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How is it possible for those who are men world. When Pompey was desired not to of honour in their persons, thus to become set sail in a tempest that would hazard his notorious liars in their party? If we look life, It is necessary for me,' says he, to into the bottom of this matter, we may find, sail, but it is not necessary for me to live.' I think, three reasons for it, and at the Every man should say to himself, with the same time discover the insufficiency of these same spirit, “It is my duty to speak truth, reasons to justify so criminal a practice. though it is not my duty to be in an office."

In the first place, men are apt to think One of the fathers has carried this point so that the guilt of a lie, and consequently the high as to declare he would not tell a lie, punishment may be very much diminished, though he were sure to gain heaven by it. if not wholly worn out, by the multitudes However extravagant such a protestation of those who partake in it. Though the may appear, every one will own that a man weight of a falsehood would be too much may say, very reasonably, he would not for one to bear, it grows light in their tell a lie if he were to gain hell by it; or, if

imaginations when it is shared among many. you have a mind to soften the expression, 10 But in this case a man very much deceives that he would not tell a lie to gain any tem

himself; guilt, when it spreads through poral reward by it, when he should run the of numbers, is not so properly divided as mul- hazard of losing much more than it was B tiplied. Every one is criminal in proportion possible for him to gain.

0. to the offence which he commits, not to the number of those who are his companions in it. Both the crime and the penalty lie as

heavy upon every individual of an offending No. 508.) Monday, October 13, 1712. $ multitude, as they would upon any single

person, had none shared with him in the Omnes autem et habentur et dicuntur tyranni, qui offence. In a word, the division of guilt is potestate sunt perpetua, in ea civitate que libertate

Corn. Nepos in Milt. c. 8. like to that of matter: though it may be separated into infinite portions, every portion

For all those are accounted and denominated tyrants shall have the whole essence of matter in who exercise a perpetual power in that state, which it, and consist of as many parts as the whole did before it was divided.

The following letters complain of what I But in the second place, though multi- have frequently observed with very much & tudes, who join in a lie, cannot exempt indignation; therefore I shall give them to Es themselves from the guilt, they may from the public in the words with which my cor

the shame of it. The scandal of a lie is in a respondents, who suffer under the hardmanner lost and annihilated, when diffused ships mentioned in them, describe them. among several thousands; as a drop of the blackest tincture wears away and vanishes, •MR. SPECTATOR,-In former ages all when mixed and confused in a considerable pretensions to dominion have been supbody of water; the blot is still in it, but is ported and submitted to, either upon acnot able to discover itself. This is certainly count of inheritance, conquest, or election;

a very great motive to several party-offen- and all such persons, who have taken upon si ders, who avoid crimes, not as they are them any sovereignty over their fellowa prejudicial to their virtue, but to their creatures upon any other account, have

reputation. It is enough to show the weak- been always called tyrants, not so much ness of this reason, which palliates guilt because they were guilty of any particular without removing it, that every man who barbarities, as because every attempt to is influenced by it declares himself in effect such a superiority was in its nature tyranan infamous hypocrite, prefers the appear- nical. But there is another sort of potenance of virtue to its reality, and is deter- tates, who may with greater propriety be mined in his conduct neither by the dictates called tyrants than those last mentioned, of his own conscience, the suggestions of both as they assume a despotic dominion true honour, nor the principles of religion. over those as free as themselves, and as

The third and last great motive for men's they support it by acts of notable oppresjoining in a popular falsehood, or, as I have sion and injustice; and these are the rulers hitherto called it, a party-lie, notwith- in all clubs and meetings. In other governstanding they are convinced of it as such, ments the punishments of some have been is the doing good to a cause which every alleviated by the rewards of others: but purty may be supposed to look upon as the what makes the reign of these potentates m ist meritorious. The unsoundness of this so particularly grievous is, that they are principle has been so often exposed, and is exquisite in punishing their subjects, at the se universally acknowledged, that a man same time that they have it not in their 2nust be an utter stranger to the principles power to reward them. That the reader either of natural religion or Christianity, may the better comprehend the nature of who suffers himself to be guided by it. If a these monarchs, as well as the miserable man might promote the supposed good of state of those that are their vassals, I shall his country by the blackest calumnies and give an account of the king of the company falsehoods, our nation abounds more in I am fallen into, whom, for his particular patriots than any other of the Christian I tyranny, I shall call Dionysius: as also of

the seeds that sprung up to this odd sort train of each is equal in number, rather of empire.

