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to the men of taste and leisure, and never have one manifest advantage over that reoffensive to those of hurry and business. nowned society, with respect to Mr. SpecYou are never heard but at what Horace tator's company. For though they may calls dextro tempore, and have the happi- brag that you sometimes make your perness to observe the politic rule, which the sonal appearance amongst them, it is same discerning author gave his friend impossible they should ever get a word when he enjoined him to deliver his book from you, whereas you are with us the to Augustus:

reverse of what Phædria would have his

mistress be in his rival's company, “pre"Si validus, si lætus erit, si denique poscet.".

Ep. xiii. Lib. 1. 3. sent in your absence.” We make you -When vexing cares are fled,

talk as much and as long as we please; When well, when merry, when he asks to read." and, let me tell you, you seldom hold your


tongue for the whole evening. I promise You never begin to talk but when people myself you will look with an eye of favour are desirous to hear you; and I defy any upon a meeting which owes its original to one to be out of humour until you leave a mutual emulation among its members, off. But I am led unawares into reflections who shall show the most profound respect foreign to the original design of this epistle; for your paper; not but we have a very which was to let you know, that some great value for your person: and I dare say unfeigned admirers of your inimitable you can no where find four more sincere papers, who could without any flattery, admirers, and humble servants, than greet you with the salutation used to the

"T, F, G, S. J. T. E, T.' eastern monarchs, viz. “O Spec, live for ever," have lately been under the same apprehensions with Mr. Philo-Spec; that No. 554.] Friday, December 5, 1712. the haste you have made to despatch your best friends, portends no long duration to

-Tentanda via est, qua me quoque possim

Tollere humo, victorque virum volitare per ora. your own short visage. We could not,

Virg. Georg. iii. 9. indeed, find any just grounds for complaint in the method you took to dissolve that

New ways I must attempt my grovelling name

To raise aloft, and wing my fight to fame.-Dryder. venerable body: no, the world was not worthy of your Divine. Will Honeycomb I am obliged for the following essay, as could not, with any reputation, live single well as for that which lays down rules out any longer. It was high time for the of Tully for pronunciation and action, to Templar to turn himself to Coke; and Sir the ingenious author of a poem just pubRoger's dying was the wisest thing he ever lished, entitled, An Ode to the Creator of did in his life. It was, however, matter of the World, occasioned by the Fragments great grief to us, to think that we were in of Orpheus. danger of losing so elegant and valuable an • It is a remark made, as I remember, entertainment. And we could not, with- by a celebrated French author, that no out sorrow, reflect that we were likely to man ever pushed his capacity as far as it have nothing to interrupt our sips in the was able to extend. I shall not inquire morning, and to suspend our coffee in mid whether this assertion be strictly true. It air, between our lips and right ear, but may suffice to say, that men of the greatest the ordinary trash of newspapers. We application and acquirements can look resolved, therefore, not to part with you back upon many vacant spaces, and neg:

But since, to make use of your own lected parts of time, which have slipped allusion, the cherries began now to crowd away from them unemployed; and there is the market, and their season was almost hardly any one considering person in the over, we consulted our future enjoyments, world but is apt to fancy with himself, at and endeavoured to make the exquisite some time or other, that if his life were to pleasure that delicious fruit gave our taste begin again he could fill it up, better. as lasting as we could, and by drying them The mind is most provoked to cast on protract their stay beyond its natural date. itself this ingenuous reproach, when the We own that thus they have not a flavour examples of such men are presented to it equal to that of their juicy bloom; but yet, as have far outshot the generality of their under this disadvantage, they pique the species in learning, arts, or any valuable palate, and become a salver better than improvements. any other fruit at its first appearance. To *One of the most extensive and improved speak plain, there are a number of us who geniuses we have had any instance of in our have begun your works afresh, and meet own nation, or in any other, was that of Sir two nights in the week in order to give Francis Bacon, lord Verulam. This great you a re-hearing. We never come together man, by an extraordinary force of nature, without drinking your health, and as sel- compass of thought, and indefatigable study dom part without general expressions of had amassed to himself such stores of thanks to you for our night's improvement knowledge as we cannot look upon without This we conceive to be a more useful insti- amazement. His capacity seemed to have tution than any other club whatever, not grasped all that was revealed in books be excepting even that of Ugly Faces. We fore his time; and, not satisfied with that,

