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letting her hooped petticoats fall with a and bring us sober girls into observation, lucky decency about her. I know she prac- there is no help for it; we must swim with tises this way of sitting down in her cham- the tide; the coquettes are too powerful a ber; and indeed she does it as well as you party for us. To look into the merit of a may have seen an actress fall down dead in regular and well behaved woman is a slow a tragedyNot the least indecency in her thing. A loose trivial song gains the affecposture. If you have observed what pretty tions, when a wise homily is not attended carcasses are carried off at the end of a verse to. There is no other way but to make war at the theatre, it will give you a notion how upon them, or we must go over to them. Dulcissa plumps into a chair. Iere is a As for my part, I will show all the world it

little country girl that is very cunning, that is not for want of charms that I stand so is makes her use of being young and unbred, long unasked; and if you do not take meaZ and outdoes the ensnarers, who are almost sures for the immediate redress of us rigids,

twice her age. The air that she takes is to as the fellows call us, I can move with a come into company after a walk, and is speaking mien, can look significantly, can

very successfully out of breath upon occa- lisp, can trip, can loll, can start, can blush, 14 sion. Her mother is in the secret, and calls can rage, can weep, if I must do it, and can in her romp, and then looks round to see what be frighted as agreeably as any she in Eng19 young men stare at her.

land. All which is humbly submitted to • It would take up more than can come your spectatorial consideration, with all into one of your papers, to enumerate all humility, by your most humble servant, the particular airs of the younger company

MATILDA MOHAIR.' in this place. But I cannot omit Dulceorella, whose manner is the most indolent imaginable, but still as watchful of conquest as the

busiest virgin among us. She has a peculiar No. 493.) Thursday, September 25, 1712. i art of staring at a young fellow, till she sees

Qualem commendes etiam atque etiam adspice, ne mox be she has got him, and inflamed him by so Incutiant aliena tibi peccata pudorem. of much observation. When she sees she has

Hor. Lib. 1. Ep. xviii. 76. phim, and he begins to toss his head upon it, Commend not, till a man is thoroughly known:

she is immediately short-sighted, and la- A rascal prais'd, you make his faults your own. bours to observe what he is at a distance, with her eyes half shut. Thus the captive It is no unpleasant matter of speculation that thought her first struck, is to make to consider the recommendatory epistles very near approaches, or be wholly disre- that pass round this town from hand to garded. This artifice has done more execu- hand, and the abuse people put upon one tion than all the ogling of the rest of the another in that kind. It is indeed come to women here, with the utmost variety of that pass, that, instead of being the testihalf glances, attentive heedlessnesses, child- mony of merit in the person recommended, ish inadvertencies, haughty contempts, or the true reading of a letter of this sort is, artificial oversights. After I have said thus . The bearer hereof is so uneasy to me, that much of ladies among us who fight thus it will be an act of charity in you to take regularly, I am to complain to you of a set him off my hands; whether you prefer him of familiar romps, who have broken through or not, it is all one; for I have no manner of all common rules, and have thought of a kindness for him, or obligation to him or very effectual way of showing more charms his; and do what you please as to that.' As than all of us. These, Mr. Spectator, are negligent as men are in this respect, a point the swingers. You are to know these care- of honour is concerned in it; and there is less pretty creatures are very innocents nothing a man should be more ashamed of, again; and it is to be no matter what they than passing a worthless creature into the do for it is all harmless freedom. They get service or interests of a man who has never on ropes, as you must have seen the chil- injured you. The women indeed are a little dren, and are swung by their men visitants. too keen in their resentments to trespass The jest is, that Mr. Such-a-one can name often this way: but you shall sometimes the colour of Mrs. Such-a-one's stockings; know, that the mistress and the maid shall and she tells him he is a lying thief, so he quarrel, and give each other very free lanis, and full of roguery; and she will lay a guage, and at last the lady shall be pacified wager, and her sister shall tell the truth if to turn her out of doors, and give her a very he says right, and he cannot tell what colour good word to any body else. Hence it is her garters are of. In this diversion there that you see, in a year and a half's time, are very many pretty shrieks, not so much the same face a domestic in all parts of the for fear of falling, as that their petticoats town. Good-breeding and good-nature lead should untie; for there is a great care had people in a great measure to this injustice: to avoid improprieties; and the lover who when suitors of no consideration will have swings the lady is to tie her clothes very confidence enough to press upon their suclose together with his hatband, before she periors those in power are tender of speakadmits him to throw up her heels.

ing the exceptions they have against them, • Now, Mr. Spectator, except you can and are mortgaged into promises out of gote these wantonnesses in their beginnings, I their impatience of importunity. In this VOL. II.