than give battle, the superiority is soon ad“Upon all meetings at taverns, it is ne- justed by a desertion from one of them. cessary some one of the company should • Now, the expulsion of these unjust take it upon him to get all things in such rulers out of all societies, would gain a man order and readiness, as may contribute as as everlasting a reputation as either of the much as possible to the felicity of the con- Brutus's got for their endeavours to extirvention; such as hastening the fire, getting pate tyranny from among the Romans. I a sufficient number of candles, tasting the confess myself to be in a conspiracy against wine with a judicious smack, fixing the sup the usurper of our club; and to show my per, and being brisk for the despatch of it. reading, as well as my merciful disposition, Know, then, that Dionysius went through shall allow him until the ides of March to these offices with an air that seemed to dethrone himself. If he seems to affect express a satisfaction rather in serving the empire until that time, and does not gradupublic that in gratifying any particular in- ally recede from the incursions he has made clination of his own. We thought him a upon our liberties, he shall find dinner person of an exquisite palate, and therefore dressed which he has no hand in, and shall by consent beseeched him to be always our be treated with an order, magnificence, and proveditor; which post, after he had hand- luxury, as shall break his proud heart; at somely denied, he could do no otherwise the same time that he shall be convinced than accept. At first he made no other use in his stomach he was unfit for his post, of his power than in recommending such and a more mild and skilful prince receive and such things to the company, ever allow the acclamations of the people, and be set ing these points to be disputable; insomuch up in his room: but, as Milton says, that I have often carried the debate for

These thoughts partridge, when his majesty has given inti Full counsel must mature. Peace is despaird, mation of the high relish of duck, but at the And who can think submission? War then, war, same time has cheerfully submitted, and Open, or understood, must be resolved." devoured his partridge with most gracious 'I am, sir, your most obedient humble resignation. This submission on his side servant. naturally produced the like on ours; of which he in a little time made such barba MR. SPECTATOR, I am a young worous advantage, as in all those matters, man at a gentleman's seat in the country, which before seemed indifferent to him, to who is a particular friend of my father's, issue out certain edicts as uncontrollable and came hither to pass away a month or and unalterable as the laws of the Medes two with his daughters. I have been enand Persians. He is by turns outrageous, tertained with the utmost civility by the peevish, forward, and jovial. He thinks it whole family, and nothing has been omitted our duty for the little offices, as proveditor, which can make my stay easy and agreeathat in return all conversation is to be in- ble on the part of the family; but there is a terrupted or promoted by his inclination gentleman here, a visitant as I am, whose for or against the present humour of the behaviour has given me great uneasiness. company. We feel, at present, in the utmost When I first arrived here, he used me with extremity, the insolence of office; however, the utmost complaisance; but, forsooth, that I, being naturally warm, ventured to op- was not with regard to my sex; and since he pose him in a dispute about a haunch of has no designs upon me, he does not know venison. I was altogether for roasting, but why he should distinguish me from a man Dionysius declared himself for boiling with in things indifferent. He is, you must know, so much prowess and resolution, that the one of those familiar coxcombs, who have cook thought it necessary to consult his own observed some well-bred men with a good safety, rather than the luxury of my pro- grace converse with women, and say no position. With the same authority that he fine things, but yet treat them with that orders what we shall eat and drink, he also sort of respect which flows from the heart commands us where to do it: and we change and the understanding, but is exerted in 19 our taverns according as he suspects any professions or compliments

. This puppy, treasonable practices in the settling the bill to imitate this excellence, or avoid the con by the master, or sees any bold rebellion in trary fault of being troublesome in complaipoint of attendance by the waiters. Another sance, takes upon him to try his talent upon reason for changing the seat of empire, I me, insomuch that he contradicts me upon conceive to be the pride he takes in the all occasions, and one day told me I lied. promulgation of our slavery, though we pay If I had struck him with my bodkin, and our club for our entertainments, even in behaved myself like a man, since he will these palaces of our grand monarch. When not treat me as a woman, I had, I think, he has a mind to take the air, a party of us served him right. I wish, sir, you would are commanded out by way of life-guard, please to give him some maxims of behaand we march under as great restrictions viour in these points, and resolve me if all as they do. If we meet a neighbouring maids are not in point of conversation to be king, we give or keep the way, according treated by all bachelors as their mistresses? as we are out-numbered or not; and if the If not so, are they not to be used as gently


