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life: but if we suppose, as it generally hap-1 when it makes men act contrary to reason, pens, that virtue would make us more or when it puts them upon distinguishing happy even in this life than a contrary themselves by trifles. As for the first of course of vice; how can we sufficiently ad- these, who are singular in any thing that mire the stupidity or madness of those per- is irreligious, immoral, or dishonourable, I sons who are capable of making so absurd believe every one will easily give them up. a choice?
I shall therefore speak of those only who Every wise man therefore will consider are remarkable for their singularity in this life only as it may conduce to the hap- things of no importance; as in dress, bepiness of the other, and cheerfully sacrifice haviour, conversation, and all the little the pleasures of a few years to those of an intercourses of life. In these cases there eternity.
is a certain deference due to custom; and, notwithstanding there may be a colour of
reason to deviate from the multitude in No. 576.] Wednesday, August 4, 1714.
some particulars, a man ought to sacrifice
his private inclinations and opinions to the Nitor in adversum ; nec me, qui cætera, vincit practice of the public. It must be confessImpetus; et rapido contrarius evehor orbi.
ed that good sense often makes a humourOvid, Met. Lib. ii. 72.
ist; but then it unqualifies him for being of I steer against their motions, nor am I Borne back by all the current of the sky.-Addison.
any moment in the world, and renders him
ridiculous to persons of a much inferior unI REMEMBER a young man of very lively derstanding. parts, and of a sprightly turn in conversa I have heard of a gentleman in the north tion, who had only one fault, which was an of England who was a remarkable instance inordinate desire of appearing fashionable. of this foolish singularity. He had laid it This ran him into many amours, and con- down as a rule within himself, to act in the sequently into many distem pers. He never most indifferent parts of life according to the went to bed until two o'clock in the morn- most abstracted notions of reason and good ing, because he would not be a queer fel- sense, without any regard to fashion or exlow; and was every now and then knocked ample. This humour broke out at first in down by a constable, to signalize his viva- many little oddnesses: he had never any city. He was initiated into half a dozen stated hours for his dinner, supper, or clubs before he was one-and-twenty; and sleep; because, said he, we ought to attend so improved in them his natural gayety of the calls of nature, and not set our appetites temper, that you might frequently trace to our meals, but bring our meals to our him to his lodging by a range of broken appetites. In his conversation with country windows, and other the like monuments of gentlemen, he would not make use of a wit and gallantry. To be short, after hav- phrase that was not strictly true; he never ing fully established his reputation of being told any of them that he was his humble a very agreeable rake, he died of old age at servant, but that he was his well-wisher, five-and-twenty.
and would rather be thought a mal-content, There is indeed nothing which betrays a than drink the king's health when he was man into so many errors and inconveniences not dry. He would thrust his head out of as the desire of not appearing singular; for his chamber window every morning, and which reason it is very necessary to form a after having gaped for fresh air about half right idea of singularity, that we may know an hour, repeat fifty verses as loud as he when it is laudable, and when it is vicious. could bawl them, for the benefit of his In the first place, every man of sense will lungs; to which end he generally took agree with me that singularity is laudable them out of Homer—the Greek tongue, when, in contradiction to a multitude, it especially in that author, being more deep adheres to the dictates of conscience, mo- and sonorous, and more conducive to exrality, and honour. In these cases we ought pectoration than any other. He had many to consider that it is not custom, but duty, other particularities, for which he gave which is the rule of action; and that we sound and philosophical reasons. As this should be only so far sociable, as we are humour still grew upon him, he chose to reasonable creatures. Truth is never the wear a turban instead of a periwig; conless so for not being attended to: and it is cluding, very justly, that a bandage of the ņature of actions, not the number of clean linen about his head was much more actors, by which we ought to regulate our wholesome, as well as cleanly, than the behaviour. Singularity in concerns of this caul of a wig, which is soiled with frequent kind is to be looked upon as heroic bravery, perspirations. He afterwards judiciously in which a man leaves the species only as observed that the many ligatures in our he soars above it. What greater instance English dress must naturally check the can there be of a weak and pusillanimous circulation of the blood; for which reason temper, than for a man to pass his whole he made his breeches and his doublet of life in opposition to his own sentiments? or one continued piece of cloth, after the mannot to dare to be what he thinks he ought ner of the hussars. In short, by following to be?
