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other notable discovery of the like im- | Vatican manuscript for I reads it; but this portance. Indeed, when a different reading must have been the hallucination of the gives us a different sense or a new elegance transcriber, who probably mistook the dash in an author, the editor does very well in of the I for a T. taking notice of it; but when he only enter Stanza the second, verse the second. The tains us with the several ways of spelling fatal stroke.] Scioppius, Salmasius, and the same word, and gathers together the many others, for the read a; but I have various blunders and mistakes of twenty or stuck to the usual reading. thirty different transcribers, they only take Verse the third. Till by her wit. ] Some up the time of the learned readers, and manuscripts have it his wit, others your, puzzle the minds of the ignorant. I have others their wit. But as I find Corinna to often fancied with myself how enraged an be the name of a woman in other authors, I old Latin author would be, should he see cannot doubt but it should be her. the several absurdities, in sense and gram Stanza the third, verse the first. Along mar, which are imputed to him by some or and lasting anguish.] The German manuother of these various readings. In one he script reads å lasting passion, but the speaks nonsense; in another makes use of a rhyme will not admit it. word that was never heard of; and indeed Verse the second. For Belvidera I enthere is scarce a solecism in writing which dure.) Did not all the manuscripts reclaim, the best author is not guilty of, if we may I should change Belvidera into Pelvidera; be at liberty to read him in the words of Pelvis being used by several of the ancient some manuscript which the laborious editor comic writers for a looking.glass, by which has thought fit to examine in the prosecu- means the etymology of the word is very tion of his work.

visible, and Pelvidera will signify a lady I question not but the ladies and pretty who often looks in her glass; as indeed she fellows will be very curious to understand had very good reason, if she had all those what it is that I have been hitherto talking beauties which our poet here ascribes to her. of. I shall therefore give them a notion of Verse the third. Hourly 1 sigh and this practice, by endeavouring to write hourly languish.] Some for the word after the manner of several persons who hourly read daily, and others nightly; the make an eminent figure in the republic of last has great anthorities of its side. letters. To this end we will suppose that Verse the fourth. The wonted cure.] the following song is an old ode, which I The elder Stevens reads wanted cure. present to the public in a new edition, with Stanza the fourth, verse the second. the several various readings which I find After a thousand beauties.) In several of it informer editions, and in ancient copies we meet with a hundred beauties, manuscripts. Those who cannot relish the by the usual error of the transcribers, who various readings, will perhaps find their probably omitted a cypher, and had not account in the song, which never before taste enough to know that the word thouappeared in print.

8und was ten times a greater compliment My love was fickle once and changing,

to the poet's mistress than a hundred. Nore'er would settle in my heart;

Verse the fourth. And finds variety in Proin beauty still to beanty ranging,

one. ] Most of the ancient manuscripts have In every face I found a dart.

it in two. Indeed so many of them concur • 'Twas first a charming shape enslav'd me; in this last reading, that I am very much An eye then gave the fatal stroke:

in doubt whether it ought not to take place. Till by her wit Corinna sav'd me, And all my former fetters broke.

There are but two reasons which incline • But now a long and lasting anguish

me to the reading as I have published it: For Belvidera l endure;

first, because the rhyme; and, secondly, Hourly I sigh, and hourly languish,

because the sense is preserved by it. It Nor hope to find the wonted cure.

might likewise proceed from the oscitancy • For here the faise unconstant lover,

of transcribers, who, to despatch their After a thousand beauties shown,

work the sooner, used to write all numbers Does new surprising charms discover, And finds variety in one.'

in cypher, and seeing the figure 1 followed

by a little dash of the pen, as is customary Various Readings.

in old manuscripts, they perhaps mistook Stanza the first, verse the first. And the dash for a second figure, and, by casting changing.) The and in some manuscripts up both together, composed out of them is written thus, &; but that in the Cotton the figure 2. But this I shall leave to the library writes it in three distinct letters. learnetl, without determining any thing in

Verse the second. Nor e'er would.] a matter of so great uncertainty. C. Aldus reads it ever would; but as this would hurt the metre, we have restored it to the genuine reading, by observing that synære- No. 471.] Saturday, August 30, 1712. sis which had been neglected by ignorant transcribers.

