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napes, who would needs try his new gun in his way, and withal so very merry during upon me.

the whole entertainment, that he insensiBut I shall pass over these and several bly betrayed me to continue his competitor, other stages of life, to remind you of the which in a little time concluded in a comyoung beau who made love to you about six plete victory over my rival; after which, years since. You may remember, madam, by way of insult, I ate a considerable prohow he masked, and danced, and sung, portion beyond what the spectators thought and played a thousand tricks to gain you; me obliged in honour to do. The effect, and how he was at last carried off by a cold however, of this engagement, has made me that he got under your window one night in resolve never to eat more for renown; and a serenade. I was that unfortunate young I have, pursuant to this resolution, comfellow to whom you were then so cruel. pounded three wagers I had depending on Not long after my shifting that unlucky the strength of my stomach, which hapbody, I found myself upon a hill in Ethio- pened very luckily, because it had been pia, where I lived in my present grotesque stipulated in our articles either to play or shape, till I was caught by a servant of the pay. How a man of common sense could English factory, and sent over into Great be thus engaged is hard to determine; but Britain. I need not inform you how I came the occasion of this is, to desire you to ininto your hands. You see, madam, this is form several gluttons of my acquaintance, not the first time that you have had me in who look on me with envy, that they had a chain: I am, however, very happy in this best moderate their ambition in time, lest my captivity, as you often bestow on me infamy or death attend their success. I those kisses and caresses which I would forgot to tell you, sir, with what unspeakhave given the world for when I was a man. able pleasure I received the acclamations I hope this discovery of my person will not and applause of the whole board, when I tend to my disadvantage, but that you will had almost eat my antagonist into convulstill continue your accustomed favours to sions. It was then that I returned his mirth your most devoted humble servant, upon him with such success, as he was

• PUGG.' hardly able to swallow, though prompted

by a desire of fame, and a passionate fond•P. S. I would advise your little shock- ness for distinction. I had not endeavoured dog to keep out of my way; for as I look to excel so far, had not the company been upon him to be the most formidable of my so loud in their approbation of my victory. rivals, I may chance one time or other to I don't question but the same thirst after give him such a snap as he won't like.' glory has often caused a man to drink quarts

without taking breath, and prompted men

to many other as difficult enterprises : No. 344.] Friday, April 4, 1712.

which, if otherwise pursued, might turn

very much to a man's advantage. This -In solo vivendi causa palato est.

ambition of mine was indeed extravagantly

pursued; however, I cannot help observSuch whose sole bliss is eating: who can give ing, that you hardly ever see a man comBut that one brutal reason why they live.

mended for a good stomach, but he immeCongreve.

diately falls to eating more, (though he had MR. SPECTATOR, I think it has not before dined,) as well to confirm the person yet fallen into your way to discourse on that commended him in his good opinion of little ambition, or the many whimsical ways him, as to convince any other at the table, men fall into to distinguish themselves who may have been unattentive enough not among their acquaintance. Such observa have done justice to his character. I am, tions, well pursued, would make a pretty sir, your humble servant, history of low life. I myself am got into a

• EPICURE MAMMON.' great reputation, which arose (as most extraordinary occurrences in a man's life seem MR. SPECTATOR,-I have wrote to you to do,) from a mere accident. I was some three or four times, to desire you would days ago unfortunately engaged among a take notice of an impertinent custom the set of gentlemen, who esteem a man accord- women, the fine women, have lately fallen ing to the quantity of food he throws down into, of taking snuff. This silly trick is atat a meal." Now I, who am ever for dis-tended with such a coquette 'air in some tinguishing myself according to the notions ladies, and such a sedate masculine one in of superiority which the rest of the com- others, that I cannot tell which most to pany entertain, ate so immoderately, for complain of: but they are to me equally their applause, as had like to have cost me disagreeable. Mrs. Santer is so impatient my life. What added to my misfortune was, of being without it, that she takes it as that having naturally a good stomach, and often as she does salt at meals: and as she having lived soberly for some time, my affects a wonderful ease and negligence in body was as well prepared for this conten- all her manner, an upper lip mixed with tion as if it had been by appointment. I snuff and the sauce, is what is presented to had quickly vanquished every glutton in the observation of all who have the honour company but one who was such a prodigy I to eat with her. The pretty creature, her VOL, II,