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he began to strike out new tracts of science, i tion of body. The instances of his strength too many to be travelled over by any one man are almost incredible. He is described to in the compass of the longest life. These, have been a well-formed person, and a therefore, he could only mark down, like master of all genteel exercises. And lastly, im perfect coastings on maps, or supposed we are told that his moral qualities were points of land to be farther discovered and agreeable to his natural and intellectual ascertained by the industry of after ages, endowments, and that he was of an honest who should proceed upon his notices or and generous mind, adorned with great conjectures.

sweetness of manners. I might break off The excellent Mr. Boyle was the per- the account of him here, but I imagine it son who seems to have been designed by will be an entertainment to the curiosity of nature to succeed to the labours and in- my readers, to find so remarkable a chaquiries of that extraordinary genius I have racter distinguished by as remarkable a just mentioned. By innumerable experi- circumstance at his death. The fame of ments, he in a great measure filled up his works having gained him an universal those plans and outlines of science which esteem, he was invited to the court of his predecessor had sketched out. His life France, where, after some time, he fell was spent in the pursuit of nature through sick; and Francis the First coming to see a great variety of forms and changes, and him, he raised himself in his bed to acin the most rational as well as devout ado- knowledge the honour which was done him ration of its divine Author.

by that visit. The king embraced him, • It would be impossible to name many and Leonardo, fainting in the same mopersons who have extended their capa- ment, expired in the arms of that great cities as far as these two, in the studies they monarch. pursued; but my learned readers on this • It is impossible to attend to such inoccasion will naturally turn their thoughts stances as these without being raised into a to a third," who is yet living, and is like contemplation on the wonderful nature of a wise the glory of our own nation. The human mind, which is capable of such proimprovements which others had made in gressions in knowledge, and can contain natural and mathematical knowledge have such a variety of ideas without perplexity so vastly increased in his hands, as to afford or confusion. How reasonable is it from at once a wonderful instance how great the hence to infer its divine original! And whilst capacity is of a human soul, and inexhaus- we find unthinking matter endued with a tible the subject of its inquiries; so true is natural power to last for ever, unless annithat remark in holy writ, that " though a hilated by Omnipotence, how absurd would wise man seek to find out the works of God it be to imagine that a being so much supefrom the beginning to the end, yet shall he rior to it should not have the same privilege! not be able to do it."

• At the same time it is very surprising, • I cannot help mentioning here one cha- when we remove our thoughts from such racter more of a different kind indeed from instances as I have mentioned, to consider these, yet such a one as may serve to those we so frequently meet with in the show the wonderful force of nature and of accounts of barbarous nations among the application, and is the most singular instance Indians; where we find numbers of people of an universal genius have ever met who scarce show the first glimmerings of with. The person I mean is Leonardo da reason, and seem to have few ideas above Vinci, an Italian painter, descended from those of sense and appetite. These, mea noble family in 'Tuscany, about the be-thinks, appear like large wilds, or vast unginning of the sixteenth century. In his cultivated tracts of human nature; and, profession of history-painting he was so when we compare them with men of the great a master, that some have affirmed most exalted characters in arts and learnhe excelled all who went before him. It is ing, we find it difficult to believe that they certain that he raised the envy of Michael are creatures of the same species. Angelo, who was his contemporary, and "Some are of opinion that the souls of that from the study of his works Raphael men are all naturally equal, and that the himself learned his best manner of design- great disparity we so often observe, arises ing. He was a master too in sculpture and from the different organization or structure architecture, and skilful in anatomy, ma- of the bodies to which they are united. But, thematics, and mechanics. The aqueduct whatever constitutes this first disparity, the from the river Adda to Milan is mentioned next great difference which we find beas a work of his contrivance. He had tween men in their several acquirements learned several languages, and was ac- is owing to accidental differences in their quainted with the studies of history, philo- education, fortunes, or course of life. The sophy, poetry, and music. Though it is soul is a kind of rough diamond, which renot necessary to my present purpose, Iquires art, labour, and time to polish it. cannot but take notice, that all who have For want of which many a good-natured writ of him mention likewise his perfec-genius lost, or lies unfashioned, like a

jewel in the mine. Sir Isaac Newton

‘One of the strongest incitements to excel † He was born in 1445, and died in 1520. in such arts and accomplishments as are in