'Εν ελπισιν χρη τους σοφ8 • εχειν βιοου. Εuripid.

The wise with hope support the pains of life. Ibid. In my heart.] Scaliger and others, on my heart.

The time present seldom affords sufVerse the fourth. I found a dart.] Thelficient employment in the mind of man.

Objects of pain or pleasure, love or admi- | but every reader will draw a moral from ration, do not lie thick enough together in this story, and apply it to himself without life to keep the soul in constant action, and my direction. supply an immediate exercise to its facul The old story of Pandora's box (which ties. In order, therefore, to remedy this many of the learned believe was formed defect, that the mind may not want busi- among the heathens upon the tradition of ness, but always have materials for think- the fall of man) shows us how deplorable a ing, she is endowed with certain powers, state they thought the present life, without that can recall what is passed, and antici- hope. To set forth the utmost condition of pate what is to come.

misery, they tell us, that our forefather, That wonderful faculty, which we call according to the pagan theology, had a the memory, is perpetually looking back, great vessel presented him by Pandcra. when we have nothing present to entertain Upon his lifting up the lid of it, says the us. It is like those repositories in several fable, there flew out all the calamities and animals that are filled with stores of their distempers incident to men, from which, former food, on which they may ruminate till that time, they had been altogether when their present pasture fails.

exempt. Hope, who had been enclosed in As the memory relieves the mind in her the cup with so much bad compairy, invacant moments, and prevents any chasms stead of flying off with the rest, stuck so of thought by ideas of what is passed, we close to the lid of it, that it was shut down have other faculties that agitate and em- upon her. ploy her for what is to come.

These are I shall make but two reflections upon the passions of hope and fear.

what I have hitherto said. First, that no By these two passions we reach forward kind of life is so happy as that which is full into futurity, and bring up to our present of hope, especially when the hope is well thoughts objects that lie hid in the remotest grounded, and when the object of it is of an depths of time. We suffer misery and en- exalted kind, and in its nature proper to joy happiness, before they are in being; we make the person happy who enjoys it. This can set the sun and stars forward, or lose proposition must be very evident to those sight of them by wandering into those re- who consider how few are the present entired parts of eternity, when the heavens joyments of the most happy man, and how and earth shall be no more. By the way, ) insufficient to give him an entire satisfaction who can imagine that the existence of a and acquiescence in them. creature is to be circumscribed by time, My next observation is this, that a reliwhose thoughts are not? But I shall, in gious life is that which most abounds in a this paper, confine myself to that particu- well-grounded hope, and such a one as is lar passion which goes by the name of fixed on objects that are capable of making hope.

us entirely happy. This hope in a religious Our actual enjoyments are so few and man is much more sure and certain than transient, that man would be a very miser- the hope of any temporal blessing, as it is able being, were he not endowed with this strengthened not only by reason, but by passion, which gives him a taste of those faith. It has at the same time its eye pergood things that may possibly come into his petually fixed on that state, which implies possession. We should hope for every in the very notion of it the most full and thing that is good,' says the old poet Linus, complete happiness.

because there is nothing which may not I have before shown how the influence of be hoped for, and nothing but what the hope in general sweetens life, and makes gods are able to give us.' Hope quickens our present condition supportable, if not all the still parts of life, and keeps the mind pleasing; but a religious hope has still awake in her most remiss and indolent greater advantages. It does not only bear hours. It gives habitual serenity and good up the mind under her sufferings, but makes humour. It is a kind of vital heat in the her rejoice in them, as they may be the insoul, that cheers and gladdens her, when struments of procuring her the great and she does not attend to it. It makes pain ultimate end of all her hope. easy, and labour pleasant.