7

Jur. Sat. xi. 11.

niece, does all she can to be as disagreeable book, which is filled with Adam's account as her aunt; and if she is not as offensive to of his passion and esteem for Eve, would the eye, she is quite as much to the ear, have been improper for her hearing, and and makes up all she wants in a confident has therefore devised very just and beautiair, by a nauseous rattle of the nose, when ful reasons for her retiring: the snuff is delivered, and the fingers make the stops and closes on the nostrils. This,

So spake our sire, and by his countenance seem'd

Entiring on studious thoughts abtruse; which Eve perhaps, is not a very courtly image in Perceiving, where she sat retir'd in sight, speaking of ladies; that is very true: but With lowliness majestic from her seat, where arises the offence? Is it in those who

And grace that won who saw to wish her stay,

Rose; and went forth among her fruits and flowers, mit, or those who observe it? As for To visit how they prosper'd, bud and bloom, my part, I have been so extremely dis Her nursery: they at her coming sprung,

And, touch'd by her fair tendance, gladlier grew. gusted with this filthy physic hanging on

Yet went she not, as not with such discourse, the lip, that the most agreeable conversa Delighted, or not capable her ear tion, or person, has not been able to make Of what was high: such pleasure she reserv'd, up for it. As to those who take it for no

Adam relating, she sole auditress;

Her husband the relator she prefer'd other end but to give themselves occasion Before the angel, and of him to ask for pretty action, or to fill up little inter Chose rather: he, she knew, would intermix vals of discourse, I can bear with them;

Grateful digressions, and solve high dispute

With conjugal caresses; from his lip but then they must not use it when another Not words alone pleas'd her. O, when meet now is speaking, who ought to be heard with too Such pairs, in love and mutual honour join'd! much respect, to admit of offering at that time from hand to hand the snuff-box. But The angel's returning a doubtful answer Flavilla is so far taken with her behaviour to Adam's inquiries, was not only proper in this kind, that she pulls out her box for the moral reason which the poet assigns, (which is indeed full of good Brazil,) in the but because it would have been highly middle of the sermon; and, to show she has absurd to have given the sanction of an the audacity of a well-bred woman, she archangel to any particular system of philooffers it to the men as well as to the women sophy. The chief points in the Ptolemaic who sit near her: but since by this time all and Copernican hypotheses are described the world knows she has a fine hand, I am with great conciseness and perspicuity, and in hopes she may give herself no further at the same time dressed in very pleasing trouble in this matter. On Sunday was and poetical images. sevennight, when they came about for the Adam, to detain the angel, enters afteroffering, she gave her charity with a very wards upon his own history, and relates to good air, but at the same time asked the him the circumstances in which he found church-warden if he would take a pinch. himself upon his creation; as also his conPray, sir, think of these things in time, and versation with his Maker, and his first you will oblige, your humble servant. meeting with Eve. There is no part of T.

the poem more apt to raise the attention of the reader than this discourse of our great

ancestor; as nothing can be more surprising No. 345.] Saturday, April 5, 1712. and delightful to us, than to hear the senti

ments that arose in the first man, while he Sanctius his animal, mentisque capacius altæ was yet new and fresh from the hands of his Deerat adhuc, et quod dominari in cætera posset,

Ovid. Met. Lib. i. 76.