the highest esteem among men, is the natu- | take my leave, I am under much greater ral passion which the mind of man has for anxiety than I have known for the work of glory; which though it may be faulty in the any day since I undertook this province. It excess of it, ought by no means to be dis- is much more difficult to converse with the couraged. Perhaps some moralists are too world in a real than a personated character. severe in beating down this principle, which That might pass for humour in the Spectaseems to be a spring implanted by nature tor, which would look like arrogance in a to give motion to all the latent powers of writer who sets his name to his work. The the soul, and is always observed to exert fictitious person might condemn those who itself with the greatest force in the most disapproved him, and extol his own pergenerous dispositions. The men whose cha- formances without giving offence. He might racters have shown the brightest among assume a mock authority, withcut being the ancient Romans, appear to have been looked upon as vain and conceited. The strongly animated by this passion. Cicero, praises or censures of himself fall only upon whose learning and services to his country the creature of his imagination; and, if any are so well known, was inflamed by it to an one finds fault with him, the author may extravagant degree, and warmly presses reply with the philosopher of old, Thou Lucceius, who was composing a history of dost' but beat the case of Anaxarchus.' those times, to be very particular and zeal- When I speak in my own private sentious in relating the story of his consulship; ments, I cannot but address myself to my and to execute it speedily, that he might readers in a more submissive manner, and have the pleasure of enjoying in his life with a just gratitude for the kind reception time some part of the honour which he which they have given to these daily papers, foresaw would be paid to his memory. which have been published for almost the This was the ambition of a great mind; but space of two years last past. he is faulty in the degree of it, and cannot I hope the apology I have made, as to refrain from soliciting the historian upon the license allowable to a feigned character, this occasion to neglect the strict laws of may excuse any thing which has been said history; and, in praising him, even to ex- in these discourses of the Spectator and his ceed the bounds of truth. The younger works; but the imputation of the grossest Pliny appears to have had the same passion vanity would still dwell upon me, if I did for fame, but accompanied with greater not give some account by what means I was chasteness and modesty. His ingenious enabled to keep up the spirit of so long and manner of owning it to a friend, who had approved a performance. All the papers prompted him to undertake some great marked with a C, an L, an I, or an O, that work, is exquisitely beautiful, and raises is to say, all the papers which I have dishim to a certain grandeur above the im- tinguished by any letter in the name of the putation of vanity. “I must confess,” says muse Clio, were given me by the gentlehe, “that nothing employs my thoughts man of whose assistance I formerly boasted more than the desire I have of perpetuating in the preface and concluding leaf of my my name; whichi in my opinion is a design Tatlers. I am indeed much more proud of worthy of a man, at least of such a one, his long continued friendship, than I should who, being conscious of no guilt, is not be of the fame of being thought the auther afraid to be remembered by posterity.” of any writings which he himself is capable

• I think I ought not to conclude without of producing. I remember, when I finished interesting all my readers in the subject of The Tender Husband, I told him there was this discourse: I shall therefore lay it down nothing I so ardently wished, as that we as a maxim, that though all are not capable might some time or other publish a work, of shining in learning or the politer arts, written by us both, which should bear the yet every one is capable of excelling in name of The Monument, in memory of our something. The soul has in this respect a friendship. I heartily wish what I have certain vegetative power which cannot lie done here was as honorary to that sacred wholly idle. If it is not laid out and culti- name, as learning, wit, and humanity, renvated into a regular and beautiful garden, der those pieces which I have taught the it will of itself shoot up in weeds or flowers reader how to distinguish for his. When of a wilder growth.'

the play above-mentioned was last acted, there were so many applauded strokes in it which I had from the same hand, that I

thought very meanly of myself that I have No. 555.] Saturday, December 6, 1712.

never publicly acknowledged them. After

I have put other friends upon importuning Resque quod non es

him to publish dramatic as well as other

writings he has by him, I shall end what I Lay the fictitious character aside.

think I am obliged to say on this head, by All the members of the imaginary so- giving my reader this hint for the better ciety, which were described in my first judging of my productions, that the best papers, having disappeared one after an- comment upon them would be an account other, it is high time for the Spectator him- when the patron to The Tender Husband self to go off the stage. But now I am to I was in England or abroad.

Pers. Sat. iv. 51.

