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those who are like myself, and love to live that a friend of mine, who had many things in gardens, have never thought of contriv- to buy for his family, would obligé me to ing a winter garden, which would consist walk with him to the shops. He was very of such trees only as never cast their leaves. nice in his way, and fond of having every We have very often little snatches of sun- thing shown; which at first made me very shine and fair weather in the most uncom- uneasy; but, as his humour still continued, fortable parts of the year, and have fre- the things which I had been staring at quently several days in November and along with him began to fill my head, and January that are as agreeable as any in the led me into a set of amusing thoughts confinest months. At such times, therefore, I cerning them. think there could not be a greater pleasure • I fancied it must be very surprising to than to walk in such a winter garden as I any one who enters into a detail of fashions have proposed. In the summer season the to consider how far the vanity of mankind whole country blooms, and is a kind of gar- has laid itself out in dress, what a proden; for which reason we are not so sensi- digious number of people it maintains, and ble of those beauties that at this time may what a circulation of money it occasions. be every where met with; but when nature Providence in this case makes use of the is in her desolation, and presents us with folly which we will not give up, and it benothing but bleak and barren prospects, comes instrumental to the support of those there is something unspeakably cheerful in who are willing to labour. Hence it is that a spot of ground which is covered with trees fringe-makers, lace-men, tire-women, and that smile amidst all the rigour of winter, a number of other trades, which would be and give us a view of the most gay season useless in a simple state of nature, draw in the midst of that which is the most dead their subsistence; though it is seldom seen and melancholy. I have so far indulged that such as these are extremely rich, bemyself in this thought, that I have set apart cause their original fault of being founded a whole acre of ground for the executing of upon vanity keeps them poor by the light it. The walls are covered with ivy instead inconstancy of its nature. The variableness of vines. The laurel, the horn-beam, and of fashion turns the stream of business, the holly, with many other trees and plants which flows from it, now into one channel, of the same nature, grow so thick in it, and anon into another; so that the different that you cannot imagine a more lively sets of people sink or flourish in their turns scene. The glowing redness of the ber- by it. ries, with which they are hung at this time, **From the shops we retired to the tavern, vies with the verdure of their leaves, and where I found my friend express so much is apt to inspire the heart of the beholder satisfaction for the bargains he had made, with that vernal delight which you have that my moral reflections (if I had told somewhere taken notice of in your former them) might have passed for a reproof; papers. It is very pleasant, at the same so I chose rather to fall in with him, time, to see the several kinds of birds re- and let the discourse run upon the use of tiring into this little green spot, and enjoy- fashions. ing themselves among the branches and • Here we remembered how much man foliage, when my great garden, which I is governed by his senses, how lively he is have before mentioned to you, does not af- struck by the objects which appear to him ford a single leaf for their shelter. in an agreeable manner, how much clothes

• You must know, sir, that I look upon contribute to make us agreeable objects, the pleasure which we take in a garden as and how much we owe it to ourselves that one of the most innocent delights in human we should appear so. life. A garden was the habitation of our •We considered man as belonging to first parents before the fall. It is naturally societies; societies as formed of different apt to fill the mind with calmness and tran- ranks; and different ranks distinguished by quillity, and to lay all its turbulent passions habits, that all proper duty or respect at rest. It gives us a great insight into the might attend their appearance. contrivance and wisdom of Providence, and •We took notice of several advantages suggests innumerable subjects for medita- which are met with in the occurrences of tion. I cannot but think the very compla- conversation; how the bashful man has beer cency and satisfaction which a man takes in sometimes so raised, as to express himself these works of nature to be a laudable, if with an air of freedom when he imagines not a virtuous, habit of mind. For all which that his habit introduces him to company reasons I hope you will pardon the length with a becoming manner; and again, how of my present letter. I am, sir, &c.' C.) a fool in fine clothes shall be suddenly

heard with attention, till he has betrayed

himself; whereas a man of sense appearing No. 478.] Monday, September 8, 1712. with a dress of negligence, shall be but

Tens,

coldly received till he be proved by time, Quem penes arbitrium est, et jus et norma and established in a character. Such things

as these we could recollect to have hap Fashion, sole arbitress of dress.

pened to our own knowledge so very often, “MR. SPECTATOR,-It happened lately that we concluded the author had his rea

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Hor. Ars Poet. v. 72.

sons, who advises his son to go in dress | lars, who might have been otherwise useful rather above his fortune than under it. to the world, have spent their time in study