the pure dictates of reason, he at length Singularity, therefore, is only vicious departed so much from the rest of his
countrymen, and indeed from his whole, when I read, especially if it be poetry, it is species, that his friends would have clap- very usual with me, when I meet with any ped him into Bedlam, and have begged his passage or expression which strikes me estate; but the judge, being informed he much, to pronounce it aloud, with that tone did no harm, contented himself with issuing of the voice which I think agreeable to the out a commission of lunacy against him, and sentiments there expressed; and to this I putting his estate into the hands of proper generally add some motion or action of the guardians.
body. It was not long before I was observed The fate of this philosopher puts me in by some of the family in one of these heroic mind of a remark in Monsieur Fontenelle's fits, who thereupon received impressions Dialogues of the Dead. “The ambitious very much to my disadvantage. This howand the covetous,' says he, ‘are madmen ever I did not soon discover, nor should to all intents and purposes as much as those have done probably, had it not been for the who are shut up in dark rooms; but they following accident. I had one day shut have the good luck to have numbers on myself up in my chamber, and was very their side; whereas the phrensy of one deeply engaged in the second book of Milwho is given up for a lunatic is a phrensy ton's Paradise Lost. I walked to and fro hors d'euvre;' that is, in other words, with the book in my hand; and, to speak something which is singular in its kind, the truth, I fear I made no little noise; when and does not fall in with the madness of a presently coming to the following lines: multitude.
-On a sudden open fly, The subject of this essay was occasioned With impetuous recoil and jarring sound, by a letter which I received not long since,
Th' infernal doors, and on their hinges grate and which, for want of room at present, I
Harsh thunder," &c. shall insert in my next paper.
I in great transport threw open the door of my chamber, and found the greatest part of the family standing on the outside in a
very great consternation. I was in no less No. 577.) Friday, August 6, 1714.
confusion, and begged pardon for having -Hoc tolerabile, si non
disturbed them; addressing myself parEt furere incipias
Jur. Sat. vi. 613.
ticularly to comfort one of the children who This might be borne with, if you did not rave. received an unlucky fall in this action, The letter mentioned in my last paper is meditations through the key-hole. To be
while he was too intently surveying my as follows.
short, after this adventure, I easily observed “SIR,_You have so lately decried that that great part of the family, especially the custom, too much in use amongst most peo- women and children, looked upon me with ple, of making themselves the subjects of some apprehensions of fear; and my friend their writings and conversation, that I had himself, though he still continues his civilisome difficulty to persuade myself to give ties to me, did not seem altogether easy: I you this trouble until I had considered that took notice that the butler was never after though I should speak in the first person, this accident ordered to leave the bottle yet I could not be justly charged with vanity, upon the table after dinner. Add to this, since I shall not add my name: as also, be that I frequently overheard the servants cause what I shall write will not, to sav the mention me by ihe name of the crazed best, redound to my praise, but is only gentleman, the gentleman a little touched, designed to remove a prejudice conceived the mad Londoner,” and the like. This against me, as I hope, with very little made me think it high time for me to shift foundation. My short history is this. my quarters, which I resolved to do the
*I have lived for some years last past first handsome opportunity; and was conaltogether in London, until about a month firmed in this resolution by a young lady in ago an acquaintance of mine, for whom I the neighbourhood who frequently visited have done some small services in town, in- us, and who one day, after having heard vited me to pass part of the summer with all the fine things I was able to say, was him at his house in the country. I accepted pleased with a scornful smile to bid me his invitation, and found a very hearty wel" go to sleep." come. My friend, an honest plain man, not * The first minute I got to my lodgings in being qualified to pass away his time with town I set pen to paper to desire your opiout the reliefs of business, has grafted the nion, whether upon the evidence before farmer upon the gentleman, and brought you, I am mad or not. I can bring certifihimself to submit even to the servile parts cates that I behave myself soberly before of that employment, such as inspecting his company, and I hope there is at least some plough and the like. This necessarily takes merit in withdrawing to be mad. Look you, up some of his hours every day; and, as I sir, I am contented to be esteemed a little have no relish for such diversion, I used at touched, as they phrase it, but should be these times to retire either to my chamber, sorry to be madder than my neighbours; or a shady walk near the house, and enter- therefore, pray let me be as much in my tain myself with some agreeable author. senses as you can afford. I know I could Now, you must know, Mr. Spectator, that, bring yourself as an instance of a man who
has confessed talking to himself; but yours the word person properly signifies a thinkis a particular case, and cannot justify me, ing intelligent being that has reason and who have not kept silence any part of my reflection, and can consider itself as itself, life. What if I should own myself in love? concludes, that it is consciousness alone, You know lovers are always allowed the and not an identity of substance, which comfort of soliloquy.—But I will say no makes this personal identity of sameness. more upon this subject, because I have long ‘Had I the same consciousness,' says that since observed the ready way to be thought author, that I saw the ark and Noah's mad is to contend that you are not so: as flood, as that I saw an overflowing of the we generally conclude that man drunk who Thames last winter, or as that I now write; takes pains to be thought sober. I will I could no more doubt that I who write this therefore leave myself to your determina- now, that saw the Thames overflow last tion; but am the more desirous to be thought winter, and that viewed the flood at the in iny senses, that it may be no discredit to general deluge, was the same self, place you when I assure you that I have always that self in what substance you please, than been very much your admirer.