Religious hope has likewise this advanBesides these several advantages which tage above any other kind of hope, that it rise from hope, there is another which is is able to revive the dying man, and to fill none of the least, and that is, its great his mind not only with secret comfort and efficacy in preserving us from setting too refreshment, but sometimes with rapture high a value on present enjoyments. The and transport. He triumphs in his agunies, saying of Cæsar is very well known. When whilst the soul springs forward with delight he had given away all his estate in gratuities to the great object which she has always among his friends, one of them asked what had in view, and leaves the body with an he had left for himself; to which that great expectation of being reunited to her in a man replied, 'Hope.' His natural mag-glorious and joyful resurrection. nanimity hindered him from prizing what I shall conclude this essay with those he was certainly possessed of, and turned emphatical expressions of a lively hope, all his thoughts upon something more valu- which the psalmist made use of in the midst able that he had in view. I question not l of those dangers and adversities which sur

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par rounded him; for the following passage had, were not petrified with the love of this tits present and personal, as well as its fu- world, against all sense of the commerce

ture and prophetic sense. I have set the which ought to be among them, it would Lord always before me. Because he is at not be an unreasonable bill for a poor man my right hand I shall not be moved. There in the agony of pain, aggravated by want

fore my heart is glad, and my glory re- and poverty, to draw upon a sick aiderman į joiceth. My flesh also shall rest in hope. after this form: 1 For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell,

neither wilt thou suffer thine holy one to Mr. Basil PLENTY,-Sir, you have the see corruptions. Thou wilt show me the gout and stone, with sixty thousand pounds path of life. il. thy presence is fulness of sterling; I have the gout and stone, not joy, at thy right hand there are pleasures worth one farthing; I shall pray for you, for evermore.'

C. and desire you would pay the bearer twenty

shillings, for value received from, sir, your humble servant,

•LAZARUS HOPEFUL. No. 472.] Morovian, September 1, 1712. *Cripplegate, August 29, 1712.' -Voluptas

The reader's own imagination will sugSolamenque malio Virg. Æn. iii. 660. This only solace his hard fortune sends.- Dryden.

gest to him the reasonableness of such cor

respondences, and diversify them into a I RECEIVED some time ago a proposal, thousand forms; but I shall close this as I which had a. preface to it, wherein the au- began upon the subject of blindness. The thor discoursed at large of the innumerable following letter seems to be written by a objects of charity in a nation, and admo- man of learning, who is returned to his nished the rich, who were afflicted with study, after a suspense of ability to do so. any distemper of body, particularly to re- The benefit he reports himself to have gard the poor in the same species of afflic- received, may well claim the handsomest tion, and confine their tenderness to them, encomium he can give the operator. since it is impossible to assist all who are presented to them. The proposer had been •MR. SPECTATOR, Ruminating lately relieved from a malady in his eyes by an on your admirable discourses on the Pleaoperation performed by Sir William Read, sures of the Imagination, I began to consiand, being a man of condition, had taken a der to which of our senses we are obliged resolution to maintain three poor blind men for the greatest and most important share during their lives, in gratitude for that great of those pleasures; and I soon concluded blessing: This misfortune is so very great that it was to the sight. That is the soveand unfrequent, that one would think an reign of the senses, and mother of all the establishment for all the poor under it, arts and sciences, that have refined the might be easily accomplished, with the ad- rudeness of the uncultivated mind to a podition of a very few others to those wealthy liteness that distinguishes the fine spirits who are in the same calamity. However, from the barbarous gout of the great vulthe thought of the proposer arose from a gar and the small. The sight is the obligvery good motive; and the parcelling of ing benefactress that bestows on us the ourselves out, as called to particular acts most transporting sensations that we have of beneficence, would be a pretty cement from the various and wonderful products of society and' virtue. It is the ordinary of nature. To the sight we owe the amazfoundation for men's holding a commerc ing discoveries of the height, magnitude, with each other, and becoming familiar, and motion of the planets, their several rethat they agree in the same sort of plea- volutions about their common centre of sure; and sure it may also be some reason light, heat and motion, the sun. The sight for amity, that they are under one com- travels yet farther to the fixed stars, and mon distress. If all the rich who are lame furnishes the understanding with solid reawith the gout, from a life of ease, pleasure, sons to prove, that each of them is a sun, and luxury, would help those few who moving on its own axis, in the centre of its have it without a previous life of pleasure, own vortex, or turbillion, and performing and add a few of such laborious men, who the same offices to its dependant planets are become lame from unhappy blows, that our glorious sun does to this. But the falls, or other accidents of age or sickness; I inquiries of the sight will not be stopped say, would such gouty persons administer here, but make their progress through the to the necessities of men disabled like them- immense expanse to the Milky Way, and selves, the consciousness of such a behaviour there divide the blended fires of the galaxy

