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what words can utter. I knew nothing but pureness, innocency, and righteousness, being renewed up into the image of God by Christ Jesus ; so that I was come up to the state of Adam, which he was in before he fell.” On another occasion he has the following introductory passage : “ Moreover, the Lord God let me see, when I was brought up into his image in righteousness and holyness, and into the paradise of God; &c.”
After these things, our readers will think the performing of miracles a matter of course; and we beg them to understand this was not merely a pretension of poor George's, but that his acts were recognized and registered as miracles by his followers. We quote the following from the Index to the last edition.—“Miracles wrought by the power of God, (page) 155. She that was ready to die raised up again, 158. The lame made whole, 95. The diseased cured, 481. A distracted woman recovered, 26. See Trouble of Mind. A great man, given over by his physicians, restored, 28, 341, &c. &c." Let us look more particularly into one or two of these. “ After some time, I went to a meeting at Arnside, where Richard Myer was, who had been long lame of one of his arms. I was moved of the Lord to say unto him, amongst all the people ; 'Stand up upon thy legs, for he was sitting down; and be stood up, and stretched out his arm that had been lame a long time, and said, ' Be it known unto you, all people, that this day I am healed.' Yet his parents could hardly believe it; but after the meeting was done, had him aside, took off his doublet, and then saw it was true.” Again, at Cossel, he observes, came a woman,
and brought her daughter for me to see how well she was; putting me in mind, that when I was there before, she had brought her to me much troubled with the king's evil, and had then desired me to pray for her,' which I did, and she mended upon praised be the Lord.” At Baldock there was a baptist woman sick. “John Rush, of Bedfordshire," says Fox, "went with me to see her. When we came in, many tender people were about her. They told me she was not a woman for this world; but if I had any thing to comfort her concerning the world to come, I might speak to her. I was moved of the Lord to speak to her; and he raised her up again, to the astonishment of the town and country.”
We have thought it necessary to give this brief notice of some of the extravagant opinions taught, and pretensions made, by Fox, that our readers may understand the ground of that abhorrence in which he was held, and that persecution he endured. Still it was not the great doctrines of his sect that Fox, in early life, principally taught, or the insulted feelings of the people, from which he always suffered ; a little nonsense in principle, and a little folly in conduct, both being ill-timed,
served, over and over again, to shut him up in prison. The not observing an established courtesy by taking off his hat, was a perpetual offence to all the proud spirits in the magistracy, before whom he was eternally brought, and subjected him to intolerable persecution; and, on his part, the very mention of death, or Moses, or circumcision, or the church, or the word of God, were a sure block, over which he stumbled; and: a' text which he must expound, without regard to time, season, or audience. It was not that what he said was altogether ridiculous; but ridiculous from the vehemence, rudeness, and denunciations, with which he denied what none but the most ignorant ever supposed, or discussed what nobody else disputed. But Fox was once of the most ignorant. He afterwards acquired that knowledge and power, never contemptible, which a complete mastery over such a work as the Bible, gives to every man ; and, having thus discovered his former ignorance, thought all men in the same darkness from which he had so unexpectedly burst forth.
We have before warned the reader, that he must not expect a connected narrative of Fox's life. Such an abstract would have less interest, and throw much less light on the real character of the man, than our collected notices. His was a life of change, without variety ; to-day in prison, to-morrow at liberty; and it needed even less fore-knowledge than some of his own prophecies, to predict when he would be in jail again.
It is an extraordinary circumstance, that it was not till after some years' wandering, and after the establishment of many meetings, that Fox was commanded by the Lord" to go abroad into the world.” It may be added, that no man ever observed a command more religiously. For more than twenty years, we do not believe he had a home ; and when he married, he was seldom there long together, and only at wide intervals of time. During this long period, the privations he endured, the brutal violence he suffered from, the indignities he submitted to, make the heart ache. Some of his simple narratives are, in the highest degree, affecting, and will testify, as long as the record shall remain, to the perfect sincerity of his intentions. Thus, shortly after his liberation from a twelvemonth's imprisonment in Derby jail, “ he came at night to an inn, where he bid the woman of the house, if she had any meat, to bring him some. But because be said thee and thou to her, she looked strangely on him. Then he asked her if she had any milk? and she said No! He, believing she spoke falsely, and seeing a churn in the room, would try her, and asked her if she had any cream? But she denied that she had any. Then a little boy, playing about the churn, put his hands into it, and,
pulling it down, threw all the cream on the floor. Thus the woman appeared to be a liar; and she, being amazed, took up the child, and whipped it sorely; but he reproved her for her lying, and, going out of the house, went away, and that night lay in a stack of hay, in rain and snow.” Another time, he came to a house, “where he desired to have some meat, drink, and lodging, for his money; but they would not suffer him to stay there : then he went to another house, but met with the like refusal. By this time it was grown so dark, that he could not see the highway, but perceiving a ditch, he got a little water, and so refreshed himself. Then he got over the ditch, and, being weary, sat down among the furze bushes till it grew day.