that I who write this am the same myself •P. S. If I must be mad, I desire the now while I write, whether I consist of all
the same substance, material or immaterial, young lady may believe it is for her.'
or no, that I was yesterday; for as to this • The humble Petition of John-a-Nokes and point of being the same self, it matters not John-a-Styles,
whether this present self be made up of the
same or other substances.' •SHOWETH,- That your petitioners have I was mightily pleased with a story in causes depending in Westminster-hall above some measure applicable to this piece of five hundred years, and that we despair of philosophy, which I read the other day in ever seeing them brought to an issue: that the Persian Tales, as they are lately very your petitioners have not been involved in well translated by Mr. Philips; and with an these law-suits out of any litigious temper abridgement whereof I shall here present of their own, but by the instigation of con- my readers. tentious persons; that the young lawyers in I shall only premise that these stories are our inns of court are continually setting us writ after the eastern manner, but sometogether by the ears, and think they do us what more correct. no hurt, because they plead for us without ‘Fadlallah, a prince of great virtues, suca fee; that many of the gentlemen of the ceeded his father Bin Ortoc in the kingdom robe have no other clients in the world be- of Mousel. He reigned over his faithful sides us two; that when they have nothing subjects for some time, and lived in great else to do, they make us plaintiffs and de- happiness with his beauteous consort queen fendants, though they were never retained Zemroude, when there appeared at his by any of us: that they traduce, condemn, court a young dervis of so lively and enteror acquit us, without any manner of regard taining a turn of wit, as won upon the affecto our reputations and good names in the tions of every one he conversed with. His world. Your petitioners therefore, being reputation grew so fast every day, that it thereunto encouraged by the favourable at last raised a curiosity in the prince himreception which you lately gave to our self to see and talk with him. “He did so; kinsman Blank, do humbly pray, that you and, far from finding that common fame will put an end to the controversies which had flattered him, he was soon convinced have been so long depending between us that every thing he had heard of him fell your said petitioners, and that our enmity short of the truth. may not endure from generation to genera • Fadlallah immediately lost all manner tion; it being our resolution to live hereafter of relish for the conversation of other men; as it becometh men of peaceable disposi- and, as he was every day more and more tions.
satisfied of the abilities of this stranger, And your petitioners, as in duty bound, offered him the first posts in his kingdom. shall ever pray, &c.'
The young dervis, after having thanked him with a very singular modesty, desired
to be excused, as having made a vow never No. 578.] Monday, August 9, 1714.
to accept of any employment, and prefer
ring a free and independent state of life to -Eque feris humana in corpora transit,
all other conditions. Inque feras noster.
