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forego them they will run all hazards, and cetious companions; that he need not own venture upon all the miseries and woes be- he married only to plunder an heiress of fore them.

her fortune, nor pretend that he uses her “See there that other company; though ill, to avoid the ridiculous name of a fond they should drink none of the bewitching husband. water, yet they take a course bewitching Indeed, if I may speak my opinion of and deluding. See how they choose the great part of the writings which once precrookedest paths, whereby they have often vailed among us under the notion of huthe black tower behind them, and some- mour, they are such as would tempt one to times see the radiant column sideways, think there had been an association among which gives them some weak glimpse of it! the wits of those times to rally legitimacy These fools content themselves with that, out of our island. A state of wedlock was not knowing whether any other have any the common mark of all the adventurers in more of its influence and light than them- farce and comedy, as well as the essayers selves: this road is called that of Supersti- in lampoon and satire, to shoot at; and notion or Human Invention: they grossly thing was a more standing jest, in all clubs overlook that which the rules and laws of of fashionable mirth and gay conversation, the place prescribe to them, and contrive It was determined among those airy critics, some other scheme, and set off directions that the appellation of a sober man should and prescriptions for themselves, which signify a spiritless fellow. And I am apt they hope will serve their turn." He to think it was about the same time that showed me many other kinds of fools, good-nature, a word so peculiarly, elegant which put me quite out of humour with in our language, that some have affirmed it the place. At last he carried me to the cannot well be expressed in any other, right paths, where I found true and solid came first to be rendered suspicious, and pleasure, which entertained me all the in danger of being transferred from its way, until we came in closer sight of the original sense to so distant an idea as that pillar, where the satisfaction increased to of folly. that measure that my faculties were not I must confess it has been my ambition, able to contain it: in the straining of them in the course of my writings to restore, as I was violently waked, not a little grieved well as I was able, the proper ideas of at the vanishing of so pleasing a dream. things. And as I have attempted this al‘Glasgow, Sept. 29.'

ready on the subject of marriage in several papers, I shall here add some farther observations which occur to me on the same

head. No. 525.] Saturday, November 1, 1712.

Nothing seems to be thought, by our fine, Ο δ' εις το σωφρον επ' αρετην τ' αγων ερως,

gentlemen, so indispensable an ornament in Zκλωτος ανθρωποισιν.


fashionable life, as love. “A knight-errant,' That love alone, which virtue's laws control, says Don Quixote, without a mistress, is Deserves reception in the human soul.

like a tree without leaves;' and a man of It is my custom to take frequent oppor- mode among us who has not some fair one tunities of inquiring, from time to time, to sigh for, might as well pretend to appear what success my speculations meet with in dressed without his periwig. We have the town. I am glad to find, in particular, lovers in prose innumerable. All our prethat my discourses on marriage have been tenders to rhyme are professed inamoratos; well received. A friend of mine gives me and there is scarce a poet good or bad, to to understand from Doctor's-commons, that be heard of, who has not some real or supmore licenses have been taken out there of posed Saccharissa to improve his vein. late than usual. I am likewise informed If love be any refinement, conjugal love of several pretty fellows, who have resolv- must be certainly so in a much higher deed to commence heads of families by the gree. There is no comparison between the first favourable opportunity. One of them frivolous affectations of attracting the eyes of writes me word that he is ready to enter women with whom you are only captivated into the bonds of matrimony, provided I by way of amusement, and of whom perhaps will give it him under my hand (as I now you know nothing more than their features; do) that a man may show his face in good and a regular and uniform endeavour to company after he is married, and that he make yourself valuable, both as a friend need not be ashamed to treat a woman with and lover, to one whom you have chosen kindness who puts herself in his power for to be the companion of your life. The first life.

is the spring of a thousand fopperies, silly I have other letters on this subject, which artifices, falsehoods, and perhaps barbarisay that I am attempting to make a revolu- ties; or at best rises no higher than to a tion in the world of gallantry, and that the kind of dancing-school breeding, to give consequence of it will be that a great deal the person a more sparkling air. The latof the sprightliest wit and satire of the last ter is the parent of substantial virtues and age will be lost; that a bashful fellow, upon agreeable qualities, and cultivates the mind changing his condition, will be no longer while it improves the behaviour. The puzzled how to stand the raillery of his fa- 1 passion of love to a mistress, even where it

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is most sincere, resembles too much the of you, and of your and her ancestors. Her flame of a fever: that to a wife is like the ingenuity is admirable; her frugality extravital heat.