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latter case, it would be a very useful in-We were coming down Essex-street one quiry to know the history of recommenda- night a little flustered, and I was giving tions. There are, you must know, certain him the word to alarm the watch; he had abettors of this way of torment, who make the impudence to tell me it was against the it a profession to manage the affairs of can- law. You that are married, and live one didates. These gentlemen let out their im- day after another the same way, and so on pudence to their clients, and supply any the whole week, I dare say will like him, defective recommendation, by informing and he will be glad to have his meat in due how such and such a man is to be attacked. season. The fellow is certainly very honest. They will tell you, get the least scrap from My service to your lady. Yours, J. T.' Mr. Such-a-one, and leave the rest to them.

Now this was very fair dealing. Jack When one of these undertakers has your knew very well, that though the love of business in hand, you may be sick, absent order made a man very awkward in his in town or country, and the patron shall be equipage, it was a valuable quality among worried, or you prevail

. I remember to the queer people who live by rule; and had have been shown a gentleman some years too much good-sense and good-nature to let ago, who punished a whole people for their the fellow starve, because he was not fit to facility in giving their credentials. This attend his vivacities. person had belonged to a regiment which

I shall end this discourse with a letter of did duty in the West Indies, and, by the recommendation from Horace to Claudius mortality of the place, happened to be Nero. You will see in that letter a slowcommanding officer in the colony. He op- ness to ask a favour, a strong reason for pressed his subjects with great frankness, being unable to deny his good word any till he became sensible that he was heartily longer, and that it is a service to the person hated by every man under his command. to whom he recommends, to comply with When he had carried his point to be thus what is asked: all which are necessary cirdetestable, in a pretended fit of dishumour, cumstances, both in justice and good-breedand feigned uneasiness of living where he ing, if a man would ask so as to have reasoy found he was so universally unacceptable, to complain of a denial; and indeed a man he communicated to the chief inhabitants a should not in strictness ask otherwise. In design he had to return for England, pro- hopes the authority of Horace, who pervided they would give him ample testi- fectly understood how to live with great monials of their approbation. The planters men, may have a good effect towards came into it to a man, and in proportion to amending this facility in people of condihis deserving the quite contrary, the words tion, and

the confidence of those who apply justice, generosity, and courage, were in to them without merit, I have translated serted in his commission, not omitting the the epistle. general good liking of people of all condi

"To Claudius Nero. tions in the colony. The gentleman returns for England, and within a few months after

SIR,-Septimus, who waits upon you came back to them their governor, on the with this, is very well acquainted with the strength of their own testimonials.

place you are pleased to allow me in your Such a rebuke as this cannot indeed hap- friendship. For when he beseeches me to pen to easy recommenders, in the ordinary recommend him to your notice in such a course of things from one hand to another; manner as to be received by you, who are but how would a man bear to have it said delicate in the choice of your friends and to him, “The person I took into confidence domestics, he knows our intimacy, and unon the credit you gave him, has proved derstands my ability to serve him better false, unjust, and has not answered any way than I do myself. I have defended myself the character you gave me of him?'

against his ambition to be yours, as long as I cannot but conceive very good hopes of I possibly could; but fearing the imputation that rake Jack Toper of the Temple, for of hiding my power in you out of mean and an honest scrupulousness in this point. A selfish considerations, I am at last prevailed friend of his meeting with a servant that upon to give you this trouble. Thus, to had formerly lived with Jack, and having avoid the appearance of a greater fault, I a mind to take him, sent to him to know have put on this confidence. If you can what faults the fellow had, since he could forgive this transgression of modesty in benot please such a careless fellow as he was. half of a friend, receive this gentleman into His answer was as follows:

your interests and friendship, and take it

from me that he is an honest and a brave “SIR,_Thomas, that lived with me, was


T. turned away because he was too good for

You know I live in taverns: he is an No. 494.] Friday, September 26, 1712. orderly sober rascal, and thinks much to

Ægritudinem laudare, unan rem maxime detestabi. sleep in an entry until two in the morning. lem, quorum est tandem philosophorum ? He told me one day, when he was dressing What kind of philosophy is it to extol melanchoły, me, that he wondered I was not dead before the most detestable thing in nature ? now, since I went to dinner in the evening, ABOUT an age ago it was the fashion in and went to supper at two in the morning. England for every one that would be