as their sisters? Is it sufferable that the which is the true source of wealth and top of whom I complain should say that he prosperity. I just now said, the man of would rather have such-a-one without a thrift shows regularity in every thing; but gr at, than me with the Indies? What you may, perhaps, laugh that I take notice right has any man to make suppositions of of such a particular as I am going to do, for things not in his power, and then declare an instance that this city is declining if their his will to the dislike of one that has never ancient economy is not restored. The thing offended him? I assure you these are things which gives me this prospect, and so much worthy your consideration, and I hope we offence, is the neglect of the Royal Exshall have your thoughts upon them. I am, change. I mean the edifice so called, and though a woman justly offended, ready to the walks appertaining thereunto. The forgive all this, because I have no remedy Royal Exchange is a fabric that well debut leaving very agreeable company sooner serves to be so called, as well to express than I desire. This also is a heinous ag- that our monarch's highest glory and adgravation of his offence, that he is inflicting vantage consists in being the patron of trade, banishment upon me. Your printing this as that it is commodious for business, and letter may perhaps be an admonition to re- an instance of the grandeur both of prince form him; as soon as it appears I will write and people. But, alas! at present it hardly my name at the end of it, and lay it in his seems to be set apart for any such use or way; the making which just reprimand, I purpose. Instead of the assembly of hohope you will put in the power of, sir, your nourable merchants, substantial tradesmen, constant reader, and humble servant.' and knowing masters of ships; the mum

pers, the halt, the blind, the lame; and your venders of trash, apples, plums; your

raggamuffins, rake-shames, and wenches, No. 509.) Tuesday, October 14, 1712. have justled the greater number of the

former out of that place. Thus it is, espeHominis frugi et temperantis functus officium. cially on the evening change: so that what Ter, Heaut. Act ii. Sc. 3.

with the din of squallings, oaths, and cries Discharging the part of a good economist.

of beggars, men of the greatest consequence The useful knowledge in the following in our city absent themselves from the letter shall have a place in my paper, place. This particular, by the way, is of though there is nothing in it which imme-evil consequence; for, if the 'Change be diately regards the polite or the learned no place for men of the highest credit to world; I say immediately, for upon reflec- frequent, it will not be a disgrace for those tion every man will find there is a remote of less abilities to be absent. I remember influence upon his own affairs, in the pros- the time when rascally company were kept perity or decay of the trading part of man- out, and the unlucky boys with toys and kind. My present correspondent, I believe, balls were whipped away by a beadle. I was never in print before; but what he says have seen this done indeed of late, but then well deserves a general attention, though it has been only to chase the lads from delivered in his own homely maxims, and chuck, that the beadle might seize their a kind of proverbial simplicity; which sort copper. of learning has raised more estates, than I must repeat the abomination, that the ever were, or will be, from attention to walnut-trade is carried on by old women Virgil, Horace, Tully, Seneca, Plutarch, within the walks, which makes the place or any of the rest, whom, I dare say, this impassable by reason of shells and trash, worthy citizen would hold to be indeed in- The benches around are so filthy, that no genious, but unprofitable writers. But to one can sit down, yet the beadles and offithe letter.

cers have the impudence at Christmas to • Mr. William Spectator.

ask for their box, though they deserve the

strappado. I do not think it impertinent • Broad-street, Oct. 10, 1712. to have mentioned this, because it bespeaks “SIR, -I accuse you of many discourses a neglect in the domestic care of the city, on the subject of money, which you have and the domestic is the truest picture of a heretofore promised the public, but have man every where else. not discharged yourself thereof. But, for * But I designed to speak on the busiasmuch as you seemed to depend upon ad-ness of money and advancement of gain. vice from others what to do in that point, The man proper for this, speaking in the have sat down to write you the needful upon general, is of a sedate, plain good underthat subject. But, before I enter thereupon, standing, not apt to go out of his way, but I shall take this opportunity to observe to so behaving himself at home, that business you, that the thriving frugal man shows it may come to him. Sir William Turner, in every part of his expense, dress, ser- that valuable citizen, has left behind him a vants, and house; and I must, in the first most excellent rule, and couched it in very place complain to you, as Spectator, that few words, suited to the meanest capacity. in these particulars there is at this time, He would say, "Keep your shop, and your throughout the city of London, a lamenta- shop will keep you.” It must be confessed, ble change from that simplicity of manners, Ithat if a man of a great genius could add


