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master, acting surgeon, botanist, gunner, boatswain, completed. The remaining part had every prospet carpenter, master, and quarter-master's mate, two quar- success.
ter-masters, the sail-maker, two cooks, my clerk, the It will naturally be asked, what could be the cause of butcher, and a boy. There remained on board, Fletcher such a revolt? In answer, I can only conjecture that the Christian, the master's mate; Peter Haywood, Edward mutineers had flattered themselves with the hope of a Young, George Stewart, midshipmen; the master-at-happier life among the Otaheitans than they could posarms, gunner's mate, boatswain's mate, gardener, ar- sibly enjoy in England; which, joined to some female morer, carpenter's mate, carpenter's crew, and four-connexions, most probably occasioned the whole transteen seamen, being altogether the most able men of the action.
Having little or no wind, we rowed pretty fast towards the island of Tofoa, which bore north-east about ten leagues distant. The ship while in sight steered westnorth-west, but this I considered only as a feint, for when we were sent away, "Huzza for Otaheite!" was frequently heard among the mutineers.
The women of Otaheite are handsome, mild, and cheerful in manners and conversation; possessed of great sensibility, and have sufficient delicacy to make them be admired and beloved. The chiefs were so much attached to our people, that they rather encouraged their stay among them than otherwise, and even made them promises of large possessions. Under these, and many other concomitant circumstances, it ought hardly to be the subject of surprise that a set of sailors, most of them void of connexions, should be led away, where they had the power of fixing themselves in the midst
Christian, the chief of them, was of a respectable family in the north of England. This was the third voyage he had made with me. Notwithstanding the roughness with which I was treated, the remembrance of past kindness produced some remorse in him. While of plenty, in one of the finest islands in the world, where they were forcing me out of the ship, I asked him whether this was a proper return for the many instances he had experienced of my friendship? He appeared disturbed at the question, and answered, with much emotion, "That-Captain Bligh-that is the thing-I am in hell-I am in hell." His abilities to take charge of the third watch, as I had so divided the ship's company, were fully equal to the task.
there was no necessity to labour, and where the allurements of dissipation are beyond any conception that can be formed of it. The utmost, however, that a commander could have expected, was desertions, such as have already happened more or less in the South Seas, and not an act of open mutiny.
But the secrecy of this mutiny surpasses belief. Thirteen of the party who were now with me had always Haywood was also of a respectable family in the lived forward among the seamen; yet neither they, nor north of England, and a young man of abilities, as well the messmates of Christian, Stewart, Haywood, and as Christian. These two had been objects of my partic- Young, had ever observed any circumstance to excite ular regard and attention, and I had taken great pains suspicion of what was plotting; and it is not wonderful to instruct them, having entertained hopes that, as pro- if I fell a sacrifice to it, my mind being entirely free fessional men, they would have become a credit to their from suspicion. Perhaps, had marines been on board, country. Young was well recommended; and Stewart a sentinel at my cabin-door might have prevented it; of creditable parents in the Orkneys, at which place, on for I constantly slept with the door open, that the officer the return of the Resolution from the South Seas in 1780, of the watch might have access to me on all occasions. we received so many civilities, that in consideration of If the mutiny had been occasioned by any grievances, these alone I should gladly have taken him with me. either real or imaginary, I must have discovered sympBut he had always borne a good character. toms of discontent, which would have put me on my When I had time to reflect, an inward satisfaction guard; but it was far otherwise. With Christian, in prevented the depression of my spirits. Yet, a few particular, I was on the most friendly terms; that very hours before, my situation had been peculiarly flatter-day he was engaged to have dined with me; and the ing; I had a ship in the most perfect order, stored with preceding night he excused himself from supping with every necessary, both for health and service; the object me on pretence of indisposition, for which I felt conof the voyage was attained, and two-thirds of it now cerned, having no suspicions of his honour or integrity.
CARMEN SECULARE ET ANNUS HAUD MIRABILIS.
"Impar Congressus Achilli."
I know not if the angels weep, but men
THE "good old times"-all times, when old, are good-Have wept enough-for what?-to weep again.
Are gone; the present might be, if they would;
Great things have been, and are, and greater still
Want fitte of mere mortals but their will:
A wider space, a greener field is given
All is exploded-be it good or bad.