The reader will also find some papers / The following letter regards an ingenious which are marked with the letter X, for set of gentlemen, who have done me the which he is obliged to the ingenicus gentle-honour to make me one of their society. man who diverted the town with the epilogue to The Distressed Mother. I might

• Dec. 4, 1712. have owned these several papers with the •Mr. SPECTATOR,—The academy of free consent of these gentlemen, who did | painting, lately established in London, not write them with a design of being known having done you and themselves the honour for the authors. But, as a candid and sin- to choose you one of their directors; that cere behaviour ought to be preferred to all noble and lively art, which before was enother considerations, I would not let my titled to your regard as a Spectator, has an heart reproach me with a consciousness of additional claim to you, and you seem to be having acquired a praise which is not my under a double obligation to take some care right.

of her interests. The other assistances which I have had • The honour of our country is also conhave been conveyed by letter, sometimes cerned in the matter I am going to lay beby whole papers, and other times by short fore you. We (and perhaps other nations hints from unknown hands. I have not been as well as we) have a national false huable to trace favours (f this kind with any manity as well as a national vain glory; certainty, but to the following names, which and, though we boast ourselves to excel ali I place in the order wherein I received the the world in things wherein we are outdone obligation, though the first I am going to abroad, in other things we attribute to name can hardly be mentioned in a list others a superiority which we ourselves wherein he would not deserve the prece- possess. This is what is done, particularly dence. The persons to whom I am to make in the art of portrait or face-painting. these acknowledgments are, Mr. Henry • Painting is an art of a vast extent, too Martyn, Mr. Pope, Mr. Hughes, Mr. Carey great by much for any mortal man to be in of New-college in Oxford, Mr. Tickell of full possession of in all its parts; it is Queen's in the same university, Mr. Par- enough if any one succeed in painting faces, nelle, and Mr. Eusden, of Trinity in Cam- history, battles, landscapes, sea-pieces, bridge. Thus, to speak in the language of iniit, flowers, or drolls, &c. Nay, no man my late friend, Sir Andrew Freeport, I ever was excellent in all the branches have balanced my accounts with all my though many in number,) of these several creditors for wit and learning. But as these arts, for a distinct art i take upon me to excellent performances would not have seen call every one of those several kinds of the light without the means of this paper, painting. I may still arrogate to myself the merit of • And as one man may be a good landtheir being communicated to the public. scape painter, but unable to paint a face or

I have nothing more to add, but, having a history tolerably well, and so of the rest; swelled this work to five hundred and fifty- one nation may excel in some kinds of five papers, they will be disposed into seven painting, and other kinds may thrive better volumes, four of which are already publish- in other climates. ed, and the three others in the press. It Italy may have the preference of all will not be demanded of me why I now other nations for history painting; Holland leave off, though I must own myself obliged for drolls and a neat finished manner of to give an account to the town of my time working; France for gay, jaunty, fluttering hereafter; since I retire when their par- pictures; and England for portraits; but to tiality to me is so great, that an edition of give the honour of every one of these kinds the former volumes of Spectators, of above of painting to any one of those nations on nine thousand each book, is already sold account of their excellence in any of these off, and the tax on cach half-sheet has parts of it, is like adjudging the prize of brought into the stamp-office, one week heroic, dramatic, lyric, or burlesque poetry with another, above 201. a weck, arising to him who has done well in any one of from the single paper, not withstanding it them. at first reduced it to less than half the num • Where there are the greatest geniuses, ber that was usually printed before the tax and most helps and encouragements, it is was laid.

reasonable to suppose an art will arrive to I humbly beseech the continuance of this the greatest perfection: by this rule let us inclination to favour what I may hereafter consider our own country with respect to produce, and hope I have in my occur-face-painting. No nation in the world derences of life tasud so deeply of pain and lights so much in having their own, or sorrow, that I am proof against much more friends or relations' pictures; whether prosperous circumstances than any advan- from their national good-nature, or having tages to which my own industry can pos- a love to painting, and not being encousibly exalt me. I am, my good-natured raged in the great article of religious picreader, your most obedient, most obliged tures, which the purity of our worship humble servant,

refuses the free use of, or from whatever RICHARD STEELE. other cause. Our helps are not inferior to Vos valete et filaudite. Ter.

those of any other people, but rather they Vol. II.




are greater; for what the antique statues | No. 556.] Friday, June 18, 1714.
and bas-reliefs which Italy enjoys are to Qualis ubi in lucem coluber mala gramina pastus
the history-painters, the beautiful and no-

Frigida, sub terra tumidum quem bruma tegebat; ble faces with which England is confessed Nunc positis novus exuviis, nitidusque juventa,