ordinary. She loves me; the surest pledge I have often thought, if the letters writ- of her virtue; and adds to this a wonderful ten by men of good-nature to their wives disposition to learning, which she has acwere to be compared with those written by quired from her affection to me. She reads men of gallantry to their mistresses, the my writings, studies them, and even gets former, notwithstanding any inequality of them by heart. You would smile to see the style, would appear to have the advantage. concern she is in when I have a cause to Friendship, tenderness, and constancy, plead, and the joy she shows when it is dressed in a simplicity of expression, re

She finds means to have the first commend themselves by a more native news brought her of the success I meet elegance, than passionate raptures, extra- with in court, how I am heard, and what vagant encomiums, and slavish adoration. decree is made. If I recite any thing in If we were admitted to search the cabinet public, she cannot refrain from placing of the beautiful Narcissa, among heaps of herself privately in some corner to hear, epistles from several admirers, which are where, with the utmost delight, she feasts there preserved with equal care, how few upon my applauses. Sometimes she sings should we find but would make any one my verses; and accompanies them with the sick in the reading, except her who is flat- | lute, without any master except love, the tered by them? But in how different a style best of instructors. From these instances I must the wise Benevolus, who converses take the most certain omens of our perwith that good sense and good humour petual and increasing happiness; since her among all his friends, write to a wife who affection is not founded on my youth and is the worthy object of his utmost affection person, which must gradually decay, but Benevolus, both in public and private, and she is in love with the immortal part of me, all occasions of life, appears to have every my glory and reputation. Nor indeed could good quality and desirable ornament. less be expected from one who had the Abroad he is reverenced and esteemed; at happiness to receive her education from home beloved and happy. The satisfaction you, who in your house was accustomed to he enjoys there settles into an habitual every thing that was virtuous and decent, complacency, which shines in his counte- and even began to love me, by your renance, enlivens his wit, and seasons his commendation. For, as you had always conversation. Even those of his acquaint- the greatest respect for my mother, you ance, who have never seen him in his re

were pleased from my infancy to form me, tirement, are sharers in the happiness of it; to commend me, and kindly to presage I

and it is very much owing to his being the should be one day what my wife fancies I : best and best beloved of husbands, that he am. Accept therefore our united thanks;

is the most steadfast of friends, and the mine, that you have bestowed her on me; | most agreeable of companions.

and hers, that you have given me to her, There is a sensible pleasure in contem- as a mutual grant of joy and felicity. | plating such beautiful instances of domestic + life. The happiness of the conjugal state i appears heightened to the highest degree No. 526.) Monday, November 3, 1712.

it is capable of when we see two persons of ), accomplished minds not only united in the

-Fortius utere loris. Orid Met. Lib. ii. 127. * same interests and affections, but in their

Keep a stiff rein.-Addison. | taste of the same improvements and diver

sions. Pliny, one of the finest gentlemen I am very loath to come to extremities ► and politest writers of the age in which he with the young gentlemen mentioned in the

lived, has left us, in his letter to Hispulla, following letter, and do not care to chastise his wife's aunt, one of the most agreeable them with my own hand, until I am forced family pieces of this kind I have ever met by provocation too great to be suffered with. I shall end this discourse with a without the absolute destruction of my

translation of it, and I believe the reader spectatorial dignity. The crimes of these i will be of my opinion, that conjugal love is offenders are placed under the observation | drawn in it with a delicacy which makes it of one of my chief officers, who is posted | appear to be, as I have represented it, an just at the entrance of the pass between ornament as well as a virtue.

London and Westminster. As I have great

confidence in the capacity, resolution, and Pliny to Hispulla.

integrity of the person deputed by me to As I remember the great affection give an account of enormities, I doubt not which was between you and your excellent but I shall soon have before me all proper brother, and know you love his daughter notices which are requisite for the amendas your own, so as not only to express the ment of manners in public, and the instructenderness of the best of aunts, but even to tion of each individual of the human species supply that of the best of fathers; I am in what is due from him in respect to the sure it will be a pleasure to you to hear that whole body of mankind. The present she proves worthy of her father, worthy | paper shall consist only of the above-men