With the first of the morning, Fox was fortunately apprehended; for on this occasion he was not committed to prison; and, while in custody," some discreet man called him into his house, where he got some milk and bread, not having eaten for some days before.” At Patrington they also refused him meat and lodging; but, “ as it grew dark, he spied a hay stack, and went and sat under it till morning.' The next day he came to Hull, on which he feelingly observes, “ That night I got a lodging ! but was very sore with travelling on foot so far.” On" a first day," being at Doncaster, he, and other friends, were stoned by the people, and one struck Fox on the head, and the blood run down his face. Nothing, however, could deter or intimidate him. On" the next first day,” he went into the “ steeple-house” at Titchhill, and “ there found the priest, and the chief of the parish, in the chancel, to whom he began to speak; but they immediately fell upon him, and the clerk struck him with his bible so violently on his face, that the blood gushed out, and he bled exceedingly. Then the people thrust him out of the steeple-house, and beating him, threw him down, and dragged him along the street, so that he became besmeared with blood and dirt, and his hat was taken away. Some moderate justices now, hearing how George Fox and his friends had been abused, came to examine the business; and the clerk was afraid of having his hand cut off, for striking him in the church; but George Fox, as a true Christian, forgave him, and would not appear against him.” Indeed, his sufferings and privations were, at this time, so great, and seemingly so beyond human power of endurance, and his wanderings so known, as to give rise to the most absurd reports : it was among the common superstitions, that he was often in two counties at the same time; and we find one of his friends requesting him to go to bed, or, at least, to lie down upon a bed, " that they might say they had seen me in or upon a bed; for they had got a report that I would not lie on any bed, because I had laid many times without doors.”
At Ulverstone, he observes, “ the people were in a rage, and fell upon me in the steeple-house before his [Justice Sawrey's] face, knocked me down, kicked me, and trampled upon nie.
So great was the uproar, that some tumbled over their seats for fear. At last he came and took me from the people, led me out of the steeple-house, and put me into the hands of the constables and other officers, bidding them whip me, and put me out of the town. Many friendly people being come to the market, and some to the steeple-house to hear me, divers of these they knocked down also, and broke their heads, so that the blood ran down several; and Judge Fell's son, running after, to see what they would do with me, they threw him into a ditch of water; some of them crying, “knock the teeth out of his head.' When they had haled me to the common moss side, a multitude following, the constables, and other officers, gave me some blows over my back with willow rods, and thrust me among the rude multitude; who, having furnished themselves with staves, hedge-stakes, holm or holly-bushes, fell upon me, and beat me upon the head, arms, and shoulders, till they had deprived me of sense ; so that I fell down upon the wet com
When I recovered again, and saw myself lying in a watery common, and the people standing about me, I lay still a little while, and the power of the Lord sprang through me, and the eternal refreshings revived me; so that I stood up again in the strengthening power of the eternal God, and, stretching out my arms amongst them, I said, with a loud voice, Strike again; here are my arms, my head, and cheeks.' Then they began to fall out among themselves.” Whitelock has a notice that refers probably to this very circumstance. “ The people in the north set upon the quakers, and beat them; and the Quakers prayed to God to forgive them, which so convinced the people, that they fell out among themselves.”
This was the life Fox led when out of prison. Of his sufferings in prison, one instance may serve in illustration. When brought before the judges at Lancaster, he observes, “ Upon my complaining of the badness of my prison, some of the justices, with Colonel Kirby, went up to see it; but when they came, they durst hardly go in, the Aoor was so bad and dangerous, and the place so open to wind and rain. Some that came up said,
sure it was a jaikes-house.' Afterwards, “I was put into a tower, where the smoke of the other prisoners came up so thick, it stood as dew upon the walls, and sometimes it was so thick I could hardly see the candle when it burned ; and, I being locked under three locks, the under jailer, when the smoke was great, would hardly be persuaded to come up and unlock one of the uppermost doors, for fear of the smoke; so that I was almost smothered. Besides, it rained in upon my
bed ; and many times, when I went to stop out the rain in the cold winter season, my shirt was as wet as muck with the rain, that came in upon me while I was labouring to stop it out; and, the place being high, and open to the wind, sometimes as fast as I stopped it, the wind blew it out again. In that manner did I lay all the long cold winter till the next assize; in which time I was so starved with cold and rain, that my body was greatly swelled, and my limbs much benumbed. By reason of my long and close imprisonment in so bad a place, I was become very weak of body.” The magistrates of Lancaster, however, were sooner tired of persecution, than Fox of suffering, and they exerted themselves, successfully, to have him removed to Scarborough. When all was prepared, they came, says Fox, “ and fetched me out of the castle, when I was so weak with lying in that cold, wet, and smoky prison, that I could hardly go or stand. I told the officers, I had received neither Christianity, civility, nor humanity, from them. They hurried me away about fourteen miles, to Bentham, though I was so very weak I was hardly able to sit on horseback, and my clothes smelt so of smoke, they were loathsome to myself. The wicked jailer, one Hunter, a young fellow, would come behind, and give the horse a lash with his whip, and make him skip and leap; so that I, being weak, had much ado to sit him; then he would come and look me in the face, and say, ' How do you do, Mr. Fox?' I told him, . It was not civil in him to do so.' The Lord cut him off soon after.” Being arrived at Scarborough, he proceeds, “ I being very weak, and subject to faintings, they, for a while, let me out sometimes into the common air with the centry. They soon removed me out of this room, and put me into an open room, where the rain came in, and the room smoked exceedingly, which was very offensive to me.
“One day the governor, who was called Sir Jordan Crosland, came to see me, and brought with him one called Sir Francis Cobb. I desired the governor to go in, and see what a place I had. I had got a little fire made in it, and the room was so filled with smoke, that when they were in they could hardly find their way out again. I was forced to lay out about fifty shillings to stop out the rain, and keep the room from smoking so much. When I had been at that charge, and made it somewhat tolerable, they removed me into a worse, where I had neither chimney nor fire-hearth. This being to the sea-side, and lying much open, the wind drove in the rain forcibly, so that the water came over my bed, and ran about the room, that I was fain to skim it up with a platter; and when my clothes were wet, I had no fire to dry. them ; so my body was benumbed with cold, and my fingers swelled, that one was grown as big as two. Though I was at some charge on this room