Imágenes de páginas

correct their style. Petrarch seemed at first to listen to
the flattery and to the entreaties of his friend, but he did
not return to Florence, and preferred a pilgrimage to
the tomb of Laura and the shades of Vaucluse.
Note 33. Stanza Iviii.

unfortunately for those who have to deplore the loss of
a very amiable person, is beyond all criticism; but the
mortality which did not protect Boccaccio from Mr.
Eustace, must not defend Mr. Eustace from the impar-
tial judgment of his successors. Death may canonize
his virtues, not his errors; and it may be modestly pro-
nounced that he transgressed, not only as an author,
but as a man, when he evoked the shade of Boccaccio
in company with that of Aretino, amidst the sepulchres
of Santa Croce, merely to dismiss it with indignity. As
far as respects
"Il flagello de' Principi.
Il divin Pietro Aretino,'

Boccaccio to his parent earth bequeath'd His dust. Boccaccio was buried in the church of St. Michael and St. James, at Certaldo, a small town in the Valdelsa, which was by some supposed the place of his birth. There he passed the latter part of his life in a course of laborious study, which shortened his existence; and there might his ashes have been secure, if not of honour, at least of repose. But the "hyæna bigots" of Certaldo it is of little import what censure is passed upon a coxfore up the tombstone of Boccaccio, and ejected it from comb who owes his present existence to the above burthe holy precints of St. Michael and St. James. The lesque character given to him by the poet whose amber occasion, and, it may be hoped, the excuse of this eject- has preserved many other grubs and worms: but to ment, was the making of a new floor for the church: classify Boccaccio with such a person, and to excombut the fact is, that the tombstone was taken up and municate his very ashes, must of itself make us doubt thrown aside at the bottom of the building. Ignorance of the qualification of the classical tourist for writing may share the sin with bigotry. It would be painful to upon Italian, or, indeed, upon any other literature; for relate such an exception to the devotion of the Italians ignorance on one point may incapacitate an author for their great names, could it not be accompanied by a merely for that particular topic, but subjection to a protrait more honourably conformable to the general char-fessional prejudice must render him an unsafe director acter of the nation. The principal person of the district, on all occasions. Any perversion and injustice may be the last branch of the house of Medicis, afforded that made what is vulgarly called "a case of conscience," protection to the memory of the insulted dead which and this poor excuse is all that can be offered for the her best ancestors had dispensed upon all cotemporary priest of Certaldo, or the author of the Classical Tour. merit. The Marchioness Lenzoni rescued the tombstone It would have answered the purpose to confine the cenof Boccaccio from the neglect in which it had some time sure to the novels of Boccaccio, and gratitude to that lain, and found for it an honourable elevation in her own source which supplied the muse of Dryden with her last mansion. She has done more: the house in which the and most harmonious numbers, might perhaps have repot lived has been as little respected as his tomb, and stricted that censure to the objectionable qualities of is falling to ruin over the head of one indifferent to the the hundred tales. At any rate, the repentance of Boctame of its former tenant. It consists of two or three caccio might have arrested his exhumation, and it should tle chambers, and a low tower, on which Cosino II. have been recollected and told, that in his old age he aired an inscription. This house she has taken meas-wrote a letter entreating his friend to discourage the eres to purchase, and proposes to devote to it that care reading of the Decameron, for the sake of modesty, and and consideration which are attached to the cradle and for the sake of the author, who would not have an apoloto the roof of genius. gist always at hand to state in his excuse that he wrote it


