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No. 543.] Saturday, November 22, 1712. / miracle of the present age, can look through
a whole planetary system; consider it in -Faries non omnibus una,
its weight, number, and measure; and draw Nec diversa tamen Ovid, Met. Lib. ii. 12.
from it as many demonstrations of infinite Similar, though not the same. —
power and wisdom, as a more confined un
derstanding is able to deduce from the sysThose who were skilful in anatomy, tem of a human body. among the ancients, concluded, from the But to return to our speculations on anaoutward and inward make of a human tomy, I shall here consider the fabric and body, that it was the work of a Being texture of the bodies of animals in one partranscendently wise and powerful. As the ticular view: which in my opinion shows world grew more enlightened in this art, the hand of a thinking and all-wise Being their discoveries gave them fresh oppor- in their formation, with the evidence of a tunities of admiring the conduct of Provi- thousand demonstrations. I think we may dence in the formation of a human body. lay this down as an incontested principle, Galen was converted by his dissections, and that chance never acts in a perpetual unicould not but own a Supreme Being upon formity and consistence with itself. If one a survey of this handy-work. There were, should always fling the same number with indeed, many parts, of which the old ana- ten thousand dice, or see every throw just tomists did not know the certain use; but, five times less, or five times more in numas they say that most of those which they ber, than the throw which immediately examined were adapted with admirable preceded it, who would not imagine there art to their several functions, they did not is some invisible power which directs the question but those, whose uses they could cast? This is the proceeding which we not determine, were contrived with the find in the operations of nature. Every same wisdom for respective ends and pur- kind of animal is diversified by different poses. Since the circulation of the blood magnitudes, each of which gives rise to a has been found out, and many other great different species. Let a man trace the dog discoveries have been made by our modern or lion kind, and he will observe how many anatomists, we see new wonders in the of the works of nature are published, if I human frame, and discern several impor- may use the expression, in a variety of tant uses for those parts, which uses the editions. If we look into the reptile world, ancients knew nothing of. In short, the or into those different kinds of animals body of man is such a subject as stands the that fill the element of water, we meet utmost test of examination. Though it with the same repetition among several appears formed with the nicest wisdom, species, that differ very little from one upon the most superficial survey of it, it another, but in size and bulk. You find still mends upon the search, and produces the same creature that is drawn at large, our surprise and amazement in proportion copied out in several proportions and endas we pry into it. What I have here said ing in miniature. It would be tedious to of a human body may be applied to the produce instances of this regular conduct body of every animal which has been the in Providence, as it would be superfluous subject of anatomical observations,
to those who are versed in the natural The body of an animal is an object ade- history of animals. The magnificent harquate to our senses. It is a particular mony of the universe is such, that we may system of Providence that lies in a narrow observe innumerable divisions running upon compass. The eye is able to command it, the same ground. I might also extend this and by successive inquiries can search into speculation to the dead parts of nature, in all its parts. Could the body of the whole which we may find matter disposed into earth, or indeed the whole universe, be many similar systems, as well in our survey thus submitted to the examination of our of stars and planets as of stones, vegesenses, were it not too big and dispropor- tables, and other sublunary parts of the tioned for our inquiries, too unwieldy for creation. In a word, Providence has shown the management of the eye and hand, there the richness of its goodness and wisdom, is no question but it would appear to us as not only in the production of many original curious and well contrived a frame as that species, but in the multiplicity of descants of the human body. We should see the which it has made on every original species same concatenation and subserviency, the in particular. same necessity and usefulness, the same But to pursue this thought still farther. beauty and harmony, in all and every of its Every living creature, considered in itself, parts, as what we discover in the body of has many very complicated parts that are every single animal.