would be the best julep, cordial, and ano-into infinite and different worlds, made up şdyne, in the feverish, faint, and tormenting of distinct suns, and their peculiar equipage į vicissitudes of that miserable distemper. of planets, till, unable to pursue this track

The same may be said of all other, both any farther, it deputes the imagination to bodily and intellectual evils. These classes go on to new discoveries, till it fill the unof charity would certainly bring down bless- boundless space with endless worlds. ings upon an age and people; and if men “The sight informs the statuary's chisel

with power to give preath to lifeless brass *Again, in Samson Agonistes: and marble, and the painter's pencil to

-But chief of all, swell the flat canvass with moving figures

O loss of sight! of thee I must complain: actuated by imaginary souls. Music in Blind among enemies! O worse than chains, deed may plead another original, since Ju Dungeon, or beggary, or decrepit age! bal, by the different falls of his hammer on

Light, the prime work of God, to me's extinct,

And all her various objects of delight the anvil, discovered by the ear the first Annullid rude music that pleased the antediluvian

Still as a fool, fathers; but then the sight has not only re In pow'r of others, never in my own, duced those wilder sounds into artful order Scarce half I seem to live, dead more than hall:

O dark! dark! dark! amid the blaze of noon: and harmony, but conveys that harmony to

Irrecoverably dark, total eclipse, the most distant parts of the world without Without all hopes of day.” the help of sound. To the sight we owe not only all the discoveries of philosophy,

•The enjoyment of sight then being so but all the divine imagery of poetry that great a blessing, and the loss of it so territransports the intelligent reader of Homer, the skill of that artist which can restore

ble an evil, how excellent and valuable is Milton, and Virgil. • As the sight has polished the world, so

the former, and redress the latter! My does it supply us with the most grateful and frequent perusal of the advertisements in lasting pleasure. Let love, let friendship, the public newspapers (generally the most paternal affection, filial piety, and conjugai agreeable entertainment they afford,) has duty, declare the joys the sight bestows on lits of this kind done to my countrymen by

presented me with many and various benea meeting after absence. But it would be endless to enumerate all the pleasures and that skilful artist, Dr. Grant, her majesty's advantages of sight; every one that has it, has brought and restored to sight several

oculist extraordinary, whose happy hard cvery hour he makes use of it, finds them, hundreds in less than four years. Many feels them, enjoys them. . Thus, as our greatest pleasures and have received sight by his means who came

blind from their mother's womb, as in the knowledge are derived from the sight, so has Providence been more curious in the famous instance or Jones of Newington. I formation of its seat, the eye, than of the myself have been cured by him of a weakorgans of the other senses. That stupen

ness in my eyes next to blindness, and am dous machine is composed, in a wonderful ready to believe any thing that is reported manner, of muscles, membranes, and hu- of his ability this way; and know that many mours. Its motions are admirably directed who could not purchase his assistance with by the muscles; the perspicuity of the hu- money, have enjoyed it from his charity. mours transmits the rays of light; the rays letter beyond its bounds: what I have said

But a list of particulars would swell my are regularly refracted by their figure; the black lining of the sclerotes effectually pre in the like distress, since they may con

being sufficient to comfort those who are vents their being confounded by reflection. It is wonderful indeed to consider how ceive hopes of being no longer miserable in many objects the eye is fitted to take in at this kind, while there is yet alive so able once, and successively in an instant, and at an oculist as Dr. Grant. 'I am the Sperthe same time to make a judgment of their tator's humble servant,

T.