Lubrica convolvit sublato pectore terga to abound, are to face-painters; and, be

Arduus ad solem, et linguis micat ore trisulcis. sides, we have the greatest number of the

Virg. Æn. ii. 471 works of the best masters in that kind of

So shines, renew'd in youth, the crested snake, any people, not without a competent num Who slept the winter in a thorny brake: ber of those of the most excellent in every And casting off his slough, when spring returns, other part of painting. And for encourage

Now looks aloft, and with new glory burns:

Restor'd with pois'nous herbs, his ardent sides ment, the wealth and generosity of the

Reflect the sun, and rais'd on spires he rides ; English nation affords that in such a degree High o'er the grass hissing he rolls along, as artists have no reason to complain.

And brandishes by fits his forky tongue.-Dryden. * And accordingly, in fact, face-painting Upon laying down the office of Spectator, is no where so well performed as in Eng- I acquainted the world with my design of land: I know not whether it has lain in electing a new club, and of opening my your way to observe it, but I have, and mouth in it after a most solemn manner. pretend to be a tolerable judge. I have Both the election and the ceremony are now seen what is done abroad; and can assure past; but not finding it so easy, as I at first you, that the honour of that branch of imagined, to break through a fifty years' painting is justly due to us. I appeal to the silence, I would not venture into the world judicious observers for the truth of what I under the character of a man who pre

If foreigners have oftentimes, or tends to talk like other people, until I had even for the most part excelled our natives, arrived at a full freedom of speech. it ought to be imputed to the advantages I shall reserve for another time the histhey have met with here, joined to their tory of such club or clubs of which I am own ingenuity and industry; nor has any now a talkative but unworthy member; one nation distinguished themselves so as to and shall here give an account of this surraise an argument in favour of their coun- prising change which has been produced try: but it is to be observed that neither in me, and which I look upon to be as reFrench nor Italians, nor any one of either markable an accident as any recorded in nation, notwithstanding all our prejudices history, since that which happened to the in their favour, have, or ever had, for any son of Creesus, after having been many considerable time, any character among us years as much tongue-tied as myself. as face-painters.

Upon the first opening of my mouth, I This honour is due to our own country, made a speech, consisting of ahout half a and has been so for near an age: so that, dozen well-turned periuds; but grew so instead of going to Italy, or elsewhere, one very hoarse upon it, that for three days tothat designs for portrait-painting ought to gether, instead of finding the use of my study in England. Hither such should tongue, I was afraid that I had quite lost it. come from Holland, France, Italy, Ger- Besides, the unusual extension of my musmany, &c. as he that intends to practise cles on this occasion made my face ache on any other kinds of painting should go to both sides to such a degree, that nothing those parts where it is in the greatest per- but an invincible resolution and perseverfection. It is said the blessed Virgin de- ance could have prevented me from falling scended from heaven to sit to St. Luke. back to my monosyllables. I dare venture to affirm that, if she should I afterwards made several essays towards desire another Madonna to be painted by speaking; and that I might not be startled the life, she would come to England; and at my own voice, which has happened to am of opinion that your present president, me more than once, I used to read aloud in Sir Godfrey Kneller, from his improve my chamber, and have often stood in the ment since he arrived in this kingdom, middle of the street to call a coach, when I would perform that office better than any knew there was none within hearing. foreigner living. I am, with all possible When I was thus grown pretty well acrespect, sir, your most humble and most quainted with my own voice, I laid hold of obedient servant, &c.'

all opportunities to exert it. Not caring * The ingenious letter signed the however to speak much by myself, and to Weather Glass, with several others, were draw upon me the

whole attention of those received, but came too late.

I conversed with, I used for some time to

walk every morning in the Mall, and talk POSTSCRIPT. It had not come to my knowledge, when in chorus with a parcel of Frenchmen. I I left off the Spectator, that I owe several found my modesty greatly relieved by the excellent sentiments and agreeable pieces communicative temper of this nation, who in this work to Mr. Ince, of Gray's-Inn. *

are so very sociable as to think they are R. STEELE.

never better company than when they are

all opening at the same time. * This paper concluded the seventh volume of the I then fancied I might receive great be- I Spectator, as originally published. The intermediate time was filled up by our authors in the production of nefit from female conversation, and that I

should have a convenience of talking with

the Guardian.

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