This is not the place to undertake the defence of Boc-when young, and at the command of his superiors.' It taccio; but the man who exhausted his little patrimony is neither the licentiousness of the writer, nor the evil the acquirement of learning, who was amongst the propensities of the reader, which have given to the Defirst, if not the first, to allure the science and the poetry cameron alone, of all the works of Boccaccio, a perpetGreece to the bosom of Italy;-who not only invented ual popularity. The establishment of a new and delighta new style, but founded, or certainly fixed, a new lan- ful dialect conferred an immortality on the works in rage; who, besides the esteem of every polite court of which it was first fixed. The sonnets of Petrarch were, Europe, was thought worthy of employment by the for the same reason, fated to survive his self-admired amant republic of his own country, and, what is mre, of the friendship of Petrarch, who lived the life of a philosopher and a freeman, and who died in the parsuit of knowledge,-such a man might have found more consideration than he has met with from the priest of Certaldo, and from a late English traveller, who strikes off his portrait as an odious, contemptible, litentious writer, whose impure remains should be sufThis dubions phrase is hardly enough to save the tourist from the suspicion of another blunder respecting the buria d to rot without a record. That English traveller, place of Aretino, whose tomb was in the church of St. Luke at Venice, and gave rise to the famous controversy of which 1" Accingiti innoltre, se cie lecito ancor l'esortarti, a comsome notice is taken in Bavle. Now the words of Mr. Eusimmortal tua Africa.... Se ti avviene d'incontrare nel tace would lead us to think the tomb was at Florence, or at om me cosa che ti dispiaccia, ciò debb' essere un altro least was to be somewhere recognised. Whether the inscrip wo ad esaudire i desideri della tua patria.' Storia dellation so much disputed was ever written on the tomb cannot et al. tom. v, par. i. lib. i. pag. 76. now be decided, for all memorial of this author has disap Cassical Tour, cap. ix. vol. ii. p. 355. edit. 3d. "Of peared from the church of St. Luke, which is now changed betaren, the modern Petronius, we say nothing: the abuse into a lamp warehouse.

Africa, the "favourite of kings." The invariable traits of nature and feeling, with which the novels, as well as the verses, abound, have, doubtless, been the chief source of the foreign celebrity of both authors; but Boccaccio, as a man, is no more to be estimated by that work, than Petrarch is to be regarded in no other light than as the


ZL.Us is more odions and more contemptible than its ab- 1 "Non enim ubique est, qui in excusationem meani con , and it imports little where the impure remains of a h-surgens dicat, juvenis scripsit, et majoris coactus imperio." tavas suthor are consigned to their kindred dust. For the The letter was addressed to Maghinard of Cavalcanti, marreason the traveller may pass unnoticed the tomb of the shal of the kingdom of Sicily. See Tiraboschi, Storia, eta alignant Aretino." tom. v. par. ii. lib. iii. pag. 525. ed. Ven. 1795.

lover of Laura. Even, however, had the father of the Bevius, canon of Padua, at the beginning of the 16th Tuscan prose been known only as the author of the century, erected at Arquà, opposite to the tomb of the Decameron, a considerate writer would have been cau-laureat, a tablet, in which he associated Boccaccio to tious to pronounce a sentence irreconcileable with the the equal honours of Dante and Petrarch.

unerring voice of many ages and nations. An irrevocable value has never been stamped upon any work solely recommended by impurity.

Note 34. Stanza Ix.

What is her pyramid of precious stones?

Our veneration for the Medici begins with Cosmo, and The true source of the outery against Boccaccio, which expires with his grandson; that stream is pure only at began at a very early period, was the choice of his scan- the source; and it is in search of some memorial of the dalous personages in the cloisters as well as the courts; virtuous republicans of the family, that we visit the out the princes only laughed at the gallant adventures church of St. Lorenzo at Florence. The tawdry, glaring, so unjustly charged upon Queen Theodelinda, whilst the unfinished chapel in that church, designed for the maupriesthood cried shame upon the debauches drawn from soleum of the Dukes of Tuscany, set round with crowns the convent and the hermitage; and, most probably, for and coffins, gives birth to no emotions but those of conthe opposite reason, namely, that the picture was faithful tempt for the lavish vanity of a race of despots, whilst to the life. Two of the novels are allowed to be facts the pavement slab, simply inscribed to the Father of his usefully turned into tales, to deride the canonization of Country, reconciles us to the name of Medici.' It was rogues and laymen. Ser Ciapdelletto and Marcellinus very natural for Corinna to suppose that the statue are cited with applause even by the decent Muratori.' raised to the Duke of Urbino in the capella de depositi, The great Arnaud, as he is quoted in Bayle, states, that was intended for his great namesake; but the magnifia new edition of the novels was proposed, of which the cent Lorenzo is only the sharer of a coffin half hidden expurgation consisted in omitting the words "monk" in a niche of the sacristy. The decay of Tuscany dates and "nun," and tacking the immoralities to other from the sovereignty of the Medici. Of the sepulchral names. The literary history of Italy particularizes no peace which succeeded to the establishment of the reignsuch edition; but it was not long before the whole of ing families in Italy, our own Sidney has given us a Europe had but one opinion of the Decameron; and the glowing, but a faithful picture. "Notwithstanding all absolution of the author seems to have been a point set-the seditions of Florence, and other cities of Tuscany, led at least a hundred years ago: "On se ferait siffler the horrid factions of Guelphs and Ghibelins, Neri and si l'on prétendait convaincre Boccace de n'avoir pas été Bianchi, nobles and commons, they continued populous, nonnête homme, puisqu'il a fait le Décameron." So said strong, and exceeding rich; but in the space of less than one of the best men, and perhaps the best critic, that a hundred and fifty years, the peaceable reign of the ever lived-the very martyr to impartiality. But as this Medices is thought to have destroyed nine parts in ten information, that in the beginning of the last century of the people of that province. Amongst other things one would have been hooted at for pretending that Boc-it is remarkable, that when Philip the Second of Spain caccio was not a good man, may seem to come from gave Sienna to the Duke of Florence, his ambassador one of those enemies who are to be suspected, even then at Rome sent him word, that he had given away when they make us a present of truth, a more acceptable contrast with the proscription of the body, soul, and muse of Boccaccio may be found in a few words from the righteous, the patriotic contemporary, wno thought one of the tales of this impure writer worthy a Latin version from his own pen. "I have remarked elsewhere," says Petrarch, writing to Boccaccio, "that the book itself has been worried by certain dogs, but stoutly defended by your staff and voice. Nor was I astonished, for I have had proof of the vigour of your mind, and I know you have fallen on that unaccommodating incapable race of mortals who, whatever they either like not, or know not, or cannot do, are sure to reprehend in others, and on those occasions only put on a show of learning and eloquence, but otherwise are entirely dumb.3