• At last the subject seemed so considering to describe the dresses of the ancients able, that it was proposed to have a re- from dark hints, which they are fain to pository built for fashions, as there are interpret and support with much learning; chambers for medals and other rarities. it will from henceforth happen that they The building may be shaped as that which shall be freed from the trouble, and the stands among the pyramids, in the form of world from useless volumes. This project a woman's head. This may be raised upon will be a registry, to which posterity may pillars, whose ornaments shall bear a just have recourse, for the clearing such obscure relation to the design. Thus there may be passages as tend that way in authors; and an imitation of fringe carved in the base, a therefore we shall not for the future submit sort of appearance of lace in the frieze, and ourselves to the learning of etymology, a representation of curling locks, with bows which might persuade the age to come that of ribband sloping over them, may fill up the farthingale was worn for cheapness, or the work of the cornice. The inside may the furbelow for warmth. be divided into two apartments appropriated · Fourthly, Whereas they, who are old to each sex. The apartments may be filled themselves, have often a way of railing at with shelves, on which boxes are to stand the extravagance of youth, and the whole as regularly as books in a library. These age in which their children live; it is hoped are to have folding doors, which, being that this ill-humour will be much supopened, you are to behold a baby dressed pressed, when we can have recourse to the out in some fashion which has flourished, fashions of their times, produce them in and standing upon a pedestal, where the our vindication, and be able to show, that time of its reign is marked down. For its it might have been as expensive in queen farther regulation, let it be ordered, that Elizabeth's time only to wash and quill a every one who invents a fashion shall bring ruff, as it is now to buy cravats or neck in his box, whose front he may at pleasure handkerchiefs. have either worked or painted with some • We desire also to have it taken notice amorous or gay device, that, like books of, that because we would show a particular with gilded leaves and covers, it may the respect to foreigners, which may induce sooner draw the eyes of the beholders. them to perfect their breeding here in a And to the end that these may be preserved knowledge which is very proper for pretty with all due care, let there be a keeper ap- gentlemen, we have conceived the motto pointed, who shall be a gentleman qualified for the house in the learned language. with a competent knowledge in clothes; so There is to be a picture over the door, with that by this means the place will be a com- a looking-glass and a dressing chair in the fortable support for some beau who has middle of it; then on one side are to be spent his estate in dressing.

seen, above one another, patch-boxes, pin• The reasons offered, by which we ex- cushions, and little bottles; on the other, pected to gain the approbation of the public, powder-bags, puffs, combs, and brushes; were as follows:

beyond these, swords with fine knots, whose * First, That every one who is consider- points are hidden, and fans almost closed, able enough to be a mode, and has any im- with the handles downward, are to stand perfection of nature or chance, which it is out interchangeably from the sides, until possible to hide by the advantage of clothes, they meet at the top, and form a semicircle may, by coming to this repository, be fur- over the rest of the figures: beneath all, nished herself, and furnish all who are the writing is to run in this pretty sounding under the same misfortune, with the most manner: agreeable manner of concealing it; and that,

“Adeste, o quotquot sunt, Veneres, Gratiæ, Cupidines, on the other side, every one, who has any En vobis adsunt in promptu beauty in face or shape, may also be fur Faces, vincula, spicula ; nished with the most agreeable manner of

Hinc eligite, sumite, regite." showing it.

“ All ye Venusses, Graces, and Capids, attend : ‘Secondly, That whereas some of our

See, prepared to your hands,

Darts, torches, and bands: young gentlemen who travel, give us great Your weapons here choose, and your empire extend." reason to suspect that they only go abroad to make or improve a fancy for dress, a

• I am, sir,

•Your most humble servant, project of this nature may be a means to keep them at home; which is in effect the

"A. B.' keeping of so much money in the kingdom. The proposal of my correspondent I canAnd perhaps the balance of fashion in not but look upon as an ingenious method Europe, which now leans upon the side of of placing persons (whose parts make them France, may be so altered for the future, ambitious to exert themselves in frivolous that it may become as common with French- things) in a rank by themselves. In order men to come to England for their finishing to this, I would propose that there be a stroke of breeding, as it has been for Eng- board of directors of the fashionable society; lishmen to go to France for it.