steadiness to his vivacities, or substitute going from college to college to borrow, as slower men of fidelity to transact the me- they have done since the death of this worthodical part of his affairs, such a one thy man. I say, Mr. Hobson kept a stable would outstrip the rest of the world; but of forty good cattle, always ready and fit business and trade are not to be managed for travelling; but, when a man came for a by the same heads which write poetry, and horse, he was led into the stable, where make plans for the conduct of life in gene- there was great choice; but he obliged him ral. So though we are at this day beholden to take the horse which stood next to the to the late witty and inventive duke of stable door; so that every customer was Buckingham for the whole trade and manu-alike well served according to his chance, facture of glass, yet I suppose there is no and every horse ridden with the same jusone will aver, that, were his grace yet liv- tice; from whence it became a proverb, ing, they would not rather deal with my when what ought to be your election was diligent friend and neighbour, Mr. Gumley, forced upon you, to say, “Hobson's choice.” for any goods to be prepared and delivered | This memorable man stands drawn in on such a day, than he would with that il-fresco at an inn (which he used) in Bishopslustrious mechanic above-mentioned. gate-street, with a hundred pound bag

•No, no, Mr. Spectator, you wits must under his arm, with this inscription upon not pretend to be rich; and it is possible the the said bag: reason may be, in some measure, because

“The fruitful mother of a bundred more. "y you despise, or at least you do not value it enough to let it take up your chief atten •Whatever tradesman will try the extion; which a trader must do, or lose his periment, and begin the day after you pubcredit, which is to him what honour, relish this my discourse to treat his customers putation, fame, or glory, is to other sort of all alike, and all reasonably and honestly,

I will ensure him the same success, I am "I shall not speak to the point of cash sir, your loving friend, itself, until I see how you approve of these T.

HEZEKIAH THRIFT.' my maxims in general: but I think a speculation

upon “many a little makes a míckle, à penny saved is a penny got, penny wise and a pound foolish, it is need that makes No. 510.) Wednesday, October 15, 1712. the old wife trot,” would be very useful to

-Si sapis, the world; and if you treated them with

Neque præterquam quas ipse amor molestias knowledge, would be useful to yourself, for Habet addas, et illas, quas habet, recte feras. it would make demands for your paper

Ter. Eun. Act i. &.l. among those who have no notion of it at If you are wise, add not to the troubles which attend present. But of these matters more here- the passion of love, and bear patiently those which are after. If you did this, as you excel many

inseparable from it. writers of the present age for politeness, so • I was

the other day driving in a hack you would outgo the author of the true through Gerrard-street, when my eye was razor strops for use.

immediately catched with the prettiest ob"I shall conclude this discourse with an ject imaginable—the face of a very fair girl, explanation of a proverb, which by vulgar between thirteen and fourteen, fixed at the error is taken and used when a man is re- chin to a painted sash, and made part of duced to an extremity, whereas the pro- the landscape. It seemed admirably done, priety of the maxim is to use it when you and, upon throwing myself eagerly out of would say there is plenty, but you must the coach to look at it, it laughed, and flung make such a choice as not to hurt another from the window. This amiable figure who is to come after you.

dwelt upon me; and I was considering the «Mr. Tobias Hobson, * from whom we vanity of the girl, and her pleasant coquetry have the expression, was a very honourable in acting a picture until she was taken noman, for I shall ever call the man so who tice of, and raised the admiration of the begets an estate honestly. Mr. Tobias Hob- holders. This little circumstance made son was a carrier; and, being a man of great me run into reflections upon the force of abilities and invention, and one that saw beauty, and the wonderful influence the where there might good profit arise, though female sex has upon the other part of the the duller men overlooked it, this ingenious species. Our hearts are seized with their man was the first in this island who let out enchantments, and there are few of us, but hackney-horses. He lived in Cambridge; brutal men, who by that hardness lose the

observing that the scholars, rid hard, chief pleasure in them, can resist their inhis manner was to keep a large stable of sinuations, though never so much against horses, with boots, bridles, and whips, to our own interests and opinion. It is comfurnish the gentlemen at once, without mon with women to destroy the good effects

a man's following his own way and inclina* Mr. Hobson was the carrier between London and Cambridge. At the latter place he erected a handsome stone conduit, and left sufficient land for its mainte. + There is a scarte folio print, I believe, from this nance for ever. He died in the time of the plague, 1630, picture, engraved by Payne, with eight English versen in the eighty-sixth year of his age.


