The proclamation was to this effect. Whereas, by the decease of the late King James VII, the imperial crowns of these realms did lineally descend to his lawful heir and son, our sovereign King James VIII. We, the lords, &c., do declare him our lawful king over Scotland, England, &c.''

After the proclamation, a manifesto of the Earl of Mar was read. This document is introduced by a broad .assertion of the hereditary right of the exiled Stuart to the throne of these kingdoms"; and assures the people of his majesty's



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