and, because it is a matter of too much • Thirdly, Whereas several great scho- I weight for a private man to determine

alone, I should be highly obliged to my, especially in the domestic, or matrimonial correspondents if they would give in lists of part of it, to preserve always a disposition persons qualified for this trust. If the chief to be pleased. This cannot be supported coffee-houses, the conversations of which but by considering things in their right places are carried on by persons, each of light, and as Nature has formed them, and whom has his little number of followers not as our own fancies or appetites would and admirers, would name from among have them. He then who took a young themselves two or three to be inserted, they lady to his bed, with no other considerashould be put up with great faithfulness. tion than the expectation of scenes of dalOld beaus are to be represented in the first liance, and thought of her (as I said before) place; but as that sect, with relation to only as she was to administer to the gratidress, is almost extinct, it will, I fear, be fication of desire; as that desire fags, will, absolutely necessary to take in all time without her fault, think her charms and servers, properly so deemed; that is, such her merit abated: from hence must follow as, without any conviction of conscience, or indifference, dislike, peevishness, and rage. view of interest, change with the world, But the man who brings his reason to supand that merely from a terror of being out port his passion, and beholds what he loves of fashion. Such also, who from facility of as liable to all the calamities of human life, temper, and too much obsequiousness, are both in body and mind, and even at the vicious against their will, and follow leaders best what must bring upon hím new cares, whom they do not approve, for want of and new relations; such a lover, I say, will courage to go their own way, are capable form himself accordingly, and adapt his persons for this superintendency. Those mind to the nature of his circumstances. who are loth to grow old, or would do any This latter person will be prepared to be a thing contrary to the course and order of father, a friend, an advocate, a steward for things, out of fondness to be in fashion, are people yet unborn, and has proper affecproper candidates. To conclude, those who tions ready for every incident in the marare in fashion without apparent merit, must riage state. Such a man can hear the cries be supposed to have latent qualities, which of children with pity instead of anger; and, would appear in a post of direction; and when they run over his head, he is not distherefore are to be regarded in forming turbed at their noise, but is glad of their these lists. Any who shall be pleased ac- minh and health. Tom Trusty has told cording to these, or what farther qualifica- me, that he thinks it doubles his attention tions may occur to himself, to send a list, is to the most intricate affair he is about, to desired to do it within fourteen days from hear his children, for whom all his cares this date.

are applied, make a noise in the next room: N. B. The place of the physician to this on the other side, Will Sparkish cannot society, according to the last mentioned put on his periwig, or adjust his cravat at the qualification, is already engaged. T. glass, for the noise of those damned nurses

and squalling brats; and then ends with a

gallant reflection upon the comforts of maNo. 479.] Tuesday, September 9, 1712.

trimony, runs out of the hearing, and drives

to the chocolate-house. -Dare jura maritis.

According as the husband is disposed in

himself, every circumstance of his life is to To regulate the matrimonial life.

give him torment or pleasure. When the Many are the epistles I every day receive affection is well placed, and supported by from husbands who complain of vanity, the considerations of duty, honour, and pride, but, above all, ill-nature in their friendship, which are in the highest degree wives. I cannot tell how it is, but I think engaged in this alliance, there can nothing I see in all their letters that the cause of rise in the common course of life, or from their uneasiness is in themselves; and indeed the blows or favours of fortune, in which a I have hardly ever observed the married man will not find matters of some delight condition unhappy, but for want of judg- unknown to a single condition. ment or temper in the man. The truth is, He who sincerely loves his wife and fawe generally make love in a style and with mily, and studies to improve that affection sentiments very unfit for ordinary life: they in himself, conceives pleasure from the are half theatrical and half romantic. By most indifferent things; while the married this means we raise our imaginations to man, who has not bid adieu to the fashions what is not to be expected in human life; and false gallantries of the town, is perand, because we did not beforehand think plexed with every thing around him. In of the creature we are enamoured of, as both these cases men cannot, indeed, make subject to dishonour, age, sickness, im- a sillier figure than in repeating such pleapatience, or sullenness, but altogether con- sures and pains to the rest of the world, sidered her as the object of joy; human but I speak of them only as they sit upon nature itself is often imputed to her as her those who are involved in them.” As I visit particular imperfection, or defect. all sorts of people, I cannot indeed but

I take it to be a rule, proper to be ob- smile, when the good lady tells her husband served in all occurrences of life, but more. what extraordinary things the child spoke

Hor. Ars Poet. 398.