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thought religious to throw as much sanctity and when completed. The whole examinaas possible into his face, and in particular to tion was summed up with one short quesabstain from all appearances of mirth and tion, namely, whether he was prepared for

pleasantry, which were looked upon as the death? The boy, who had been bred up by 1 marks of a carnal mind. The saint was of honest parents, was frighted ont of his

a sorrowful countenance, and generally wits at the solemnity of the proceeding, eaten up with spleen and melancholy. A and by the last dreadful interrogatory; so gentleman, who was lately a great orna- that, upon making his escape out of this ment* to the learned world, has diverted house of mourning, he could never be

me more than once with an account of the brought second time, to the examination, i reception which he met with from a very as not being able to go through the terrors 1 famous independent minister, who was head of it. E of a colleget in those times. This gentle Notwithstanding this general form and

man was then a young adventurer in the outside of religion is pretty well worn out

republic of letters, and just fitted out for among us, there are many persons who, by -- the university with a good cargo of Latin a natural uncheerfulness of heart, mistaken T and Greek. His friends were resolved that notions of piety, or weakness of understand

he should try his fortune at an election ing, love to indulge this uncomfortable way À which was drawing near in the college, of of life, and give up themselves a prey to

which the independent minister whom I grief and melancholy. Superstitious fears

have before mentioned was governor. The and groundless scruples cut them off from pe youth, according to custom, waited on him the pleasures of conversation, and all those ci in order to be examined. He was received social entertainments, which are not only

at the door by a servant who was one of innocent, but laudable: as if mirth was that gloomy generation that were then in made for reprobates, and cheerfulness of fashion. He conducted him with great si- heart denied those who are the only persons lence and seriousness, to a long gallery, that have a proper title to it. which was darkened at noon-day, and had Sombrius is one of these sons of sorrow. only a single candle burning in it. After a He thinks himself obliged in duty to be sad short stay in this melancholy apartment, and disconsolate. He looks on a sudden fit he was led into a chamber hung with black, of laughter as a breach of his baptismal where he entertained himself for some time vow. An innocent jest startles him like by the glimmering of a taper, until at blasphemy. Tell him of one who is adlength the head of the college came out to vanced to title of honour, he lifts up his him from an inner room, with half a dozen hands and eyes: describe a public ceremonight-caps upon his head, and religious ny, he shakes his head; show him a gay horror in his countenance. The young man equipage, he blesses himself. All the little trembled: but his fears increased, when in- ornaments of life are pomps and vanities. stead of being asked what progress he had Mirth is wanton, and wit profane. He is made in learning, he was examined how he scandalized at youth for being lively, and abounded in grace. His Latin and Greek at childhood for being playful. He sits at stood him in little stead; he was to give an a christening, or marriage-feast, as at a fuaccount only of the state of his soul; whe- neral; sighs at the convulsion of a merry ther he was of the number of the elect; what story, and grows devout when the rest of was the occasion of the conversion, upon the company grow pleasant. After all, what day of the month, and hour of the Sombrius is a religious man, and would day it happened; how it was carried on, have behaved himself very properly, had

he lived when christianity was under a gia

neral persecution. The gentleman alluded to was Anthony Henley, Esq. son of Sir Robert Henley, of the Grange, in Hamp

I would by no means presume to tax sur h shire. He was the intimate friend of the most consider characters with hypocrisy, as is done too able wits of the time, and is helieved to have been an frequently; that being a vice which I think so high an opinion of him, that he dedicated his Dis.

none but He who knows the secrets of pensary to him“ in terms which must lead the reader men's hearts should pretend to discover in 10 form a very exalted idea of his virtues and accom another, where the proofs of it do not plishments." Mr. Henley died in August, 1711.

This was Dr. Thomas Goodwin, 's. T P. President amount to a demonstration. On the conof Magialen College. Oxford, and one of the assembly trary, as there are many excellent persons

of divines that sat at Westminster. Wood styles him who are weighed down by this habitual Es, dependency." In the character prefixed to his works, sorrow of heart, they rather deserve our

he is described as a man "much addicted to retirement compassion than our reproaches. I think, and deep contemplation : that he had been much ex: however, they would do well to consider he lived, and had a deep insight into the grace of God, whether such a behaviour does not deter and the covenant of grace." He attended Cromwell, men from a religious life, by representing his friend and patron, upon his death-brd, and was very it as an unsociable state, that extinguishes communicated to him in prayer, but a few minutes be all joy and gladness, darkens the face of nafore his deaths. When he found himself mistaken, in a ture, and destroys the relish of being itself. si haequent address to God, he exclaimed, “ Thou hast

I have, in former papers, shown how deceived us, and we were deceived." He died in Feb. 167) in the eightieth year of his age. - See Granger great a tendency there is to cheerfulness in

religion, and how such a frame of mid is

vol. ii.