Reader! remember when thou wert a lad,
Then Pitt was all; or, if not all, so much,
To those who play their "tricks before high Heaven." is very rival almost deem'd him such.
We, we have seen the intellectual race
Of giants stand, like Titans, face to face-
Athos and Ida, with a dashing sea
Of eloquence between, which flow'd all free,
As the deep billows of the Egean roar
Betwixt the Hellenic and Phrygian shore.
But where are they-the rivals ?-a few feet
Of sullen earth divide each winding-sheet.
How peaceful and how powerful is the grave,
Which hushes all! a calm, unstormy wave
Which oversweeps the world. The theme is old
Of dust to dust," but half its tale untold.
Time tempers not its terrors-still the worm
Winds its cold folds, the tomb preserves its form—
Varied above, but still alike below;
The urn may shine, the ashes will not glow.
Though Cleopatra's mummy cross the sea,
O'er which from empire she lured Antony;
Though Alexander's urn a show be grown
On shores he wept to conquer, though unknown—
How vain, how worse than vain, at length appear
The madman's wish, the Macedonian's tear.
He wept for worlds to conquer-half the earth
Knows not his name, or but his death and birth
And desolation; while his native Greece
Hath all of desolation, save its peace.
He "wept for worlds to conquer!" he who ne'er
Conceived the globe he panted not to spare!
With even the busy Northern Isle unknown,
Which holds his urn, and never knew his throne.
Pot where is he, the modern, mightier far,
Who, born no king, made monarchs draw his car;
The new Sesostris, whose unharness'd kings,
Freed from the bit, believe themselves with wings
spurn the dust o'er which they crawl'd of late,
Chain'd to the chariot of the chieftain's state?
Yes! where is he, the champion and the child
Of all that's great or little, wise or wild?
Vain his complaint-my lord presents his bill,
His food and wine were doled out duly still:
Vain was his sickness,-never was a crime
So free from homicide-to doubt's a crime;
And the stiff surgeon, who maintain'd his cause,
Hath lost his place, and gain'd the world's applause.
But smile-though all the pangs of brain and heart
Disdain, defy, the tardy aid of art;
Though, save the few fond friends, and imaged face
Of that fair boy his sire shall ne'er embrace,
None stand by his low bed-though even the mind
Be wavering, which long awed and awes mankind.--
Smile-for the fetter'd eagle breaks his chain,
And higher worlds than this are his again.
How, if that soaring spirit still retain
A conscious twilight of his blazing reign,
How must he smile, on looking down, to see
The little that he was and sought to be!
What though his name a wider empire found
Than his ambition, though with scarce a bound;
Though first in glory, deepest in reverse,
He tasted empire's blessings, and its curse;
Though kings, rejoicing in their late escape
From chains, would gladly be their tyrant's ape:
How must he smile, and turn to yon lone grave,
The proudest sea-mark that o'ertops the wave!
What though his jailor, duteous to the last,
Searce deem'd the coffin's lead could keep him fast,
Refusing one poor line along the lid
To date the birth and death of all it hid,
That name shall hallow the ignoble shore,
A talisman to all save him who bore:
The fleets that sweep before the eastern blast
Shall hear their sea-boys hail it from the mast;
When Victory's Gallic column shall but rise,
Like Pompey's pillar, in a desert's skies,
The rocky isle that holds or held his dust
Shall crown the Atlantic like the hero's bust,
And mighty Nature o'er his obsequies
Whose game was empires, and whose stakes were Do more than niggard Envy still denies.
Whose table, earth-whose dice were human bones?
Behold the grand result in yon lone isle,
And, as thy nature urges, weep or smile.
Sigh to behold the eagle's lofty rage
Reduced to nibble at his narrow cage;
Smile to survey the Queller of the Nations
Now daily squabbling o'er disputed rations;
Weep to perceive him mourning, as he dines,
O'er curtail'd dishes and o'er stinted wines;
O'er petty quarrels upon petty things-
Is this the man who scourged or feasted kings?
Behold the scales in which his fortune hangs,
A surgeon's statement and an earl's harangues!
A bust delay'd, a book refused, can shake
The sleep of him who kept the world awake.
Is this indeed the Tamer of the Great,
Now slave of all could teaze or irritate-
The paltry jailor and the prying spy,
The staring stranger with his note-book nigh?
Plunged in a dungeon, he had still been great;
How low, how little, was this middle state,
Between a prison and a palace, where
How few could feel for what he had to bear!