more than 650,000 subjects; and it is not believed there are now 20,000 souls inhabiting that city and territory. Pisa, Pistoia, Arezzo, Cortona, and other towns, that were then good and populous, are in the like proportion diminished, and Florence more than When that city had been long troubled with seditions, tumults, and wars, for the most part unprosperous, they still retained such strength, that when Charles VIII. of France, being admitted as a friend with his whole army, which soon after conquered the kingdom of Naples, thought to master them, the people taking arms struck such a terror into him, that he was glad to depart upon such conditions as they thought fit to impose. Machiavel reports, that, in that time, Florence alone, with the Val d'Arno, a small territory belonging to that city, could, in a few hours, by the sound of a bell, bring It is satisfactory to find that all the priesthood do not together 135,000 well-armed men; whereas now that resemble those of Certaldo, and that one of them who city, with all the others in that province, are brought to did not possess the bones of Boccaccio would not lose such despicable weakness, emptiness, poverty, and basethe opportunity of raising a cenotaph to his memory.ness, that they can neither resist the oppressions of their

tom. iii. edit. Milan, 1751.

1 Dissertazioni sopra le antichità Italiane. Diss. lviii. p. 253. 2 Eclaircissement, etc. etc. p. 638. edit. Basle, 1741, in the Supplement to Bayle's Dictionary.

3" Animadverti alicubi librum ipsum canum dentibus lacessitum tuo tamen baculo egregie tuaque voce defensum. Nec miratus sum: nam et vires ingenii tui novi, et scio exper; tus esses hominum genus insolens et ignavum, qui, quicquid ipsi vel nolunt, vel nesciunt, vel non possunt, in aliis reprehendunt; ad hoc unum docti et arguti, sed elingues ad reliqua." Epist Joan Boccatio. opp. tom. i. v. 540. edit. Basil.

own prince, nor defend him or themselves if they were
assaulted by a foreign enemy. The people are dispersed
or destroyed, and the best families sent to seek habita-
tions in Venice, Genoa, Rome, Naples, and Lucca. This
is not the effect of war or pestilence; they enjoy a perfect
peace, and suffer no other plague than the government

1 Cosmus Medices, Decreto Publico, Pater Patriæ.
2 Corinne, Liv. xviii. cap. iii. vol. iii. page 248.

they are under. From the usurper Cosmo down to the a semicircle, and running down at each end to the lake, mbecile Gaston, we look in vain for any of those unmixed which obliques to the right, and forms the chord of this qualities which should raise a patriot to the command of mountain arc. The position cannot be guessed at from his fellow-citizens. The Grand Dukes, and particularly the plains of Cortona, nor appears to be so completely the third Cosmo, had operated so entire a change in the inclosed unless to one who is fairly within the hills. It Tuscan character, that the candid Florentines, in excuse then, indeed, appears "a place made as it were on purfor some imperfections in the philanthropic system of pose for a snare," "locus insidiis natus." Borghetto is Leopold, are obliged to confess that the sovereign was the then found to stand in a narrow marshy pass close to only liberal man in his dominions. Yet that excellent the hill and to the lake, whilst there is no other outlet at prince himself had no other notion of a national as-the opposite turn of the mountains than through the little sembly, than of a body to represent the wants and wishes, not the will of the people.