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not only the most lovely, but the most com race of people called Jews, many of whom mendable in a virtuous person. In short, I have met with in most of the considerable those who represent religion in so unami-towns which I have passed through in the able a light, are like the spies sent by course of my travels. They are, indeed, so Moses to make a discovery of the Land of disseminated through all the trading parts Promise, when by their reports they dis- of the world, that they are become the incouraged the people from entering upon it. struments by which the most distant nations Those who show us the joy, the cheerful- converse with one another, and by which ness, the good humour, that naturally mankind are knit together in a general corspring up in this happy state, are like the respondence. They are like the pegs and spies bringing along with them the clusters nails in a great building, which, though they of grapes, and delicious fruits, that might are but little valued in themselves, are abinvite their companions into the pleasant solutely necessary to keep the whole frame country which produced them.

together. An eminent pagan writer* has made a That I may not fall into any common discourse to show that the atheist, who de- beaten tracks of observation, I shall consinies a God, does him less dishonour than der this people in three views: First, with the man who owns his being; but at the regard to their number; secondly, their same time believes him to be cruel, hard dispersion; and thirdly their adherence to to please, and terrible to human nature. their religion: and afterwards endeavour *For my own part,' says he, “I would ra- to show first, what natural reasons, and ther it should be said of me, that there secondly, what providential reasons, may was never any such man as Plutarch, than be assigned for these three remarkable that Plutarch' was ill-natured, capricious, particulars. or inhuman.

The Jews are looked upon by many to be If we may believe our logicians, man is as numerous at present, as they were fordistinguished from all other creatures by merly in the land of Canaan. the faculty of laughter. He has a heart This is wonderful, considering the dreadcapable of mirth, and naturally disposed to ful slaughter made of them under some of it. It is not the business of virtue to extir- the Roman emperors, which historians pate the affections of the mind, but to regu- describe by the death of many hundred late them. It may moderate and restrain, thousands in a war; and the innumerable but was not designed to banish gladness massacres and persecutions they have unfrom the heart of man. Religion contracts dergone in Turkey, as well as in all Christhe circle of our pleasures, but leaves it tian nations of the world. The rabbins, to wide enough for her votaries to expatiate express the great havoc which has been in. The contemplation of the divine Being, sometimes made of them, tell us, after their and the exercise of virtue, are in their own usual manner of hyperbole, that there were nature, so far from excluding all gladness such torrents of holy blood shed, as carried of heart, that they are perpetually sources rocks of a hundred yards in circumference of it. In a word, the true spirit of religion above three miles into the sea. cheers, as well as composes, the soul; it Their dispersion is the second remarkbanishes indeed all levity of behaviour, 'all able particular in this people. They swarm vicious and dissolute mirth; but in exchange over all the East, and are settled in the refills the mind with a perpetual serenity, motest parts of China. They are spread uninterrupted cheerfulness, and an habi- through most of the nations in Europe and tual inclination to please others, as well as Africa, and many families of them are to be pleased in itself.

O. established in the West Indies: not to men

tion whole nations bordering on Prester

John's country, and some discovered in the No. 495.] Saturday, September 27, 1712. inner parts of America, if we may give any

credit to their own writers. Duris ut ilex tonsa bipennibus

Their firm adherence to their religion is Nigræ feraci frondis in Algido, Per damna, per cædes, ab ipso

no less remarkable than their numbers and Ducit opes animumque ferro.

dispersion, especially considering it as perHor. Od. iv. Lib. 4. 57.

secuted or contemned over the face of the -Like an oak on some cold mountain's brow, whole earth. This is likewise the more At ev'ry wound they sprout and grow : The axe and sword new vigour give,

remarkable, if we consider the frequent And by their ruins they revive.-Anon. apostacies of this people, when they lived As I am one who, by my profession, am under their kings in the land of promise, obliged to look into all kinds of men, there and within sight of the temple. are none whom I consider with so much If in the next place we examine what pleasure, as those who have any thing new may be the natural reasons of these three or extraordinary in their characters or particulars which we find in the Jews, and ways of living. For this reason I have often which are not to be found in any other reamused myself with speculations on the ligion or people, I can, in the first place,

attribute their numbers to nothing but their * Plut. Ilspur A:103820401045. Plut. Opera, tom. i. constant employment, their abstinence, p. 286. H. Steph. 1572, 12mo.