exact copies of some other parts which it The more extended our reason is, and possesses, and which are complicated in the more able to grapple with immense the same manner. One eye would have objects, the greater still are those discove- been sufficient for the subsistence and preries which it makes of wisdom and pro- servation of an animal; but, in order to vidence in the works of the creation. A better his condition, we see another placed Sir Isaac Newton, who stands up as the l with a mathematical exactness in the same
most advantageous situation, and in every | No. 544.] Monday, November 24, 1712. particular of the same size and texture. Is it possible for chance to be thus delicate Nunquam ita quisquam bene subducta ratione ad and uniform in her operation? Should a Quin res, ætas, usus, semper aliquid apportet novi, million of dice turn up together twice the Aliquid moneat: ut illa, quæ te scire credas, nescias ;
Et, quæ tibi putaris prima, in experiundo ut repudies. same number, the wonder would be nothing
T'er. Adelph. Act. v. Sc. 4. in comparison with this. But when we see this similitude and resemblance in the arm, duct of life, as not to receive new information from
No man was ever so completely skilled in the conthe hand, the fingers: when we see one age and experience: insomuch that we find ourselves half of the body entirely correspond with really ignorant of what we thought we understood,
to what we fancied our truest the other in all those minute strokes, with interest. out which a man might have very well subsisted; nay, when we often see a single
THERE are, I think, sentiments in the part repeated a hundred times in the same following letter from my friend captain body, notwithstanding it consists of the Sentry, which discover a rational and equal most intricate weaving of numberless fibres, frame of mind, as well prepared for an adand these parts differing still in magnitude, vantageous as an unfortunate change of as the convenience of their particular situa
condition. tion requires; sure a man must have a
Coverley-hall, Nov. 15, Worcestershire. strange cast of understanding, who does SIR, I am come to the succession of not discover the finger of God in so won the estate of my honoured kinsman, Sir derful a work. These duplicates in those Roger de Coverley; and I assure you I find parts of the body, without which man it no easy task to keep up the figure of might have very well subsisted, though master of the fortune which was so hand. not so well as with them, are a plain de- somely enjoyed by that honest plain man. monstration of an all-wise Contriver, as I cannot (with respect to the great obligathose more numerous copyings which are tions I have, be it spoken) reflect upon his found among the vessels of the same body, character, but I am confirmed in the truth are evident demonstrations that they could which I have, I think, heard spoken at the not be the work of chance. This argument club; to wit, that a man of a warm and wellreceives additional strength, if we apply it disposed heart, with a very small capacity, to every animal and insect within our is highly superior in human society to him knowledge, as well as to those numberless who, with the greatest talents, is cold and living creatures that are objects too minute languid in his affections. But alas! why do for a human eye; and if we consider how I make a difficulty in speaking of my worthy the several species in this whole world of ancestor's failings? His little absurdities life resemble one another in very many and incapacity for the conversation of the particulars, so far as is convenient for their politest men are dead with him, and his respective states of existence, it is much greater qualities are ever now useful to more probable that a hundred millions of him. I know not whether by naming those dice should be casually thrown a hundred disabilities I do not enhance his merit, since millions of times in the same number, than he has left behind him a reputation in his that the body of any single animal should country which would be worth the pains of be produced by the fortuitous concourse of the wisest man's whole life to arrive at. matter. And that the like chance should By the way, I must observe to you, that arise in innumerable instances requires a many of your readers have mistook that degree of credulity that is not under the passage in your writings, wherein Sir Roger direction of common sense. We may carry is reported to have inquired into the private this consideration yet farther, if we reflect character of the young woman at the tavern. on the two sexes in every living species, I know you mentioned that circumstance as with their resemblance to each other, and an instance of the simplicity and innocence those particular distinctions that were ne- of his mind, which made him imagine it a cessary for the keeping up of this great very easy thing to reclaim one of those world of life.
criminals, and not as an inclination in him There are many more demonstrations of to be guilty with her. The less discerning a Supreme Being, and of his transcendent of your readers cannot enter into that deliwisdom, power, and goodness, in the forma-cacy of description in the character: but tion of the body of a living creature, for indeed my chief business at this time is to which I refer my reader to other writ-represent to you my present state of mind, ings, particularly to the sixth book of the and the satisfaction I promise to myself in poem entitled Creation,* wher the ana- the possession of my new fortune. I have tomy of the human body is described with continued all Sir Roger's servants, except great perspicuity and elegance. I have such as it was a relief to dismiss into little been particular on the thought which runs beings within my manor. Those who are through this speculation, because I have in a list of the good knight's own hand to be not seen it enlarged upon by others. O. taken care of by me, I have quartered upon
such as have taken new leases of me, and
added so many advantages during the lives * Creation. A poem by Sir Richard Blackmore. of the persons so quartered, that it is the