• The king was infinitely charmed with Ovid, Met. Lib. xv. 167.
so great an example of moderation; and - Th' unbodied spirit flies
though he could not get him to engage in a And lodges where it lights in man or beast. life of business, made him however his
chief companion and first favourite. THERE has been very great reason, on
*As they were one day hunting together, several accounts, for the learned world to and happened to be separated from the rest endeavour at settling what it was that might of the company, the dervis entertained be said to compose personal identity. Fadlallah with an account of his travels and
Mr. Locke, after having premised that I adventures. After having related to him
several curiosities which he had seen in the that, instead of being pitied, he only moved Indies, “It was in this place," says he, the mirth of his princess, and of a young “that I contracted an acquaintance with female slave who was with her. He conan old brachman, who was skilled in the tinued however to serenade her every most hidden powers of nature: he died morning, until at last the queen, charmed within my arms, and with his parting with his harmony, sent for the birdbreath communicated to me one of the most catchers, and ordered them to employ valuable secrets, on condition I should never their utmost skill to put that little creature reveal it to any man.”. The king imme- in her possession. The king, pleased with diately, reflecting on his young favourite's an opportunity of being once more near having refused the late offers of greatness his beloved consort, easily suffered himhe had made him, told him he presumed it self to be taken: and when he was prewas the power of making gold. "No, sir," sented to her, though he showed a fearfulsays the dervis, “it is somewhat more ness to be touched by any of the other wonderful than that; it is the power of re- ladies, flew of his own accord, and hid animating a dead body, by flinging my own himself in the queen's bosom. Zemroude soul into it.”
was highly pleased at the unexpected While he was yet speaking, a doe came fondness of her new favourite, and ordered bounding by them, and the king who had him to be kept in an open cage in her own his bow ready, shot her through the heart; apartment. He had there an opportunity telling the dervis, that a fair opportunity of making his court to her every morning, now offered for him to show his art. The by a thousand little actions which his shape young man immediately left his own body allowed him. The queen passed away breathless on the ground, while at the same whole hours every day, in hearing and instant that of the doe was reanimated. She playing with him. Fadlallah could even came to the king, fawned upon him, and, have thought himself happy in this state after having played several wanton tricks, of life, had he not frequently endured the fell again upon the grass; at the same in- inexpressible torment of seeing the dervis stant the body of the dervis recovered its enter the apartment and caress his queen life. The king was infinitely pleased at so even in his presence. uncommon an operation, and conjured his • The usurper, amidst his toying with friend by everything that was sacred to his princess, would often endeavour to incommunicate it to him. The dervis at first gratiate himself with her nightingale; and made some scruple of violating his promise while the enraged Fadlallah pecked at him to the dying brachman; but told him at last with his bill, beat his wings, and showed that he found he could conceal nothing from all the marks of an impotent rage, it only so excellent a prince; after having obliged afforded his rival and the queen new mathim therefore by an oath to secrecy, he ter for their diversion. taught him to repeat two cabalistic words, Zemroude was likewise fond of a little in pronouncing of which the whole secret lap-dog which she kept in her apartment, consisted. The king, impatient to try the and which one night happened to die. experiment, immediately repeated them as • The king immediately found himself he had been taught, and in an instant found inclined to quit the shape of the nightinhimself in the body of the doe. He had but gale, and enliven his new body. He did a little time to contemplate himself in this so, and the next morning Zemroude saw new being; for the treacherous dervis, her favourite bird lie dead in the cage. It shooting his own soul into the royal corpse, is impossible to express her grief on this and bending the princes own bow against occasion: and when she called to mind all him, had laid him dead on the spot, had its little actions, which even appeared to not the king, who perceived his intent, filed have somewhat in them like reason, she swiftly to the woods.
was inconsolable for her loss. • The dervis, now triumphing in his • Her women immediately sent for the villany, returned to Mousel, and filled the dervis to come and comfort her, who after throne and bed of the unhappy Fadlallah. having in vain represented to her the
*The first thing he took care of, in order weakness of being grieved at such an accito secure himself in the possession of his dent, touched at last by her repeated comnew acquired kingdom, was to issue out plaints, “Well, madam,” says he, “I will a proclamation, ordering his subjects to exert the utmost of my art to please you. destroy all the deer in the realm. The Your nightingale shall again revive every king had perished among the rest had he morning, and serenade you as before.' not avoided his pursuers by reanimating The queen beheld him with a look which the body of a nightingale which he saw lie easily showed she did not believe him; dead at the foot of a tree. In this new when, laying himself down on a sofa, he shape he winged his way in safety to the shot his soul into the nightingale, and palace; where, perching on a tree which Zemroude was amazed to see her bird stood near the queen's apartment, he filled revive. the whole place with so many melodious •The king, who was a spectator of all and melancholy notes as drew her to the that passed, lying under the shape of a lapwindow. He had the mortification to see dog in one corner of the room, immedi
ately recovered his own body, and running into my hands, and which pretends to to the cage with the utmost indignation, great antiquity; though by reason of some twisted off the neck of the false nightingale, modern phrases, and other particulars in
“Zemroude was more than ever amazed it, I can by no means allow it to be genuine, and concerned at this second accident, until but rather the production of a modern the king, entreating her to hear him, re- sophist. lated to her his whole adventure.