their exemption from wars, and, above all,

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their frequent marriages; for they look on on the genius and temper of mankind, by celibacy as an accursed state, and generally considering the various bent and scope of are married before twenty, as hoping the our actions throughout the progress of life, Messiah may descend from them.

have with great exactness allotted inclinaThe dispersion of the Jews into all the tions and objects of desire particular to dations of the earth, is the second remark- every stage, according to the different cirable particular of that people, though not cumstances of our conversation and fortune, so hard to be accounted for. They were through the several periods of it. Hence always in rebellions and tumults while they ; they were disposed easily to excuse those had the temple and holy city in view, for i excesses which might possibly arise from which reason they have often been driven ' a too eager pursuit of the affections more out of their old habitations in the land of immediately proper to each state. They promise. They have as (ften been banish- indulged the levity of childhood with tened out of most other places where they ¡derness, overlooked the gayety of youth have settled, which must very much dis- with good-nature, tempered the forward perse and scatter a people, and oblige them ambition and impatience of ripened manto seek a livelihood where they can find it. hood with discretion, and kindly im puted Besides, the whole people is now a race of the tenacious avarice of old men to their such merchants as are wanderers by pro- want of relish for any other enjoyment. fession, and, at the same time, are in most, Such allowances as these were no less adif not all places, incapable of either lands vantageous to common society than obliging or offices, that might engage them to make to particular persons; for, by maintaining any part of the world their home.

a decency and regularity in the course of This dispersion would probably have lost life, they supported the dignity of human their religion, had it not been secured by nature, which then suffers the greatest viothe strength of its constitution: for they are lence when the order of things is inverted; to live all in a body, and generally within and in nothing is it more remarkably vilithe same enclosure; to marry among them- fied and ridiculous, than when feebleness selves, and to eat no meats that are not preposterously attempts to adorn itself killed or prepared their own way. This with that outward pomp and lustre, which shuts them out from all table conversation, serve only to set off the bloom of youth and the most agreeable intercourses of life; with better advantage. I was insensibly and, by consequence, excludes them from carried into reflections of this nature, by the most probable means of conversion. just now meeting Paulino (who is in his

If, in the last place, we consider what climacteric) bedecked with the utmost providential reasons may be assigned for splendour of dress and equipage, and giving these three particulars, we shall find that an unbounded loose to all manner of pleatheir numbers, dispersion, and adherence sure, whilst his only son is debarred all to their religion, have furnished every age, innocent diversion, and may be seen freand every nation of the world, with the quently solacing himself in the Mall with strongest arguments for the Christian faith, no other attendance than one antiquated not only as these very particulars are fore- servant of his father's for a companion and told of them, but as they themselves are director. the depositaries of these, and all the other It is a monstrous want of reflection, that prophecies, which tend to their own con- a man cannot consider, that when he canfusion. Their number furnishes us with not resign the pleasures of life in his decay a sufficient cloud of witnesses that attest of appetite and inclination to them, his son the truth of the old Bible. Their disper- must have a much uneasier task to resist sion spreads these witnesses through all the impetuosity of growing desires. The parts of the world. The adherence to their skill therefore should methinks be, to let a religion makes their testimony unquestion- son want no lawful diversion, in proportion able. Had the whole body of the Jews to his future fortune, and the figure he is been converted to Christianity, we should to make in the world. The first step tocertainly have thought all the prophecies wards virtue that I have observed, in young of the Old Testament, that relate to the men of condition that have run into excoming and history of our blessed Saviour, cesses, has been that they had a regard to forged by Christians, and have looked upon their quality and reputation in the managethem with the prophecies of the Sybils, as ment of their vices. Narrowness in their made many years after the events they pre- circumstances has made many youths, to tended to foretell.

supply themselves as debauchees, com

mence cheats and rascals. The father who No. 496.) Monday, September 29, 1712. allows his son to the utmost ability avoids

this latter evil, which as to the world is Gnatum pariter uti his deruit aut etiam amplius, Quod illa ætas magis ad hæc utenda idonea est. much greater than the former. But the

contrary practice has prevailed so much Your son ought to have shared in these things, be among some men, that I have known them cause youth is best suited to the enjoyment of them. deny them what was merely necessary for

•Mr. SPECTATOR,-Those ancients who education suitable to their quality. Poor were the most accurate in their remarks a young Antonio is a lamentable instance of


Terent. Hecut. Act. i. Sc. 1.

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