But what are these to him? Can glory's lust
Touch the freed spirit of the fetter'd dust?
Small care hath he of what his tomb consists,
Nought if he sleeps-nor more if he exists:
Alike the better-seeing shade will smile
On the rude cavern of the rocky isle,
As if his ashes found their latest home
In Rome's Pantheon, or Gaul's mimic dome.
He wants not this; but France shall feel the want
Of this last consolation, though so scant;
Her honour, fame, and faith, demand his bones,
To rear amid a pyramid of thrones;
Or carried onward, in the battle's van,
To form, like Guesclin's' dust, her talisman.
But be as it is, the time may come
His name shall beat the alarm like Ziska's drum.
Oh, Heaven! of which he was in power a feature,
Oh, earth! of which he was a noble creature;
Thou isle! to be remember'd long and well,
That saw'st the unfledged eaglet chip his shell!
1 Guesclin died during the siege of a city it surrendered. and the keys were brought and laid upon his bier, thai the place might appear rendered to his ashes.
Ye Alps, which view'd him in his dawning flights Hover the victor of a hundred fights!
The conqueror's yet unbroken heart! Again The horn of Roland sounds, and not in vain.
Thou Rome, who saw'st thy Cæsar's deeds outdone! Lutzen, where fell the Swede of victory,
Alas! why pass'd he too the Rubicon?
The Rubicon of man's awaken'd rights,
To herd with vulgar kings and parasites?
Egypt! from whose all dateless tombs arose
Forgotten Pharaohs from their long repose,
And shook within her pyramids to hear
A new Cambyses thundering in their ear;
While the dark shades of forty ages stood
Like startled giants by Nile's famous flood;
Or from the pyramid's tall pinnacle
Beheld the desert peopled, as from hell,
With clashing hosts, who strew'd the barren sand
To re-manure the uncultivated land!
Spain! which, a moment mindless of the Cid,
Beheld his banner flouting thy Madrid!
Austria! which saw thy twice-ta'en capital
Twice spared, to be the traitress of his fall!
Ye race of Frederic!-Frederics but in name
And falsehood-heirs to all except his fame;
Who, crush'd at Jena, crouch'd at Berlin, fell,
First, and but rose to follow; ye who dwell
Where Kosciusko dwelt, remembering yet
The unpaid amount of Catherine's bloody debt!
Poland! o'er which the avenging angel pass'd,
But left thee as he found thee, still a waste:
Forgetting all thy still enduring claim,
Thy lotted people and extinguish'd name;
Thy sigh for freedom, thy long-flowing tear,
That sound that crashes in the tyrant's ear:
Kosciusko! on-on-on-the thirst of war
Gasps for the gore of serfs and of their czar;
The half-barbaric Moscow's minarets
Gleam in the sun, but 't is a sun that sets!
Moscow thou limit of his long career,
For which rude Charles had wept his frozen tear
To see in vain-he saw thee-how! with spire
And palace fuel to one common fire.
To this the soldier lent his kindling match,
To this the peasant gave his cottage thatch,
To this the merchant flung his hoarded store,
The prince his hall-and Moscow was no more!
Sublimest of volcanos! Etna's flame
Pales before thine, and quenchless Hecla's tame;
Vesuvius shows his blaze, an usual sight
For gasping tourists, from his hackney'd height:
Thou stand'st alone unrivall'd, till the fire
To come, in which all empires shall expire.
Thou other element! as strong and stern
To teach a lesson conquerors will not learn,
Whose icy wing flapp'd o'er the faltering foe,
Till fell a hero with each flake of snow;
How did thy numbing beak and silent fang
Pierce, till hosts perish'd with a single pang!
In vain shall Seine look up along his banks
For the gay thousands of his dashing ranks;
In vain shall France recall beneath her vines
Her youth-their blood flows faster than her wines,
Jr stagnant in their human ice remains
In frozen mummies on the polar plains.
In vain will Italy's broad sun awaken
Her offspring chill'd-its beams are now forsaken.
Of all the trophies gather'd from the war,
What shall return? The conqueror's broken car !
Beholds him conquer, but, alas! not die:
Dresden surveys three despots fly once more
Before their sovereign,-sovereign, as be.ore;
But there exhausted Fortune quits their field,
And Leipsic's treason bids the unvanquish'd yield;
The Saxon jackal leaves the lion's side
To turn the bear's, and wolf's, and fox's guide;
And backward to the den of his despair
The forest monarch shrinks, but finds no lair!