Creator. The poet has interwoven every A creature of a more exalted kind

thing which is delivered upon this subject Was wanting yet, and then was man design'd: in holy writ with so many beautiful imagiConscious of thought, of more capacious breast, nations of his own, that nothing can be conFor empire form’d, and fit to rule the rest.-Dryden.

ceived more just and more natural than this The accounts which Raphael gives of whole episode. As our author knew this subthe battle of angels, and the creation of the ject could not but be agreeable to his reader, world, have in them those qualifications he would not throw it into the relation of which the critics judge requisite to an epi- the six days' work, but reserved it for a sode. They are nearly related to the prin- distinct episode, that he might have an opcipal action, and have a just connexion with portunity of expatiating upon it more at the fable.

Iarge. Before I enter upon this part of the The eighth book opens with a beautiful poem, I cannot but take notice of two shindescription of the impression which this ing passages in the dialogue between Adam discourse of the archangel made on our and the angel. The first is that wherein first parents. Adam afterwards, by a very our ancestor gives an account of the pleanatural curiosity, inquires concerning the sure he took in conversing with him, which motions of those celestial bodies which contains a very noble moral. make the most glorious appearance among the six days' work. The poet here, with

For while I sit with thee, I seem in heaven,

And sweeter thy discourse is to my ear a great deal of art, represents Eve as with Than fruits of palm-trees (pleasantest to thirst drawing from this part of their conversa And hunger both, from labour) at the hour tion, to amusements more suitable to her

Of sweet repast; they satiate and soon fill, sex. He well knew that the episode in this

Though pleasant; but thy words, with grace divine
Imbued, bring to their sweetness no satiety.

Natus homo est.

The other I shall mention, is that in prepared for his reception, are also cirwhich the angel gives a reason why he cumstances finely imagined, and grounded should be glad to hear the story Adam was upon what is delivered in sacred story. about to relate.

These and the like wonderful incidents in *For I that day was absent as befel,

this part of the work, have in them all the Bound on a voyage uncouth and obscure,

beauties of novelty, at the same time that Far on escursion towards the gates of hell,

they have all the graces of nature. Squard in full legion (such command we had,) To see that none thence issued forth a spy,

They are such as none but a great genius Or enemy, while God was in his work,

could have thought of; though, upon the Lest be, incens'd at such eruption bold,

perusal of them, they seem to rise of themDestruction with creation might be mix'd.'

selves from the subject of which he treats. There is no question but our poet drew In a word, though they are natural, they the image in what follows from that in Vir- are not obvious; which is the true character gil's sixth book, where Æneas and the Sybil of all fine writing. stand before the adamantine gates, which The impression which the interdiction of are there described as shut upon the place the tree of life left in the mind of our first of torments, and listen to the groans, the parent is described with great strength and clank of chains, and the noise of iron whips, judgment; as the image of the several that were heard in those regions of pain and beasts and birds passing in review before sorrow.

him is very beautiful and lively:

- Each bird and beast behold - Fast we found, fast shut The dismal gates, and barricado'd strong;

Approaching two and two, these cow'ring low But long ere our approaching heard within

With blandishment; each bird stoop'd on his wing. Noise, other than the sound of dance or song,

I nam'd them as they pass'd.'Torment, and loud lament, and furious rage.' Adam in the next place, describes a con

Adam then proceeds to give an account ference which he held with his Maker upon of his condition and sentiments immediately the subject of solitude. The poet here reafter his creation. How agreeably does he presents the Supreme Being as making an represent the posture in which he found essay of his own work, and putting to the himself, the delightful landscape that sur- trial that reasoning faculty with which he rounded him, and the gladness of heart had endued his creature. "Adam urges, in which grew up in him on that occasion! this divine colloquy, the impossibility of his

being happy, though he was the inhabitant - As new wak'd from soundest sleep,

of Paradise, and lord of the whole creation, Soft on the flow'ry herb I found me laid In balmy sweat, which with his beams the sun without the conversation and society of Soon dry'd, and on the reeking moisture fed, some rational creature who should partake Straight towards heaven my wond'ring eyes I turn'd those blessings with him. This dialogue, And gaz'd awhile the ample sky; till rais'd By quick instinctive motion, up I sprung,

which is supported chiefly by the beauty of As thitherward endeavouring, and upright

the thoughts, without other poetical ornaStood on my feet. About me round I saw

ment, is as fine a part as any in the whole Hill, dale, and shady woods, and sunny plains, And liquid lapse of murmuring streams: by these, poem. The more the reader examines the Creatures that liv'd and mov'd, and walk'd, or flew, justness and delicacy of its sentiments, the Birds on the branches warbling; all things smild

more he will find himself pleased with it. With fragrance, and with joy my heart o'erflow'd.'