It is well known by the learned, that •The body of the dervis, which was there was a temple upon Mount Ætna found dead in the wood, and his edict for dedicated to Vulcan, which was guarded killing all the deer, left her no room to by dogs of so exquisite a smell, say the hisdoubt of the truth of it: but the story adds, torians, that they could discern whether that out of an extreme delicacy, peculiar the persons who came thither were chaste to the oriental ladies, she was so highly or otherwise. They used to meet and afflicted at the innocent adultery in which fawn upon such who were chaste, caressshe had for some time lived with the dervis, ing them as the friends of their master that no arguments, even from Fadlallah Vulcan; but few at those who were polhimself, could compose her mind. She luted, and never ceased barking at them till shortly after died with grief, begging his they had driven them from the temple. pardon with her last breath for what the My manuscript gives the following acmost rigid justice could not have inter- count of these dogs, and was probably preted as a crime.
designed as a comment upon this story. ; •The king was so afflicted with her These dogs were given to Vulcán by death, that he left his kingdom to one of his sister Diana, the goddess of hunting his nearest relations, and passed the rest and of chastity, having bred them out of of his days in solitude and retirement.' some of her hounds, in which she had ob
served this natural instinct and sagacity.
It was thought she did it in spite of Venus, No. 579.] Wednesday, August 11, 1714.
who, upon her return home, always found
her husband in a good or bad humour, -Odora canum vis.–Virg. Æn. iv. 132.
according to the reception which she met
with from his dogs. They lived in the Sagacious hounds.
temple several years, but were such snapIn the reign of king Charles the First, pish curs, that they frighted away, most of the company of stationers, into whose the votaries. The women of Sicily made hands the printing of the bible is commit- a solemn deputation to the priest, by which ted by patent, made a very remarkable they acquainted him, that they would not erratum or blunder in one of the editions: come up to the temple with their annual for instead of “Thou shalt not commit offerings unless he muzzled his mastiffs; adultery,' they printed off several thou- and at last compromised the matter with sands of copies with «Thou shalt commit him, that the offering should always be adultery: Archbishop Laud, to punish brought by a chorus of young girls, who this their negligence, laid a considerable were none of them above seven years old. fine upon that company in the star-cham- It was wonderful, says the author, to see ber.
how different the treatment was which the By the practice of the world, which pre dogs gave to these little misses, from that vails in this degenerate age, I am afraid which they had shown to their mothers. that very many young profligates of both It is said that the prince of Syracuse, havsexes are possessed of this spurious edition ing married a young lady, and being natuof the bible, and observe the command-rally of a jealous temper, made such an ment according to that faulty reading: interest with the priests of this temple,
Adulterers, in the first ages of the that he procured a whelp from them of church, were excommunicated for ever, this famous breed. The young puppy was and unqualified all their lives for bearing very troublesome to the fair lady at first, a part in Christian assemblies, notwith- insomuch that she solicited her husband to standing they might seek it with tears, and send him away; but the good man cut her all the appearances of the most unfeigned short with the old Sicilian proverb, “Love repentance.
me, love my dog;" from which time she I might here mention some ancient laws lived very peaceably with both of them. among the heathens, which punished this The ladies of Syracuse were very much crime with death: and others of the same annoyed with him, and several of very kind, which are now in force among seve- good reputation refused to come to court ral governments that have embraced the until he was discarded. There were inreformed religion. But, because a subject deed some of them that defied his sagacity; of this nature may be too serious for my but it was observed, though he did not ordinary readers, who are very apt to actually bite them, he would growl at them throw by my papers when they are not most confoundedly. To return to the dogs enlivened with something that is diverting of the temple: after they had lived here in or uncommon, I shall here publish the great repute for several years, it so hapcontents of a little manuscript lately fallen | pened, that as one of the priests, who had