Oh ye! and each, and all! oh, France! who found
Thy long fair fields plough'd up as hostile ground,
Disputed foot by foot, till treason, still
His only victor, from Montmartre's hill
Look'd down o'er trampled Paris, and thou, isle,
Which see'st Etruria from thy ramparts smile,
The momentary shelter of his pride,
Till, woo'd by danger, his yet weeping bride;
Oh, France! retaken by a single march,
Whose path was through one long triumphal arch!
Oh, bloody and most bootless Waterloo,
Which prove how fools may have their fortune too,
Won, half by blunder, half by treachery;
Oh, dull Saint Helen! with thy jailor nigh-
Hear! hear! Prometheus' from his rock appeal
To earth, air, ocean, all that felt or feel
His power and glory, all who yet shall hear
A name eternal as the rolling year;
He teaches them the lesson taught so long,
So oft, so vainly-learn to do no wrong!
A single step into the right had made
This man the Washington of worlds betray'd;
A single step into the wrong has given
His name a doubt to all the winds of heaven;
The reed of fortune and of thrones the rod,
Of fame the Moloch or the demi-god;
His country's Cæsar, Europe's Hannibal,
Without their decent dignity of fall.
Yet vanity herself had better taught
A surer path even to the fame he sought,
By pointing out on history's fruitless page,
Ten thousand conquerors for a single sage.
While Franklin's quiet memory climbs to heaven,
Calming the lightning which he thence hath riven,
Or drawing from the no less kindled earth
Freedom and peace to that which boasts his birth
While Washington's a watch-word, such as ne'er
Shall sink while there's an echo left to air:
While even the Spaniard's thirst of gold and war
Forgets Pizarro to shout Bolivar!
Alas! why must the same Atlantic wave
Which wafted freedom gird a tyrant's grave,-
The king of kings, and yet of slaves the slave,
Who burst the chains of millions to renew
The very fetters which his arm broke through,
And crush'd the rights of Europe and his own
To fit between a dungeon and a throne?
But 't will not be-the spark's awaken'd-lo! The swarthy Spaniard feels his former glow;
1 I refer the reader to the first address of Promethens to Æschylus, when he is left alone by his attendants, and bef the arrival of the Chorus of Sea-nymphs.
The same high spirit which beat back the Moor
Through eight long ages of alternate gore,
Revives-and where? in that avenging clime
Where Spain was once synonymous with crime,
Where Cortes' and Pizarro's banner flew,
The infant world redeems her name of "New."
'Tis the old aspiration breathed afresh,
To kindle souls within degraded flesh,
Such as repulsed the Persian from the shore
Where Greece was-No! she still is Greece once more.
One common cause makes myriads of one breast!
Slaves of the east, or Helots of the west;
On Andes' and on Athos' peaks unfurl'd,
The self-same standard streams o'er either world:
The Athenian wears again Harmodius' sword;
The Chili chief abjures his foreign lord;
The Spartan knows himself once more a Greck;
Young Freedom plumes the crest of each Cacique;
Debating despots, hemm'd on either shore,
Shrink vainly from the roused Atlantic's roar:
Through Calpe's strait the rolling tides advance,
Sweep lightly by the half-tamed land of France,
Dash o'er the old Spaniard's cradle, and would fain
Unite Ausonia to the mighty main :
But driven from thence awhile, yet not for aye,
Break o'er the Ægean, mindful of the day
Of Salamis-there, there the waves arise,
Not to be lull'd by tyrant victories.
Lone, lost, abandon'd in their utmost need
By Christians unto whom they gave their creed,
The desolated lands, the ravaged isle,
The foster'd feud encouraged to beguile,
The aid evaded, and the cold delay,
Prolong'd but in the hope to make a prey;
That seed is sown and reap'd, as oft the Moor
Sighs to remember on his dusky shore.
Long in the peasant's song or poet's page
Has dwelt the memory of Abencerage,
The Zegri, and the captive victors, flung
Back to the barbarous realin from whence they sprung.