since he went out. No longer than yester- 1 tippe, that I bear so well your flying out in day I was prevailed with to go home with a dispute.' To another, “My hen clacks a fond husband: and his wife told him, that very much, but she brings me chickens. his son, of his own head, when the clock in They that live in a trading street are not the parlour struck two, said papa would disturbed at the passage of carts.' I would come home to dinner presently. While have, if possible, a wise man be contented the father has him in a rapture in his arms, with his lot, even with a shrew; for, though and is drowning him with kisses, the wife he cannot make her better, he may, you tells me he is but just four years old. Then see, make himself better by her means. they both struggle for him, and bring him But, instead of pursuing my design of up to me, and repeat his observation of two displaying conjugal love in its natural beauo'clock. I was called upon, by looks upon ties and attractions, I am got into tales to the child, and then at me, to say some- the disadvantage of that state of life. I thing; and I told the father that this remark must say, therefore, that I am verily perof the infant of his coming home, and join- suaded, that whatever is delightful in human ing the time with it, was a certain indica- life is to be enjoyed in greater perfection in tion that he would be a great historian and the married than in the single condition. chronologer. They are neither of them He that has this passion in perfection, in fools, yet received my compliment with occasions of joy, can say to himself, besides great acknowledgment of my prescience. his own satisfaction, How happy will this I fared very well at dinner, and heard make my wife and children!' Upon occurmany other notable sayings of their heir, rences of distress or danger, can comfort which would have given very little enter- himself: “But all this while my wife and tainment to one less turned to reflection children are safe.' There is something in than I was: but it was a pleasing specula- it that doubles satisfactions, because others tion to remark on the happiness of a life, in participate them; and dispels afflictions, which things of no moment give occasion because others are exempt from them. All of hope, self-satisfaction, and triumph. On who are married without this relish of their the other hand, I have known an ill-natured circumstances, are in either a tasteless incoxcomb, who has hardly improved in any dolence and negligence, which is hardly to thing but bulk, for want of this disposition, be attained, or else live in the hourly repesilence the whole family as a set of silly tition of sharp answers, eager upbraidings, women and children, for recounting things and distracting reproaches. In a word, the which were really above his own capacity. married state, with and without the affec

When I say all this, I cannot deny but tion suitable to it, is the completest image there are perverse jades that fall to men's of heaven and hell we are capable of relots, with whom it requires more than com-ceiving in this life.

T. mon proficiency in philosophy to be able to live. * When these are joined to men of warm spirits, without temper or learning, No. 480.] Wednesday, September 10, 1712. they are frequently corrected with stripes;

Responsare cupidinibus, contemnere honores, but one of our famous lawyers* is of opinion, Fortis, et in seipso totus teres, atque rotundus. “that this ought to be used sparingly;' as I remember, those are his very words: but

He, sir, is proof to grandeur, pride, or pelf,

And, greater still, he 's master of himself: as it is proper to draw some spiritual use

Not to and fro by fears and factions hurl'd, out of all afflictions, I should rather recom But loose to all the interests of the world; mend to those who are visited with women

And while the world turns round, entire and whole,

He keeps the sacred tenor of his soul.- Pitt. of spirit, to form themselves for the world by patience at home. Socrates, who is by The other day, looking over those old all accounts the undoubted head of the sect manuscripts of which I have formerly of the hen-pecked, owned and acknow. given some account, and which relate to ledged that he owed great part of his virtue the character of the mighty Pharamond of to the exercise which his useful wife con- France, and the close friendship between stantly gave it. There are several good him and his friend Eucrate, I found among instructions may be drawn from his wise the letters which had been in the custody answers to the people of less fortitude than of the latter, an epistle from a country genhimself on her subject. A friend, with in- tleman to Pharamond, wherein he excuses dignation, asked how so good a man could himself from coming to court. live with so violent a creature? He ob- tleman, it seems, was contented with his served to him, that they who learn to keep condition, had formerly been in the king's a good seat on horse-back, mount the least service; but at the writing the following manageable they can get; and, when they letter, had, from leisure and reflection, have mastered them, they are sure never quite another sense of things than that to be discomposed on the backs of steeds which he had in the more active part of less restive. At several times, to different his life. persons, on the same subject he has said, My dear friend, you are beholden to Xan

Monsieur Chezluy to Pharamond.

“DREAD SIR, I have from your own hand (enclosed under the cover of Mr.

Hor. Sat. vii. Lib. 2. 85.

The gen

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* Bracton.