The poet has wonderfully preserved the Adam is afterwards described as sur character of majesty and condescension in prised at his own existence, and taking a the Creator, and, at the same time, that of survey of himself and of all the works of humility and adoration in the creature, as nature. He likewise is represented as dis particularly in the following lines: covering, by the light of reason, that he, Thus I presumptuous; and the vision bright, and every thing about him, must have been As with a smile more brighten'd, thus reply'd, &c. the effect of some Being infinitely good and

-I with leave of speech implor'd,

And humble deprecation, thus reply'd : powerful, and that this Being had a right to "Let not my words offend thee, Heavenly Power, his worship and adoration. His first address My Maker, be propitious while I speak." &e. to the Sun, and to those parts of the crea

Adam then proceeds to give an account tion which made the most distinguished of his second sleep, and of the dream in figure, is very natural and amusing to the which he beheld the formation of Eve. The imagination:

new passion that was awakened in him at - Thou Sun,' said I. • Fair light,

the sight of her is touched very finely, And thou enlighten'd earth, so fresh and gay,

Under his forming hands a creature grew, Ye hills, and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains,

Manlike, but diffrent sex: so lovely fair, ye that live and move, fair creatures, tell,

That what seem'd fair in all the world, seem'd now Tell, if ye saw, how came I thus ? how here ?'

Mean, or in her summ'd up, in ber contain'd,

And in her looks, which from that time infus'd His next sentiment, when, upon his first

Sweetness into my heart, unfelt before ; going to sleep, he fancies himself losing his And into all things from her air inspir'd existence, and falling away into nothing,

The spirit of love and amorous delight.' can never be sufficiently admired. His Adam's distress upon losing sight of this dream, in which he still preserves the con- beautiful phantom, with his exclamations sciousness of his existence, together with of joy and gratitude at the discovery of a his removal into the garden which was I real creature who resembled the apparition

And

nocence,

which had been presented to him in his Neither her ontside form'd so fair, nor aught

In procreation common to all kinds, dream; the approaches he makes to her,

(Though higher of the genial bed by far, and his manner of courtship, are all laid And with mysterious reverence I deem) together in a most exquisite propriety of

So much delights me, as those graceful acts, sentiments.

Those thousand decencies that daily flow

From all her words and actions, mix'd with love Though this part of the poem is worked And sweet compliance, which declare unfeign'd up with great warmth and spirit, the love Union of mind, or in us both one soul : which is described in it is every way suit

Harmony to behold in wedded pair !' able to a state of innocence. If the reader Adam's speech at parting with the angel, compares the description which Adam here has in it a deference and gratitude agreegives of his leading Eve to the nuptial able to an inferior nature, and at the same bower, with that which Mr. Dryden has time a certain lignity and greatness suitable made on the same occasion in a scene of his to the father of mankind in his state of inFall of Man, he will be sensible of the great

L. care which Milton took to avoid all thoughts on so delicate a subject that might be offensive to religion or good manners.

The

No. 346.] Monday, April 7, 1712. sentiments are chaste, but not cold; and Consuetudinem benignitatis largitioni munerum convey to the mind ideas of the most trans- longe antepono. Hæc est gravium hominum atque mag

norum; illa quasi assentatorum populi, multitudinis porting passion, and of the greatest purity. levitatem voluptate quasi titillantium. Tull. What a noble mixture of rapture and in

I esteem a habit of benignity greatly preferable to nocence has the author joined together, in munificence. The former is peculiar to great and disthe reflection which Adam makes on the tinguished persons; the latter belongs to flatterers of pleasures of love, compared to those of the people, who tickle the levity of the multitude with sense!