interest of those whom they are joined with, I this worth, we could never have seen the to cherish and befriend them upon all occa- glorious events which we have in our days. sions. I find a considerable sum of ready I need not sav more to illustrate the cha. money, which I am laying out among my racter of a soldier than to tell you he is the dependants at the common interest, but very contrary to him you observe loud, with a design to lend it according to their saucy, and overbearing, in a red coat about merit, rather than according to their ability. town. But I was going to tell you that, in I shall lay a tax upon such as I have highly honour of the profession of arms, I have set obliged, to become security to me for such apart a certain sum of money for a table for of their own poor youth, whether male or such gentlemen as have served their counfemale, as want help towards getting into try in the army, and will please from time some being in the world. I hope I shall be to time to sojourn all, or any part of the able to manage my affairs so as to improve year, at Coverley. Such of them as will do my fortune every year by doing acts of me that honour shall find horses, servants, kindness. I will lend my money to the use and all things necessary for their accomof none but indigent men, secured by such modation and enjoyment of all the conveas have ceased to be indigent by the favour biences of life in a pleasant various country. of my family or myself. What makes this If colonel Camperfelt* be in town, and his the more practicable is, that if they will do abilities are not employed another way in any good with my money, they are welcome the service, there is no man would be more to it upon their own security: and I make welcome here. That gentleman's thorough no exceptions against it, because the per- knowledge in his profession, together with sons who enter into the obligations do it for the simplicity of his manners and goodness their own family. I have laid out four thou- of his heart, would induce others like him sand pounds this way, and it is not to be to honour my abode; and I should be glad imagined what a crowd of people are obliged my acquaintance would take themselves to by it. In cases where Sir Roger has recom- be invited, or not, as their characters have mended, I have lent money to put out chil- an affinity to his. dren, with a clause which makes void the “I would have all my friends know that obligation in case the infant dies before he they need not fear (though I am become a is out of his apprenticeship; by which country gentleman) I will trespass against means the kindred and masters are ex- their temperance and sobriety: No sir, I tremely careful of breeding him to industry, shall retain so much of the good sentiments that he may re-pay it himself by his labour, for the conduct of life, which we cultivated in three years journey-work after his time in each other at our club, as to contemn all is out, for the use of his securities. Op-inordinate pleasures; but particularly reportunities of this kind are all that have member, with our beloved Tully, that the occurred since I came to my estate: but I delight in food consists in desire, not satiety. assure you I will preserve a constant dis- They who most passionately pursue pleaposition to catch at all the occasions I can sure, seldomest arrive at it. Now I am to promote the good and happiness of my writing to a philosopher, I cannot forbear neighbourhood.
mentioning the satisfaction I took in the • But give me leave to lay before you a passage I read yesterday in the same Tully. little establishment which has grown out A nobleman of Athens made a compliment of my past life, that I doubt not will ad-to Plato the morning after he had supped minister great satisfaction to me in that at his house. “ Your entertainments do not part of it, whatever that is, which is to only please when you give them, but also come.
the day after.” I am, my worthy friend, •There is a prejudice in favour of the your most obedient humble servant, way of life to which a man has been edu T.
•WILLIAM SENTRY.' cated, which I know not whether it would not be faulty to overcome. It is like a partiality to the interest of one's own.country No. 545.] Tuesday, November 25, 1712. before that of any other nation. It is from á habit of thinking, grown upon me from Quin potius pacem æternam pactosque hymenæos my youth spent in arms, that I have ever
Virg. Æn. iy. 99. held gentlemen, who have preserved mo Let us in bonds of lasting peace unite, desty, good-nature, justice, and humanity, And celebrate the hymeneal rite. in a soldier's life, to be the most valuable
I CANNOT but think the following letter and worthy persons of the human race. To from the emperor of China to the pope of pass through imminent dangers, suffer pain- Rome, proposing a coalition of the Chinese ful watchings, frightful alarms, and labori- and Roman churches, will be acceptable to ous marches, for the greater part of a man's the curious. I must confess, I myself being time, and pass the rest in sobriety conform of opinion that the emperor has as much able to the rules of the most virtuous civil authority to be interpreter to him he prelife, is a merit too great to deserve the treatment it usually meets with among the other parts of the world. But I assure you, the admiral, who was drowned in the Royal George at
* A fine compliment in colonel Kempenfelt, father of sir, were there nat very many who have l epithead, August 29, 1722. VOL. II,
tends to expound, as the pope has to be a regni d'Europa al nostro dominante imvicar of the sacred person he takes upon perio, e si abbracciramo le vostri leggi him to represent, I was not a little pleased come l'edera abbraccia la pianta; e no with their treaty of alliance. What pro- medesemi spargeremo del nostro seme gress the negotiation between his majesty reale in coteste province, riscaldando i letti of Rome and his holiness of China makes, di vostri principj con il fuoco amoroso delle (as we daily writers say upon subjects nostre amazoni, d'alcune delle quali i nostri where we are at a loss,) time will let us mandatici ambasciadori vi porteranno le know. In the mean time, since they agree somiglianze dipinte. in the fundamentals of power and authority, Vi confirmiamo di tenere in pace le due and differ only in matters of faith, we may buone religiose famiglie delli missionarji
, expect the matter will go on without dif- gli figlioli d'Ignazio, e li bianchi e neri ficulty.