Eucrate, of your majesty's bed-chamber) a | tell you, sir, this is the reason that we in letter which invites me to court. I under-the country hear so often repeated the stand this great honour to be done me out word prerogative. That part of your law of respect and inclination to me, rather which is reserved in yourself, for the reathan regard to our own service; for which dier service and good of the public, slight reason I beg leave to lay before your ma men are eternally buzzing in our ears, to jesty my reasons for declining to depart cover their own follies and miscarriages. from home; and will not doubt but, as vour | It would be an addition to the high favour motive in desiring my attendance was to you have done me, if you would let Eucrate make me a happier man, when you think send me word how often, and in what cases, that will not be effected by my remove, you allow a constable to insist upon the you will permit me to stay where I am. prerogative. From the highest to the lowThose who have an ambition to appear in est officer in your dominions, something of courts, have either an opinion that their their own carriage they would exempt persons or their talents are particularly from examination, under the shelter of the formed for the service or ornament of that word prerogative. I wculd fain, most noble place! or else are hurried by downright Pharamond, see one of your officers assert desire of gain, or what they call honour, your prerogative by good and gracious acto take upon themselves whatever the tions. When is it used to help the afflicted, generosity of their master can give them to rescue the innocent, to comfort the opportunities to grasp at. But your good- stranger? Uncommon methods, apparently ness shall not be thus imposed upon by me: undertaken to attain worthy ends, would I will therefore confess to you, that fre- never make power invidious. You see, sir, quent solitude, and long conversation with I talk to you with the freedom your noble such who know no arts which polish life, nature approves in all whom you admit to have made me the plainest creature in your your conversation. dominions. Those less capacities of moving • But, to return to your majesty's letter, with a good grace, bearing a ready aff1- I humbly conceive that all distinctions are bility to all around me, and acting with useful to men, only as they are to act in ease before many, have quite left me. I public; and it would be a romantic madness am come to that, with regard to my per- for a man to be lord in his closet. Nothing son, that I consider it only as a machine I can be honourable to a man apart from the am obliged to take care of, in order to en-world, but reflection upen worthy actions; joy my soul in its faculties with alacrity; and he that places honour in a consciouswell remembering that this habitation of ness of well doing will have but little relish clay will in a few years be a meaner piece for any ontward homage that is paid him, of earth than any utensil about my house. since what gives him distinction to himself, When this is, as it really is, the most fre- cannot come within the observation of his quent reflection I have, you will easily beholders. Thus all the words of lordship, imagine how well I should become a draw- honour, and grace, are only repetitions to ing-room: add to this, what shall a man a man that the king has ordered him to be without desires do about the generous Pha- called so; but no evidences that there is any ramond? Monsieur Eucrate has hinted to thing in himself, that would give the man, me, that you have thoughts of disi inguish- who applies to him, those ideas, without ing me with titles. As for myself, in the the creation of his master. temper of my present mind, appellations •I have, most noble Pharamond, all ho of honour would but embarrass discourse, nours and all titles in your approbation: I and new behaviour towards me perplex me triumph in them as they are in your gift, I in every habitude of life. I am also to ac- refuse them as they are to give me the knowledge to you, that my children of observation of others. Indulge me,my noble whom your majesty condescended to in- master, in this chastity of renown; let me quire, are all of them mean, both in their know myself in the favour of Pharamond; persons and genius. The estate my eldest and look down upon the applause of the son is heir to, is more than he can enjoy people. I am, in all duty and loyalty, your with a good grace. My self-love will not majesty's most obedient subject and sercarry me so far as to impose upon mankind vant,

JEAN CHEZLUY.' the advancement of persons (merely for their being related to me) into high distinc “SIR, -I need not tell with what disadtions, who ought for their own sakes, as well vantages men of low fortunes and great as that of the public, to affect obscurity. I modesty come into the world; what wrong wish, my generous prince, as it is in your measures their diffidence of themselves, power to give honours and offices, it were and fear of offending, often oblige them to also to give talents suitable to them: were take; and what a pity it is that their greatest it so, the noble Pharamond would reward virtues and qualities, that should soonest the zeal of my youth with abilities to do recommend them, are the main obstacles him service in my age.

in the way of their preferment. • Those who accept of favour without “This, sir, is my case; I was bred at a merit, support themselves in it at the ex- country-school, where I learned Latin and pense of your majesty. Give me leave tol Greek. The misfortunes of my family Vol. II.

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