Note 35. Stanza Ixiii.

town of Pasignano, which is pushed into the water by the foot of a high rocky acclivity. There is a woody eminence branching down from the mountains into the upper end of the plain nearer to the side of Passignano, and on this stands a white village called Torre. Polybius seems to allude to this eminence as the one on which Hannibal encamped and drew out his heavy-armed Africans and Spaniards in a conspicuous position. From this spot he despatched his Balearic and light-armed troops round through the Gualandra heights to the right, so as to arrive unseen, and form an ambush amongst the broken acclivities which the road now passes, and to be ready to act

An earthquake reel'd unheededly away! “And such was their mutual animosity, so intent were they upon the battle, that the earthquake, which overthrew in great part many of the cities of Italy, which turned the course of rapid streams, poured back the sea upon the rivers, and tore down the very mountains, was not felt by one of the combatants."2 Such is the description of Livy. It may be doubted whether modern tactics would admit of such an abstraction. The site of the battle of Thrasimene is not to be mis-upon the left flank and above the enemy, whilst the horse taken. The traveller from the village under Cortona to Casa di Piano, the next stage on the way to Rome, has, for the first two or three miles, around him, but more particularly to the right, that flat land which Hannibal laid waste in order to induce the Consul Flaminius to move from Arezzo. On his left, and in front of him, is a ridge of hills, bending down towards the lake of Thrasimene, called by Livy "montes Cortonenses," and now named the Gualandra. These hills he approaches at Ossaja, a village which the itineraries pretend to have been so denominated from the bones found there: but there have been no bones found there, and the battle was fought on the other side of the hill. From Ossaja the road begins to rise a little, but does not pass into the roots of the mountains until the sixty-seventh mile-stone from Florence. The ascent thence is not steep but perpetual, and continues for twenty minutes. The lake is soon seen below on the right, with Borghetto, a round tower close upon the water; and the undulating hills partially covered with wood amongst which the road winds, sink by degrees into the marshes near to this tower. Lower than the road, down to the right amidst these woody hillocks, Hannibal placed his horse,' in the jaws of or rather above the pass, which was between the lake and the present road, and most probably close to Borghetto, just under the lowest of the "tumuli." 114 On a summit to the left, above the road, is an old circular ruin which the peasants call "the Tower of Hannibal the Carthaginian." Arrived at the highest point of the road, the traveller has a partial view of the fatal plain, which opens fully upon him as he descends the Gualandra. He soon finds himself in a vale inclosed to the left and in front and behind him by the Gualandra hills, bending round in a segment larger than

1 On Government, chap. ii. sect. xxvi, page 208. edit. 1751. Sidney is, together with Locke and Hoadley, one of Mr. Hume's "despicable" writers.

2" Tautusque fuit ardor animorum, adeo intentus pugnæ animus utruin terrae motum qui multarum urbium Italiæ magnas partes prostravit, avertitque cursu rapido amnes, mare fluminibus invexit, montes lapsu ingenti proruit, nemo pugnantium senserit...." Tit. Liv. lib. xxii. cap. xii.

3 Equites ad ipsas fauces saltus, tumulis apte tegentibus, locat." Tit. Liv. lib. xxii. cap. iv. 4"Ubi maxime montes Cortonenses Thrasimenus subit." Ibid.

shut up the pass behind. Flaminius came to the lake near Borghetto at sunset; and, without sending any spies before him, marched through the pass the next morning before the day had quite broken, so that he perceived nothing of the horse and light troops above and about him, and saw only the heavy-armed Carthaginians in front on the hill of Torre. The consul began to draw out his army in the flat, and in the mean time the horse in ambush occupied the pass behind him at Borghetto. Thus the Romans were completely inclosed, having the lake on the right, the main army on the hill of Torre in front, the Gualandra hills filled with the light-armed on their left flank, and being prevented from receding by the cavalry, who, the farther they advanced, stopped up all the outlets in the rear. A fog rising from the lake now spread itself over the army of the consul, but the high lands were in the sunshine, and all the different corps in ambush looked towards the hill of Torre for the order of attack. Hannibal gave the signal, and moved down from his post on the height. At the same moment all his troops on the eminences behind and in the flank of Flaminius, rushed forward as it were with one accord into the plain. The Romans, who were forming their array in the mist, suddenly heard the shouts of the enemy amongst them, on every side, and, before they could fall into their ranks, or draw their swords, or see by whom they were attacked, felt at once that they were surrounded and lost.