But these are gone-their faith, their swords, their sway
Yet left more anti-christian foes than they :
The bigot monarch and the butcher priest,
The inquisition, with her burning feast,
The faith's red "auto," fed with human fuel,
While sat the Catholic Moloch, calmly cruel,
Enjoying, with inexorable eye,
That fiery festival of agony!
The stern or feeble sovereign, one or both
By turns; the haughtiness whose pride was sloth;
The long-degenerate noble; the debased
Hidalgo, and the peasant less disgraced
But more degraded; the unpeopled realm;
The once proud navy which forgot the helm;
The once impervious phalanx disarray'd;
The idle forge that form'd Toledo's blade;
The foreign wealth that flow'd on every shore,
Save hers who earn'd it with the natives' gore;
The very language, which might vie with Rome's,
And once was known to nations like their homes,
Neglected or forgotten :-such was Spain;
But such she is not, nor shall be again.
These worst, these home invaders, felt and feel
The new Numantine soul of old Castile.
Up! up again! undaunted Tauridor!
The bull of Phalaris renews his roar;
Mount, chivalrous Hidalgo! not in vain
Revive the cry-"Iago! and close Spam!"
These, these shall teil the tale, and Greece can show Yes, close her with your armed bosoms round,
The false friend worse than the infuriate foe.
But this is well: Greeks only should free Greece,
Not the barbarian, with his mask of peace.
How should the autocrat of bondage be
The king of serfs, and set the nations free?
Better still serve the haughty Mussulman,
Than swell the Cossaque's prowling caravan;
Better still toil for masters, than await,
The slave of slaves, before a Russian gate,-
Number'd by hordes, a human capital,
A live estate, existing but for thrall,
Lotted by thousands as a meet reward
For the first courtier in the czar's regard;
While their immediate owner never tastes
His sleep, sans dreaming of Siberia's wastes;
Better succumb even to their own despair,
And drive the camel than purvey the bear.
But not alone within the hoariest clime,
Where freedom dates her birth with that of time;
And not alone where plunged in night, a crowd
Of Incas darken to a dubious cloud,
The dawn revives; renown'd, romantic Spain
Holds back the invader from her soil again.
Not now the Roman tribe nor Punic horde,
Demand her fields as lists to prove the sword;
Not now the Vandal or the Visigoth
Pollute the plains, alike abhorring both;
Nor old Pelayo on his mountain rears
The warlike fathers of a thousand years.
And form the barrier which Napoleon found,-
The exterminating war; the desert plain;
The streets without a tenant, save the slain;
The wild Sierra, with its wilder troop
Of vulture-plumed guerillas, on the stoop
For their incessant prey; the desperate wall
Of Saragossa, mightiest in her fall;
The man nerved to a spirit, and the maid
Waving her more than Amazonian blade;
The knife of Arragon, Toledo's steel;
The famous lance of chivalrous Castile;
The unerring rifle of the Catalan;
The Andalusian courser in the van;
The torch to make a Moscow of Madrid;
And in each heart the spirit of the Cid:-
Such have been, such shall be, such are.
And win-not Spain, but thine own freedom, Franeo
But lo! a congress! What, that hallow'd name
Which freed the Atlantic? May we hope the same
For outworn Europe? With the sound arise,
Like Samuel's shade to Saul's monarchic eyes,
The prophets of young freedom, summon'd far
From climes of Washington and Bolivar;
Henry, the forest-born Demosthenes,
Whose thunder shook the Philip of the seas;
1 "St. Iago! and close Spain!" the old Spanish war cry
2 The Arragonians are peculiarly dexterous in the use of
this weapon, and displayed it particularly in former French
And stoic Franklin's energetic shade,
Robed in the lightnings which his hand allay'd;
And Washington, the tyrant-tamer, wake,
To bid us blush for these old chains, or break.
But who compose this senate of the few
That should redeem the many? Who renew
This consecrated name, till now assign'd
To councils held to benefit mankind?
Who now assemble at the holy call?—
The bless'd alliance which says three are all!
An earthly trinity! which wears the shape
Of Heaven's, as man is mimick'd by the ape.
A pious unity! in purpose one,
To melt three fools to a Napoleon.
Why, Egypt's gods were rational to these;
Their dogs and oxen knew their own degrees,
And, quiet in their kennel or their shed,
Cared little, so that they were duly fed:
But these, more hungry, must have something
The power to bark and bite, to toss and gore.