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tioned letter, and the copy of a deputation would but give them two or three touches which I have given to my trusty friend, with your own pen, though you might not Mr. John Sly; wherein he is charged to perhaps prevail with them to desist entirely notify to me all that is necessary for my from their meditations, yet I doubt not but animadversion upon the delinquents men- you would at least preserve them from tioned by my correspondent, as well as all being public spectacles of folly in our others described in the said deputation, streets. I say two or three touches with

your own pen; for I have already observed, To the Spectator General of Great

Mr. Spec, that those Spectators which are Britain,

so prettily laced down the sides with little • I grant it does look a little familiar, but I c's, how instinctive soever they may be, do must call you

not carry with them that authority as the

others. I do again therefore desire, that for *DEAR DUMB,Being got again to the the sake of their dear necks, you would befarther end of the Widow's coffee-house, I stow one penful of your own ink


them. shall from hence give you some account of I know you are loath to expose them; and the behaviour of our hackney-coachmen it is, I must confess, a thousand pities that since

my. last. These indefatigable gentle- any young gentleman who is come of honest men, without the least design, I dare say, parents should be brought to public shame. of self-interest or advantage to themselves, And indeed I should be glad to have them do still ply as volunteers day and night for handled a little tenderly at the first, but if the good of their country. I will not trouble fair means will not prevail, there is then you with enumerating many particulars, no other way to reclaim them but by makbut I must by no means omit to inform you ing use of some wholesome severities; and of an infanť about six feet high, and be- I think it is better that a dozen or two of tween twenty and thirty years of age, who such good-for-nothing fellows should be was seen in the arms of a hackney-coach- made examples of, than that the reputaman, driving by Will's coffee-house in Co- tion of some hundreds of as hopeful young vent-garden, between the hours of four and gentlemen as myself should suffer through five in the afternoon of that very day their folly. It is not, however, for me to wherein you published a memorial against direct you what to do; but, in short, if our them. This impudent young, cur, though coachmen will drive on this trade, the very he could not sit in a coach-box without first of them that I do find meditating in holding, yet would venture his neck to bid the street, I shall make bold to “take the defiance to your spectatorial authority, or number of his chambers,'** together with to any thing that you countenanced. Who a note of his name, and despatch them to he was I know not, but I heard this relation you, that you may chastise him at your this morning from a gentleman who was an own discretion. I am, dear Spec, for ever eye witness of this his impudence; and I your's, MOSES GREENBAG, was willing to take the first opportunity to

Esq. if you please. inform you of him, as holding it extremely requisite that you should nip him in the

•P. S. Tom Hammercloth, one of our bud. But I am myself most concerned for coachmen, is now pleading at the bar at my fellow-templars, fellow-students, and the other end of the room, but has a little fellow-labourers in the law, I mean such of too much vehemence, and throws out his them as are dignified and distinguished un- arms too much to take his audience, with der the denomination of hackney-coach- a good grace.' men. Such aspiring minds have these am- To my loving and well-beloved John Sly, bitious young men, that they cannot enjoy haberdasher of hats, and tobacconist, themselves out of a coach-box. It is, how between the cities of London and Westever, an unspeakable comfort to me that

minster. I can now tell you that some of them are

Whereas frequent disorders, affronts, grown so bashful as to study only in the indignities, omissions, and trespasses, for night time, or in the country. The other which there are no remedies by any form night I spied one of our young gentlemen of law, but which apparently disturb and very diligent at his lucubrations in Fleet disquiet the minds of men, happen near Street; and, by the way, I should be under the place of your residence; and that you some concern, lest this hard student should are, as well by your commodious situation, as one time or other crack his brain with stu- the good parts with which you are endowed, dying, but that I am in hopes nature has properly qualified for the observation of taken care to fortify him in proportion to the said offences; I do hereby authorize and the great undertakings he was designed for. depute you, from the hours of nine in the Another of my fellow-templars on Thursday last was getting up into his study at the morning until four in the afternoon, to keep bottom of Gray's-Inn-Lane, in order, I

a strict eye upon all persons and things that

are conveyed in coaches, carried in carts, suppose, to contemplate in the fresh air.

or walk on foot, from the city of London tó Now, sir, my request is, that the great the city of Westminster, or from the city modesty of these two gentlemen may be recorded as a pattern to the rest; and if you! * An allusion to the number of a