There are two little rivulets which run from the Gualandra into the lake. The traveller crosses the first of these at about a mile after he comes into the plain, and this divides the Tuscan from the Papal territories. The second, about a quarter of a mile further on, is called "the bloody rivulet," and the peasants point out an open spot to the left between the "Sanguinetto" and

1 "Inde colles assurgunt." Tit. Liv. lib. xxii. cap. iv. 2 Τὸν μὲν κατὰ πρόσωπον τῆς πορείας λόφον αὐτὸς κατελάβετο, καὶ τοὺς Λίβυας καὶ τοὺς Ίβηρας ἔχων ἐπ' avтou кATEσT paтonédevσt. Hist. lib. iii. cap. 83. The account in Polybius is not so easily reconcileable with presen. appearances as that in Livy; he talks of hills to the right and left of the pass and valley; but when Flaminius entered, he had the lake at the right of both.

3 "A tergo et super caput decepere insidia." Tit Liv

the hills, which, they say, was the principal scene of in comparative appearance. Of the fall of Schaffslaughter. The other part of the plain is covered with hausen I cannot speak, not yet having seen it.

thick-set olive trees in corn-grounds, and is nowhere quite level except near the edge of the lake. It is, indeed, most probable that the battle was fought near this end of the valley, for the six thousand Romans who, at the beginning of the action, broke through the enemy, escaped to the summit of an eminence which must have been in this quarter, otherwise they would have had to traverse the whole plain, and to pierce through the main army of Hannibal.

The Romans fought desperately for three hours, but the death of Flaminius was the signal for a general dispersion. The Carthaginian horse then burst in upon the fugitives, and the lake, the marsh about Borghetto, but chiefly the plain of the Sanguinetto and the passes of the Gualandra, were strewed with dead. Near some old walls on a bleak ridge to the left above the rivulet, many human bones have been repeatedly found, and this has confirmed the pretensions and the name of the "stream of blood."

Every district of Italy has its hero. In the north some painter is the usual genius of the place, and the foreign Julio Romano more than divides Mantua with her native Virgil. To the south we hear of Roman names. Near Thrasimene tradition is still faithful to the fame of an enemy, and Hannibal the Carthaginian is the only ancient name remembered on the banks of the Perugian lake. Flaminius is unknown; bit the postilions on that road have been taught to show the very spot where il Console Romano was slain Of all who fought and fell in the battle of Thasimetc, the historian himself has, besides the generals and Maharbal, preserved indeed only a single name. You overtake the Carthaginian again on the same road to Rome. The antiquary, that is, the hostler of the post-house at Spoleto, teils you that his town repulsed the victorious enemy, and shows you the gate still called Porta di Annibale. It is hardly worth while to remark that a French travel-writer, we known by the name of the President Dupaty, saw Thrasimene in the lake of Bolsena, which lay conveniently on his way from Siena to Rome.

Note 38. Stanza Ixxii.

An Iris sits, amidst the infernal surge.

Of the time, place, and qualities of this kind of Iris, the reader may have seen a short account in a note to Manfred. The fall looks so much like "the hell of waters" that Addison thought the descent alluded to fernal regions. It is singular enough that two of the to be the gulf in which Alecto plunged into the infinest cascades in Europe should be artificial-this of the Velino, and the one at Tivoli. The traveller is strongly recommended to trace the Velino, at least as high as the little lake called Pie' di Lup. The Reatine territory was the Italian Tempe,' and the ancient naturalist, amongst other beautiful varieties, remarked the daily rainbows of the lake Velinus. A scholar of great name has devoted a treatise to this district alone.'

Note 39. Stanza lxxiii.
The thundering lauwine.

In the greater part of Switzerland the avalanches are known by the name of lauwine.

Note 40. Stanza Ixxv.