WHEN we consider the offices of human • Thus have I told thee, all my state, and brought My story to the sum of earthly bliss

life, there is, methinks, something in what Which I enjoy; and must confess to find

we ordinarily call generosity, which, when In all things else delight indeed, but such

carefully examined, seems to flow rather As us'd or not, works in the mind no change

from a loose and unguarded temper than Nor vehement desire; these delicacies, I mean of taste, sight, emell

, herbs, fruits, and flowers, an honest and liberal mind. For this reason Walks, and the melody of birds : but here

it is absolutely necessary that all liberality Far otherwise, transported I behold,

should have for its basis and support fruTransported touch; here passion first I felt, Commotion strange! in all enjoyments else

gality. By this means the beneficent spirit Superior and unmov'd, here only weak

works in a man from convictions of reason, Against the charm of beauty's pow'rful glance. not from the impulse of passion. Or nature fail'd in me, and left some part

The Not proof enough such object to sustain;

generous man in the ordinary acceptation, Or from my side subducting, took perhaps

without respect of the demands of his More than enough; at least on her bestow'd

family, will soon find upon the foot of his Too much of ornament, in outward show Elaborate, of inward less exact.

account, that he has sacrificed to fools, -When I approach

knaves, flatterers, or the deservedly unHer loveliness, so absolute she seems,

happy, all the opportunities of affording And in herself complete, so well to know Her own, that what she wills to do or say,

any future assistance where it ought to be. Seems wisest, virtuousest, discreetest, best;

Let him therefore reflect, that if to bestow All higher knowledge in her presence falls

be in itself laudable, should not a man take Degraded : wisdom in discourse with her Loses, discountenanc'd, and like folly shows:

care to secure an ability to do things praiseAuthority and reason on her wait,

worthy as long as he lives? Or could there As one intended first, not after made

be a more cruel piece of raillery upon a Occasionally; and to consummate all, Greatness of mind and nobleness their seat

man who should have reduced his fortune Build in her loveliest, and create an awe

below the capacity of acting according to About her, as a guard angelic plac'd.'

his natural temper, than to say of him, 'These sentiments of love in our first pa- That gentleman was generous? My berent, gave the angel such an insight into loved author therefore has, in the sentence human nature, that he seems apprehensive on the top of my paper, turned his eye with of the evils which might befall the species a certain satiety from beholding the adin general, as well as Adam in particular, dresses to the people by largesses and pubfrom the excess of his passion. He there- lic entertainments, which he asserts to be fore fortifies him against it by timely ad- in general vicious, and are always to be monitions; which very artfully prepare the regulated according to the circumstances mind of the reader for the occurrences of of time and a man's own fortune.

A conthe next book, where the weakness, of stant benignity in commerce with the rest which Adam here gives such distant dis- of the world, which ought to run through coveries, brings about that fatal event which all a man's actions, has effects more useful is the subject of the poem. His discourse, to those whom you oblige and is less ostenwhich follows the gentle rebuke he received tatious in yourself. He turns his recomfrom the angel, shows that his love, how- mendation of this virtue on commercial life: ever violent it might appear, was still and, according to him, a citizen who is founded in reason, and consequently not frank in his kindnesses, and abhors severity improper for Paradise:

in his demands: he who, in buying, selling,

lending, doing acts of good neighbourhood, Without this benignity, pride or vengeance is just and easy; he who appears naturally will precipitate a man to choose the receipt averse to disputes, and above the sense of of half his demands from one whom he has little sufferings; bears a noble character, undone, rather than the whole from one to and does much more good to mankind than whom he has shown mercy. This benignity any other man's fortune, without com- is essential to the character of a fair trader, merce, can possibly support. For the citi- and any man who designs to enjoy his wealth zen above all other men, has opportunities with honour and self-satisfaction; nay, it of arriving at the highest fruit of wealth,' would not be hard to maintain, that the to be liberal without the least expense of a practice of supporting good and industrious man's own fortune. It is not to be denied men would carry a man farther even to his but such a practice is liable to hazard; but profit, than indulging the propensity of this therefore adds to the obligation, that, serving and obliging the fortunate. My auamong traders, he who obliges is as much thor argues on this subject, in order to inconcerned to keep the favour a secret as he cline men's minds to those who want them who receives it. The unhappy distinctions most, after this manner. We must always among us in England are so great, that to consider the nature of things, and govern celebrate the intercourse of commercial ourselves accordingly. The wealthy man, friendship (with which I am daily made when he has repaid you, is upon a balance, acquainted) would be to raise the virtuous with you; but the person whom you favoured man so many enemies of the contrary party. with a loan, if he be a good man, will think I am obliged to conceal all I know of Tom himself in your debt after he has paid you. the Bounteous,' who lends at the ordinary The wealthy and the conspicuous are not interest, to give men of less fortune oppor- obliged by the benefits you do them; they tunities of making greater advantages. He think they conferred a benefit when they conceals, under a rough air and distant be- received one. Your good offices are always haviour, a bleeding compassion and wo- suspected, and it is with them the same manish tenderness. This is governed by thing to expect their favour as to receive it. the most exact circumspection, that there But the man below you, who knows, in the is no industry wanting in the person whom good you have done him, you respected he is to serve, and that he is guilty of no himself more than his circumstances, does improper expenses. This I know of Tom; not act like an obliged man only to him but who dare say it of so known a Tory? from whom he has received a benefit, but The same care I was forced to use some also to all who are capable of doing him one. time ago, in the report of another's virtue, And whatever little offices he can do for and said fifty instead of a hundred, because you, he is so far from magnifying it, that he the man I pointed at was a Whig. Actions will labour to extenuate it in all his actions of this kind are popular, without being in- and expressions. Moreover, the regard to vidious: for every man of ordinary circum- what you do to a great man at best is taken stances looks upon a man who has this notice of no further than by himself or his known benignity in his nature as a person family; but what you do to a man of an ready to be his friend upon such terms as humble fortune (provided always that he is he ought to expect it; and the wealthy who a good and a modest man) raises the affecmay envy such a character, can do no in- tions towards you of all men of that characjury to its interests, but by the imitation of ter (of which there are many) in the whole it, in which the good citizen will rejoice to city. be rivalled. I know not how to form to my There is nothing gains a reputation to a self a greater idea of human life, than in preacher so much as his own practice; I what is the practice of some wealthy men am therefore casting about what act of bewhom I could name, that make no step to nignity is in the power of a Spectator. the improvement of their own fortunes, Alas! that lies but in a very narrow comwherein they do not also advance those of pass; and I think the most immediately other men who would languish in poverty under my patronage are either players, or without that munificence. In a nation where such whose circumstances bear an affinity there are so many public funds to be sup- with theirs. All, therefore, I am able to do ported, I know not whether he can be called at this time of this kind, is to tell the town, a good subject, who does not embark some that on Friday the 11th of this instant, part of his fortune with the state, to whose April, there will be performed in Yorkvigilance he owes the security of the whole. Buildings, a concert of vocal and instruThis certainly is an immediate way of lay- mental music, for the benefit of Mr. Edward ing an obligation upon many, and extending Keen, the father of twenty children; and your benignity the farthest a man can pos- that this day the haughty George Powell sibly, who is not engaged in commerce. hopes all the good-natured part of the town But he who trades, besides giving the state will favour him, whom they applauded in some part of this sort of credit he gives his Alexander, Timon, Lear, and Orestes, banker, may, in all the occurrences of his with their company this night, when he life, have his eye upon removing want from hazards all his heroic glory for their approthe door of the industrious, and defending bation in the humble condition of honest the unhappy upright man from bankruptcy. Jack Falstaff,

T,

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