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of Westminster to the city of London, the history picture of a fan in sn gallant a within the said hours. You are therefore manner as he addresses it. But see the not to depart from your observatory at the letters. end of Devereux-court during the said space of each day, but to observe the be • Mr. SPECTATOR,- It is now almost haviour of all persons who are suddenly three months since I was in town aboot transported from tramping on pebbles to some business; and the hurry of it being sit at ease in chariots, what notice they over, I took a coach one afternoon, and take of their foot acquaintance, and send drove to see a relation, who married about me the speediest advice, when they are six years ago a wealthy citizen. I found guilty of overlooking, turning from, or ap- her at home, but her husband gone to the pearing grave and distant to, their old Exchange, and expected back within an friends. When man and wife are in the hour at the farthest. After the usual salutasame coach, you are to see whether they tions of kindness, and a hundred questions appear pleased or tired with each other, about friends in the country, we sat down and whether they carry the due mean in to piquet, played two or three games, and the eve of the world, between fondness and drank tea. I should have told you that this coolness. You are carefully tobchold all such was my second time of seeing her since as shall have addition of honour or riches, marriage; but before, she lived at the same and report whether they preserve the town where I went to school; so that the countenance they had before such addition. plea of a relation, added to the innocence As to persons on foot, you are to be atten- of my youth, prevailed upon her good-hutive whether they are pleased with their mour to indulge me in a freedom of concondition, and are dressed suitable to it; versation as often, and oftener, than the but especially to distinguish such as appear strict discipline of the school would allow discreet, by a low-heel shoe, with the de-of. You may easily imagine, after such an cent ornament of a leather garter: to write acquaintance, we might be exceeding merry down the names of such country gentlemen without any offence; as in calling to mind as, upon the approach of peace, have left how many inventions I have been put to in the hunting for the military cock of the deluding the master, how many hands hat; of all who strut, make a noise, and forged for excuses, how many times been swear at the drivers of coaches to make sick in perfect health; for I was then never haste, when they see it is impossible they sick but at school, and only then because should pass; of all young gentlemen in out of her company. We had whiled away coach-boxes, who labour at a perfection in three hours after this manner, when I found what they are sure to be excelled by the it past five; and not expecting her husband meanest of the people. You are to do all would return until late, rose up, and told that in you lies that coaches and passengers her I should go early next morning for the give way according to the course of busi- country. She kindly answered she was ness, all the morning in term-time, towards afraid it would be long before she saw me Westminster, the rest of the year towards again; so, I took my leave, and parted. the Exchange. Upon these directions tnge - Now, sir, I had not been got home a fortther with other secret articles herein en- night, when I received a letter from a closed, you are to govern yourself, and give neighbour of theirs, that ever since that advertisement thereof to me, at all con- fatal afternoon the lady has been most invenient and spectatorial hours, when men humanly treated, and the husband publicly of business are to be seen. Hereof you are stormed that he was made a member of too not to fail. Given under my seal of office. numeroas a society. He had, it seems, lisT. "THE SPECTATOR' tened most of the time my cousin and I

were together. As jealous ears always hear

double, so he heard enough to make him No. 527.) Tuesday, November 4, 1712.

mad; and as jealous eyes always see through

magnifying glasses, so he was certain it Facile in venins et prjorem, et prejus moratam; could not be I whom he had seen, a beardMeliorem neque tu reperies, neque sol vidre. less stripling, but fancied he saw a gay

Plautus in Suichor.

gentleman of the temple, ten years older You will easily find a worse woman; a better the sun than myself; and for that reason, I presume, never stone upon.

durst not come in, nor take any notice when I AM so tender of my women-readers, I went out. He is perpetually asking his that I cannot defer the publication of any wife if she does not think the time long (as thing which concerns their happiness or she said she should) until she see her cousin quiet. The repose of a married woman is again. Pray, sir, what can be done in this consulted in the first of the following letters, case? I have writ to him to assure him I and the felicity of a maiden lady in the was at his house all that afternoon expectsecond. I call it a felicity to have the ad- ing to see him. His answer is, it is only a dresses of an agreeable man; and I think I trick of hers, and that he neither can nor have not any where seen a prettier applica- will believe me. The parting kiss I find tion of a poetical story than that of his, in mightily nettles him, and confirms him in making the tale of Cephalus and Procris. all his errors. Ben Jonson, as I remember, VOL. II.