Ah, how much happier were good sop's frogs
Than we! for ours are animated logs,
With ponderous malice swaying to and fro,
And crushing nations with a stupid blow,
All dully anxious to leave little work
Unto the revolutionary stork.
How nobly gave he back the Poles their Diet,
Then told pugnacious Poland to be quiet!
How kindly would he send the mild Ukraine,
With all her pleasant pulks, to lecture Spain;
How royally show off in proud Madrid
His goodly person, from the south long hid,—
Alessing cheaply purchased, the world knows,
By having Muscovites for friends or foes.
Proceed, thou namesake of great Philip's son!
La Harpe, thine Aristotle, beckons on;
And that which Scythia was to him of yore,
Find with thy Scythians on Iberia's shore.
Yet think upon, thou somewhat aged youth,
Thy predecessor on the banks of Pruth:
Thou hast to aid thee, should his lot be thine,
Many an old woman, but no Catherine.'
Spain too hath rocks, and rivers, and defiles-
The bear may rush into the lion's toils.
more-Fatal to Goths are Xeres' sunny fields;
Think'st thou to thee Napoleon's victor yields?
Better reclaim thy deserts, turn thy swords
To ploughshares, shave and wash thy Bashkir hordes
Redeem thy realms from slavery and the knout,
Than follow headlong in the fatal route,
Thrice bless'd Verona ! since the holy three
With their imperial presence shine on thee;
Honour'd by them, thy treacherous site forgets
The vaunted tomb of "all the Capulets;"
Thy Scaligers-for what was "Dog the Great,"
"Can' Grande" (which I venture to translate)
To these sublimer pugs? Thy poet too,
Catullus, whose old laurels yield to new;
Thine amphitheatre, where Romans sate;
And Dante's exile, shelter'd by thy gate;
Thy good old man, whose world was all within
Thy wall, nor knew the country held him in:
Would that the royal guests it girds about
Were so far like, as never to get out!
Ay, shout inscribe! rear monuments of shame,
To tell oppression that the world is tame!
Crowd to the theatre with loyal rage-
The comedy is not upon the stage;
The show is rich in ribbonry and stars-
Then gaze upon it through thy dungeon bars;
Clasp thy permitted palms, kind Italy,
For thus much still thy fetter'd hands are free!
Resplendent sight! behold the coxcomb czar,
The autocrat of waltzes and of war!
As enger for a plaudit as a realm,
And just as fit for flirting as the helm ;
A Calmuck beauty with a Cossack wit,
And generous spirit when 't is not frost-bit;
Now half-dissolving to a liberal thaw,
But harden'd back whene'er the morning's raw;
With no objection to true liberty,
Except that it would make the nations free.
How well the imperial dandy prates of peace,
How fain, if Greeks would be his slaves, free Greece!
The famous old man of Verona.
To infest the clime, whose skies and laws are pure,
With thy foul legions. Spain wants no manure;
Her soil is fertile, but she feeds no foe;
Her vultures, too, were gorged not long ago:
And wouldst thou furnish them with fresher prey?
Alas! thou wilt not conquer, but purvey.
I am Diogenes, though Russ and Hun
Stand between mine and many a myriad's sun;
But were I not Diogenes, I'd wander
Rather a worm than such an Alexander!
Be slaves who will, the Cynic shall be free;
His tub hath tougher walls than Sinopè:
Still will he hold his lantern up to scan
The face of monarchs for an honest man."
And what doth Gaul, the all-prolific land
Of ne plus ultra Ultras and their band
Of mercenaries? and her noisy Chambers,
And tribune which each orator first clambers,
Before he finds a voice, and, when 't is found,
Hears "the lie" echo for his answer round?
Our British Commons sometimes deign to hear;
A Gallic senate hath more tongue than ear;
Even Constant, their sole master of debate,
Must fight next day, his speech to vindicate.
But this costs little to true Franks, who had rather
Combat than listen, were it to their father.
What is the simple standing of a shot,
To listening long and interrupting not?
Though this was not the method of old Rome,
When Tully fulmined o'er each vocal dome,
Demosthenes has sanction'd the transaction,
In saying eloquence meant "Action, action!"
But where's the monarch? hath he dined? or yet
Groans beneath indigestion's heavy debt?
1 The dexterity of Catherine extricated Peter (called the Great by courtesy) when surrounded by the Mussulmans on the banks of the river Pruth.