-I abhorr'd Too much, to conquer for the poet's sake, The di'd dull lesson, forced down word by word. These stanzas may probably remind the reader of Ensign Northerton's remarks: "D-n Homo," etc., but the reasons for our dislike are not exactly the same. I wish to express that we become tired of the task before we can comprehend the beauty; that we learn by rote before we can get by heart; that the freshness is worn away, and the future pleasure and advantage deadened and destroyed, by the didactic anticipation, at an age when we can neither feel nor understand the power of compositions which it requires an acquaintance with life, as well as Latin and Greek, to relish or to reason upon. For the same reason we never can be aware of the fulness of some of the finest passages of Shakspeare ("To be or not to be," for instance), from the habit of having them hammered into us at eight years old, as an exercise, not of mind but of memory: so that when we are old enough to No book of travels has omitted to expatiate on the enjoy them, the taste is gone, and the appetite palled. temple of the Clitumnus, between Foligno and Spoleto; In some parts of the continent, young persons are and no site, or scenery, even in Italy, is more worthy a taught from more common authors, and do not read description. For an account of the dilapidation of the best classics till their maturity. I certainly do not this temple, the reader is referred to Historical Illustra-speak on this point from any pique or aversion totions of the Fourth Canto of Childe Harold.

Note 36. Stanza Ixvi.

But thou, Clitumnus!

Note 31. Stanza Ixxi.

wards the place of my education. I was not a slow, though an idle boy; and I believe no one could, or can be more attached to Harrow than I have always Charming the eye with dread,-a matchless cataract. been, and with reason;-a part of the time passed I saw the "Cascata del marmore" of Terni twice, at there was the happiest of my life; and my preceptor different periods; once from the summit of the preci-(the Rev. Dr. Joseph Drury) was the best and worthiest pice, and again from the valley below. The lower view is far to be preferred, if the traveller has time bered but too well, though too late-when I have friend I ever possessed, whose warnings I have rememfor one only: but in any point of view, either from above or below, it is worth all the cascades and tor-erred, and whose counsels I have but followed when I have done well or wisely. If ever this imperfect rents of Switzerland put together; the Staubach, Reichenbach, Pisse Vache, fall of Arpenaz, etc., are rills

About the middle of the XIIth century, the coins of Mantua bore on one side the image and figure of Virgil. Zecca d'Italia, pl. xvii. i. 6... Voyage dans le Milanais, etc., par A Z. Millin, tom n. p. 291 Paris, 1817.

1" Rentini me ad sua Tempe duxerunt." Cicer. Epist. ad Attic. xv. lib. iv.

2" in eodem lacu nullo non die apparere arcus." Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. ii. cap. Ixii.

3 Ald. Manut. de Reatina urbe agroque, ap. Sallengre Thesaur. tom. i. p. 773.

record of my feelings towards him should reach his love of finding every coincidence has discovered the eyes, let it remind him of one who never thinks of him but with gratitude and veneration-of one who would more gladly boast of having been his pupil, if, by more closely following his injunctions, he could reflect any honour upon his instructor.

Note 41. Stanza lxxix.

The Scipios' tomb contains no ashes now.
For a comment on this and the two following stanzas,
the reader may consult Historical Illustrations of the
Fourth Canto of Childe Harold.

Note 42. Stanza lxxxii.
The trebly hundred triumphs!

Orosius gives three hundred and twenty for the number of triumphs. He is followed by Panvinius: and Panvinius by Mr. Gibbon and the modern writers. Note 43. Stanza lxxxiii.

Oh thou, whose chariot roll'd on fortune's wheel, etc.

Certainly were it not for these two traits in the life of Sylla, alluded to in this stanza, we should regard him as a monster unredeemed by any admirable quality. The atonement of his voluntary resignation of empire may perhaps be accepted by us, as it seems to have satisfied the Romans, who if they had not respected must have destroyed him. There could be no mean, no division of opinion; they must have all thought, like Eucrates, that what had appeared ambition was a love of glory, and what had been mistaken for pride was a real grandeur of soul.1

Note 44. Stanza lxxxvi.