tion might have upon his honour and for- world, wishes to make a good figure with tune, by interposing their power over him his mistress, upon her upbraiding him with in matters wherein they cannot influence want of spirit, he alludes to enterprises him, but to his loss and disparagement. I which he cannot reveal but with the hazard do not know therefore a task so difficult of his life. When he is worked thus far, in human life, as to be proof against the with a little flattery of her opinion of his importunities of a woman a man loves. gallantry, and desire to know more of it out There is certainly no armour against tears, of her overflowing fondness to him, he brags sullen looks, or at best constrained fami- to her until his life is in her disposal. liarities, in her whom you usually meet When a man is thus liable to be vanwith transport and alacrity. Sir Walter quished by the charms of her he loves, the Raleigh was quoted in a letter (of a very safest way is to determine what is proper ingenious correspondent of mine) upon this to be done; but to avoid all expostulation subject. That author, who had lived in with her before he executes what he has courts, and camps, travelled through many resolved. Women are ever too hard for us countries, and seen many men under seve- upon a treaty; and one must consider how ral climates, and of as various complex- senseless a thing it is to argue with one ions, speaks of our impotence to resist the whose looks and gestures are more prevawiles of women in very severe terms. His lent with you, than your reasons and arguwords are as follows:

ments can be with her. It is a most miserWhat means did the devil find out, or

able slavery to submit to what you disapwhat instruments did his own subtility pre

prove and give up a truth for no other sent him as fittest and aptest to work his reason, but that you had not fortitude to mischief by? Even the unquiet vanity of support you in asserting it. A man has the woman; so as by Adam's hearkening to able wishes and desires; but he does that in

enough to do to conquer his own unreason- the voice of his wife, contrary to the ex- vain, if he has those of another to gratify.

press commandment of the living God, man. Let his pride be in his wife and family, let kind by that her incantation became the subject of labour, sorrow, and death; the him give them all the conveniences of life woman being given to man for a comforter in such a manner as if he were proud of and companion, but not for a counsellor. It them; but let it be his own innocent pride, is also to be noted by whom the woman was

and not their exorbitant desires which are tempted: even by the most ugly, and un arts imaginable are used to soften a man's

indulged by him. In this case all the little worthy of all beasts, into whom the devil heart, and raise his passion above his unentered and persuaded. Secondly, What was the motive of her disobedience? Even derstanding. But in all concessions of this a desire to know what was most unfitting present he makes flows from his own love,

kind, a man should consider whether the her knowledge; an affection which has ever since remained in all the posterity of or the importunity of his beloved. If from her sex. Thirdly, what was it that moved the latter, he is her slave? if from the forthe man to yield to her persuasions? Even mer, her friend. We laugh it off, and do to the same cause which hath moved all not weigh this subjection to women with men since to the like consent, namely, an cumstance deserves. Why was courage

that seriousness which so important a cirunwillingness to grieve her, or make her sad, lest she should pine, and be overcome with given to a man, if his wife's fears are to sorrow. But if Adam, in the state of

frustrate it? When this is once indulged, fection, and Solomon the Son of David, you are no longer her guardian and proGod's chosen servant, and himself a man in compliance to her weaknesses, you have endued with the greatest wisdom, did both of them disobey their Creator by the per- tunes into which they will lead you both,

disabled yourself from avoiding the misforsuasion, and for the love they bear to a wo- and you are to see the hour in which you man, it is not so wonderful as lamentable, that other men in succeeding ages have are to be reproached by herself for that

been allured to so many inconvenient and very compliance to her. It is indeed the ľ wicked practices by the persuasion of their most difficult mastery over ourselves we over and shadow many malicious purposes the anguish never so quick and painful

, it wives, or other beloved darlings, who cover can possibly attain, to resist the grief of her

who charms us; but let the heart ake, be with a counterfeit passion of dissimulating is what must be suffered and passed sorrow and unquietness.'

through, if you think to live like a gentleThe motions of the minds of lovers are man, or be conscious to yourself that you no where so well described as in the words are a man of honesty. The old argument, of skilful writers for the stage. The scene that you do not love me if you deny me between Fulvia and Curius, in the second this,' which first was used to obtain a trifle, act of Johnson's Catiline, is an excellent by habitual success will oblige the unhappicture of the power of a lady over her py man who gives way to it to resign the gallant. The wench plays with his affec- cause even of his country and his honour. tions; and as a man, of all places of the



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