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makes a foreigner, in one of his comedies, he was so much in the forest, that his lady “admire the desperate valour of the bold suspected he was pursuing some nymph, English, who let out their wives to all en- under the pretence of following a chase counters.” The general custom of saluta- more innocent. Under this suspicion she tion should excuse the favour done me, or hid herself among the trees, to observe his you should lay down rules when such dis- motions. While she lay concealed, her tinctions are to be given or omitted. You husband, tired with the labour of hunting, cannot imagine, sir, how troubled I am for came within her hearing. As he was faintthis unhappy lady's misfortune, and beg ing with heat, he cried out, Aura veni!” you would insert this letter, that the hus- "Oh, charming air, approach!” band may reflect upon this accident coolly. • The unfortunate wife, taking the word It is no small matter, the ease of a virtuous air to be the name of a woman, began to woman for her whole life. I know she will move among the bushes; and the husband, conform to any regularities (though more believing it a deer, threw his javelin, and strict than the common rules of our country killed her. This history, painted on a fan, require) to which his particular temper which I presented to a lady, gave occasion shall incline him to oblige her. This ac- to my growing poetical.” cident puts me in mind how generously Pisistratus, the Athenian tyrant, behaved

“Come, gentle air !" the Æolian shepherd said,

While Procris panted in the secret shade; himself on a like occasion, when he was “Come, gentle air," the fairer Delia crics, instigated by his wife to put to death a young While at her feet the swain expiring lies. gentleman, because, being passionately fond

Lo! the glad gales o'er all her beauties stray,

Breathe on her lips, and in her bosom play. of his daughter, he had kissed her in public, In Delia's hand this toy is fatal found, as he met her in the street. “What,” said Nor did that fabled dart more surely wound. he, “shall we do to those who are our ene

Both gifts destructive to the givers prove,

Alike both lovers fall by those they love: mies, if we do thus to those who are our

Yet guiltless too this bright destroyer lives, friends?” I will not trouble you much At random wounds, nor knows the wound she gives; longer, but am exceedingly concerned lest

She views the story with attentive eyes,

And pities Procris, wbile her lover dies. this accident inay cause a virtuous lady to lead a miserable life with a husband who has no grounds for his jealousy but what I have faithfully related, and ought to be No. 528.] Wednesday, November 5, 1712. reckoned none. It is to be feared too, if at last he sees his mistake, yet people will be Dum potuit, solita gemitum virtute repressit. as slow and unwilling in disbelieving scan

Ovid, Met. ix. 165.

With wonted fortitude she bore the smart, dal as they are quick and forward in believ

And not a groan confess'd her burning heart.-Gay. ing it. I shall endeavour to enliven this plain honest letter with Ovid's relation "MR. SPECTATOR,-I who now write to about Cybele's image. The ship wherein you am a woman loaded with injuries; and it was aboard was stranded at the mouth the aggravation of my misfortune is, that 11 of the Tiber, and the men were unable to they are such which are overlooked by the move it, until Claudia, a virgin, but sus-generality of mankind; and, though the pected of unchastity, by a slight pull hauled most afflicting imaginable, not regarded as it in. The story is told in the fourth book such in the general sense of the world. I of the Fasti.

have hid my vexation from all mankind; 1)

but having now taken pen, ink, and paper, " Parent of gods, (began the weeping fair,)

am resolved to unbosom myself to you, and Reward or punish, but oh! hear my prayer: If lewdness e'er defil'd my virgin bloom,

lay before you what grieves me and all the From heav'n with justice I receive my doom :

You have very often mentioned parBut if my honour yet has known no stain, Thou, goddess, thou my innocence maintain;

ticular hardships done to this or that lady; Thou, whom the nicest rules of goodness sway'd,

but methinks you have not, in any one Vouchsafe to follow an unblemish'd maid."

speculation, directly pointed at the partial She spoke and touch'd the cord with glad surprise, freedom men take, the unreasonable con(The truth was witness'd by ten thousand eyes) The pitying goddess easily comply'd,

finement women are obliged to, in the only Follow'd in triumph, and adorn'd her guide; circumstance in which we are necessarily While Claudia, blushing still for past disgrace,

to have a commerce with them, that of March'd silent on, with a slow solemn pace : Nor yet from some was all distrust reinov'd,

love. The case of celibacy is the great evil Though heav'n such virtue by such wonders provid. of our nation; and the indulgence of the "I am, sir, your very humble servant.

vicious conduct of men in that state, with the PHILAGNOTES.'

the ridicule to which women are exposed,

though ever so virtuous, if long unmarried, •Mr. Spectator,—You will oblige a is the root of the greatest irregularities of a languishing lover, if you will please to print this nation. To show you, sir, that (though the enclosed verses in your next paper. If you never have given us the catalogue of a you remember the Metamorphoses, you lady's library, as you promised) we read know Procris, the fond wife of Cephalus, is books of our own choosing, I shall insert on said to have made her husband, who de- this occasion a paragraph or two out of lighted in the sports of the wood, a present Echard's Roman History. In the 44th page of an unerring javelin. In process of time of the second volume, the author observes



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