figlioli di Dominico, il cui consiglio degi Copia di lettera dal rè della Cina al Papa; regimento e di lame ad interpretare le
uni e degl' altri ci serve di scorta nel nostro interpretata dal padre segretario dell' | divine legge, come appunto fa lume l'oglio India della compagna di Giesù.
che si getta in mare. A voi benedetto sopra i benedetti P. P. ed
• In tanto alzandoci dal nostro trono per imperadore grande de pontifici e pastore abbracciarvi, vi dichiariamo, nostro conXmo, dispensatore del oglio dei rè ďgiunto e confederato, ed ordiniamo che Europa Clemente XI.
questo foglio sia segnato col nostro segno
imperiale della nostra città, capo del mondo, • Il favorito amico di Dio, Gionata 70, il quinto giorno della terza lunatione, l'anno potentissimo sopra tutti i potentissimi della quarto del nostro imperio. terra, altissimo sopra tutti gl'altissimi sotto • Il sigillo è un sole nella cui faccia è anche il sole e la luna, che siede nella sede di quella della luna, ed intorno tra i raggi, vi smeraldo della Cina sopra cento scalini sono traposte alcune spada. d'oro, ad interpretare la lingua di Dio a • Dico il traduttore che secondo il ceremotutti i descendenti fedeli d'Abramo, che da nial di questa lettera e recedentissimo la vita e la morte a cento quindici regni, ed specialmente fossero scritta con la penna a cento settante isole, scrive con la penna dello struzzo-vergine con la quella non dello struzzo vergine, e manda salute ed soglionsi scrivere quei rè che le preghiere accrescimento di vecchiezza.
a Dio, e scrivendo a qualche altro principe • Essendo arrivato il tempo in cui il fiore del mondo, la maggior finezza che usino, è della reale nostro gioventù deve maturare i scrivergli con la penna del pavone, frutti della nostra vecchiezza, e confortare con quell'i desiderj de' popoli nostri divoti, A letter from the emperor of China to the e propagare il seme di quella pianta che Pope, interpreted by a father Jesuit, deve proteggerli, abbiamo stabilito d'ac secretary of the Indies. compagnarci con una vergine eccelsa ed amorosa allattata alla mammella della leon-1To you, blessed above the blessed, great essa forte e dell' agnella mansueta. Perciò
emperor of bishops and pastor of Chrisessendoci stato figurato sempre il vostro
tians, dispenser of the oil of the kings of popolo Europeo Romano per paese di donne
Europe, Clement XI. invitte, e forte, e caste; allongiamo la nostra •The favourite friend of God, Gionotta mano potente, a stringere una di loro, e the VIIth, most powerful above the most questa sarà una vostra nipote, o nipote di powerful of the earth, highest above the qualche altro gran sacerdote Latino, che highest under the sun and moon, who sits sia guardata dall'occhio dritto di Dio, sarà on a throne of emerald of China, above 100 seminata in lei l'autorità di Sarra, la fedeltà steps of gold, to interpret the language of d'Esther, e la sapienza di Abba; la vogliamo God to the faithful, and who gives life and con l'occhio che guarda il cielo, e la terra, death to 115 kingdoms, and 170 islands; he e con la bocca della conchiglia che si pasce writes with the quill of a virgin ostrich, and della ruggiada del matino. La sua età non sends health and increase of old age. passi ducento corsi della luna, la sua statura • Being arrived at the time of our age, in si alta quanto la spicca dritta del grano which the flower of our royal youth ought verde, e la sua grossezza quanto un mani- to ripen into fruit towards old age, to compolo di grano secco. Noi la mandaremmo a fort therewith the desires of our devoted vestire per li nostri mandatici ambasciadori, people, and to propagate the seed of that e chi la conduranno a noi, e noi la incon- plant which must protect them; we have traremmo alla riva del fiume grande facen- determined to accompany ourselves with a dola salire sul nostro cocchio. Ella potrà high amorous virgin, suckled at the breast adorare appresso di noi il suo Dio, con of a wild lioness, and a meek lamb, and, ventiquattro altre a suo elezzione e potrà imagining with ourselves that your Eur cantare con loro, come la tottora alla pean Roman people is the father of unconprimavera.