And laid him with the earth's preceding clay.

true Cæsarean ichor in a stain near the right knee;
but colder criticism has rejected not only the blood
but the portrait, and assigned the globe of power rather
to the first of the emperors than to the last of the
republican masters of Rome. Winkelmann is loth
to allow a heroic statue of a Roman citizen, but the
Grumani Agrippa, a contemporary almost, is heroic; and
naked Roman figures were only very rare, not abso-
lutely forbidden. The face accords much better with
the "hominem integrum et castum et gravem,'
"2 than
with any of the busts of Augustus, and is too stern for
him who was beautiful, says Suetonius, at all periods
of his life. The pretended likeness to Alexander the
Great cannot be discerned, but the traits resemble the
medal of Pompey. The objectionable globe may not
have been an ill-applied flattery to him who found
Asia Minor the boundary, and left it the centre of the
Roman empire. It seems that Winkelmann has made
a mistake in thinking that no proof of the identity of
this statue, with that which received the bloody sacri-
fice, can be derived from the spot where it was discov-
ered.4 Flaminius Vacca says sotto una cantina, and
this cantina is known to have been in the Vicolo de
Leutari near the Cancellaria, a position corresponding
exactly to that of the Janus before the basilica of
Pompey's theatre, to which Augustus transferred the
statue after the curia was either burnt or taken down.'
Part of the Pompeian shade, the portico, existed in
the beginning of the XVth century, and the atrium
was still called Satrum. So says Blondus." At all

On the third of September, Cromwell gained the vic-events, so imposing is the stern majesty of the statue, tory of Dunbar; a year afterwards he obtained "his crowning mercy" of Worcester; and a few years after, on the same day, which he had ever esteemed the most fortunate for him, died.

Note 45. Stanza lxxxvii.


and so memorable is the story, that the play of the imagination leaves no room for the exercise of the judgment, and the fiction, if a fiction it is, operates on the spectator with an effect not less powerful than truth.

Note 46. Stanza lxxxviii.


And thou, dread statue! still existent in The ansterest form of naked majesty. And thou, the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome! The projected division of the Spada Pompey has Ancient Rome, like modern Sienna, abounded mos already been recorded by the historian of the Decline probably with images of the foster-mother of he and Fall of the Roman Empire. Mr. Gibbon found it founder; but there were two she-wolves of whom. in the memorials of Flaminius Vacca, and it may be history makes particular mention. One of these, of added to his mention of it that Pope Julius III. gave brass in ancient work, was seen by Dionysius at the the contending owners five hundred crowns for the temple of Romulus under the Palatine, and is unistatue; and presented it to Cardinal Capo di Ferro, versally believed to be that mentioned by the Latin who had prevented the judgment of Solomon from historian, as having been made from the money col being executed upon the image. In a more civilized lected by a fine on usurers, and as standing under the age this statne was exposed to an actual operation: for Ruminal fig-tree. The other was that which Cicero 1o the French, who acted the Brutus of Voltaire in the has celebrated both in prose and verse, and which the Coliseum, resolved that their Cæsar should fail at the base of that Pompey, which was supposed to have been sprinkled with the blood of the original dictator. The nine foot hero was therefore removed to the arena of the amphitheatre, and to facilitate its transport, suffered the temporary amputation of its right arm. The republican tragedians had to plead that the arm was a restoration: but their accusers do not believe that the integrity of the statue would have protected it. The

1 Storia delle arti, ete., lib. ix. cap. i. p. 321, 322. tom. ii
2 Cicer. Epist. ad Atticum, xi. 6.

3 Published by Causens in his Museum Romanum.
4 Storia delle arti, etc.. ibid.

5 Sueton. in vit. August. cap. 31. and in vit. C. J. Cæsar. cap. 88. Appian says it was burnt down. See a note of Pa iscus to Suetonius, pag. 94.

6" Tu modo Pompeia lenta spatiare sub umbra."
Ovid Ar. Aman.

7 Roma instaurata, lib. ii. fol. 31.

8 Χάλκεα ποιήματα παλαιᾶς ἐργασίας. Antiq. Rom. Α. 1 "Seigneur, vous changez, toutes mes idées de la facon 9" Ad ficum Ruminalem simulacra infantium conditorum dont je vous vois agir. Je croynis que vous aviez de l'ambi-urbis sub uberibus lupa posuerunt." Liv. Hist. lib. x cap. taon, mais aucun amour pour la gloire: je voyais bien que Ixix. This was in the year U. C. 455, or 457. wotre âme était haute; mais je ne soupçonnais pas qu'elle fat grande."-Dialogue de Sylla et d'Eucrate.


Tum statua Nattæ, tum simulacra Deorum, Romulusque et Remus cum altrice bellua vi fulminis icti conciderunt." "Tactus est ille etiam qui hanc urbem

2 Memorie, num. Ivii. pag. 9. ap. Montfaucon, Diarium De Divinat. ii. 20. Italicum. condidit Romulus,

quem inauratum in Capitolio parvum

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