querable and chaste ladies, we stretch out Soddisfando noi, padre e amico nostro, our powerful arm to embrace one of them, questa nostra brama, sarete caggione di and she shall be one of your nieces, or the unire in perpetua amicizia cotesti vostri niece of some other great Latin priest, the
darling of God's right eye. Let the autho- and her retinue, in advancing the interests rity of Sarah be sown in her, the fidelity of of the Roman-catholic religion in those Esther, and the wisdom of Abba. We would kingdoms. have her eye like that of a dove, which may look upon heaven and earth, with the
• To the Spectator General. mouth of a shell-fish, to feed upon the dew MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOUR,- I have of the morning, her age must not exceed of late seen French hats of a prodigious 200 courses of the moon; let her stature be magnitude pass by my observatory. equal to that of an ear of green corn, and T.
•JOHN'SLY.' her girth a handful.
• We will send our mandarines ambassadors to clothe her, and to conduct her to No. 546. ] Wednesday, November 26, 1712. us, and we will meet her on the bank of a great river, making her to leap up into our Omnia patefacienda, ut ne quid omnino quod vendi. chariot. She may with us worship her own tor norit, eruptor ignoret. God, together with twenty-four virgins of Every thing should be fairly told, that the buyer may her own choosing; and she may sing with not be ignorant of any thing which the seller knows. them as the turtle in the spring.
It gives me very great scandal to ob• You, O father and friend, complying serve, wherever I go, how much skill, in with this our desire, may be an occasion of buying all manner of goods, there is necesuniting in perpetual friendship our high sary to defend yourself from being cheated empire with your European kingdoms, and in whatever you see exposed to sale. My we may embrace your laws as the ivy reading makes such a strong impression embraces the tree; and we ourselves may upon me, that I should think myself a cheat scatter our royal blood into your provinces, in my way, if I should translate any thing warming the chief of your princes with from another tongue, and not acknowledge the amorous fire of our amazons, the re- it to my readers. I understood, from comsembling pictures of some of which our mon report, that Mr. Cibber was introsaid mandarines ambassadors shall convey ducing a French play upon our stage, and to you.
thought myself concerned to let the town We exhort you to keep in peace two know what was his, and what was foreign. good religious families of missionaries, the When I came to the rehearsal, I found the sons of Ignatius, and the black and white house so partial to one of their own fratersons of Dominicus; that the counsel, both nity, that they gave every thing which was of the one and the other may serve as a said such grace, emphasis, and force in guide to us in our government, and a light their action, that it was no easy matter to to interpret the divine law, as the oil cast make any judgment of the performance. into the sea produces light.
Mrs. Oldfield, who, it seems, is the heroic "To conclude, we rising up in our throne daughter, had so just a conception of her to embrace you, we declare you our ally part, that her action made what she spoke and confederate; and have ordered this leaf appear decent, just, and noble. The pasto be sealed with our imperial signet, in our sions of terror and compassion they made royal city, the head of the world, the eighth me believe were very artfully raised, and day of the third lunation, and the fourth the whole conduct of the play artful and year of our reign.'
surprising. We authors do not much relish
the endeavours of players in this kind, but Letters from Rome say, the whole con- have the same disdain as physicians and versation both among gentlemen and ladies lawyers have when attorneys and apothehas turned upon the subject of this epistle, caries give advice. Cibber himself took ever since it arrived. The jesuit who trans- the liberty to tell me, that he expected I lated it says, it loses much of the majesty would do him justice, and allow the play of the original in the Italian. It seems there well prepared for his spectators, whatever was an offer of the same nature made by it was
for his readers. He added very many the predecessor of the present emperor to particulars not uncurious concerning the Lewis XIII. of France; but no lady of that manner of taking an audience, and laying court would take the voyage, that sex not wait not only for their superficial applause, being at that time so much used in public but also for insinuating into their affections negotiations. The manner of treating the and passions, by the artful management of pope is, according to the Chinese ceremo- the look, voice, and gesture of the speaker. nial, very respectful: for the emperor writes I could not but consent that the Heroic to him with the quill of a virgin ostrich, Daughter appeared in the rehearsal a movwhich was never used before but in writing prayers. Instructions are preparing for the lady who shall have so much zeal as to un Ximena, or the Heroic Daughter, a tragedy taken
from the Cid of Corneille, by C. Cibber. dertake this pilgrimage, and be an empress
This play met with so little encouragement, that the for the sake of her religion. The principal author did not venture to publish it till about two years of the reigning sins in China, in order to highly complimentary dedication to Sir Richard Steele.
but unfortunately at the expense of a much better prepare indulgencies necessary to this lady I writer.