· PHILANTHROPUS.' position, figure, or colour. It watches against our dangers, guides our steps, and lets in all the visible objects, whose beauty and variety instruct and delight.

No. 473.] Tuesday, September 2, 1712. • The pleasures and advantages of sight being so great, the loss must be very griev

Quid? si quis vultu torvo ferus et pede nndo,

Exigurque toge simulet textore Catonam; ous; of which Milton, from experience, Virtutemne repræsentet, moresque Catonis ? gives the most sensible idea, both in the

Hor. Ep. xix Lb. 1. 12 third book of his Paradise Lost, and in his Suppose a man the coarsest gown should wear, Samson Agonistes.

No shoes, his forehead rough, his look severe,

And ape great Cato in his form and dress; To light, in the former:

Must he his virtues and his mind express?
-Thee I revisit sa fe,
And feel thy sov'reign vital lamp; but thou

* To the Spectator.
Revisit'st not these eyes, that roll in vain
To find thy piercing ray, but find no dawn."

'SIR,-I am now in the country, and

employ most of my time in reading, or . And a little after:

thinking upon what I have read. Your paSeasons return, but not to me returns

per comes constantly down to me, and is Day, or the sweet approach of evin or morn,

affects me so much, that I find my thoughts Or sight of vernal bloom, or summer's rose, run into your way: and I recommend to you Or flocks of herds, or human face divine; But cloud instead, and ever during dark

a subject upon which you have not yet Surround me: from the cheerful ways of men touched, and that is, the satisfaction some Cut off, and for the book of knowledge fair,

men seem to take in their imperfections: I Presented with an universal blank Of nature's works, to me expung'd and razd,

think one may call it glorying in their inAnd wisdom at one entrance quite shut out."

sufficiency. A certain great author is of

Creek.

opinion it is the contrary to envy, though knowledge of them was rather a diminution perhaps it may proceed from it. Nothing than an advancement of a man's character; is so common as to hear men of this sort, though, at the same time, I know he lanspeaking of themselves, add to their own guishes and repines he is not master of merit (as they think,) by impairing it, in them himself. Whenever I take any of praising themselves for their defects, freely these fine persons thus detracting from what allowing they commit some few frivolous they do not understand, I tell them I will errors, in order to be esteemed persons of complain to you; and say I am sure you will uncommon talents and great qualifications. not allow it an exception against a thing, They are generally professing an injudi- that he who contemns it is an ignorant in cious neglect of dancing, fencing, and riding, it. I am, sir, your most humble servant, as also an unjust contempt for travelling,

.S. T.' and the modern languages; as for their part, they say, they never valued or troubled their

“MR. Spectator,-I am a man of a very heads about them. This panegyrical satire good estate, and am honourably in love. on themselves certainly is worthy of your

I hope you will allow, when the ultimate animadversion. I have known one of these purpose is honest, there may be, without gentlemen think himself obliged to forget trespass against innocence, some toying by the day of an appointment, and sometimes the way. People of condition are perhaps even that you spoke to him; and when you but however that is, I am to confess to you

too distant and formal on those occasions; see 'em, they hope you ’ll pardon 'em, for they have the worst memory in the world. that I have writ some verses to atone for One of 'em started up tother day in some my offence. You professed authors are a confusion, and said, “Now I think on 't,

little severe upon us, who write like genam to meet Mr. Mortmain, the attorney, will insert my poem. You cannot imagine

tlemen: but if you are a friend to love, you about some business, but whether it is today or to-morrow, faith I can't tell.” Now, how much service it would do me with my to my certain knowledge, he knew his time fair one, as well as reputation with all my to a moment, and was there accordingly. friends, to have something of mine in the These forgetful persons have, to heighten Spectator. My crime was, that I snatched their crime, generally the best memories a kiss, and my poetical excuse as follows: of any people, as I have found out by their

1. remembering sometimes through inadvert

“ Belinda, see from yonder flowers

The bee flies loaded to its cell: ency. Two or three of 'em that I know,

Can you perceive what it devours? can say most of our modern tragedies by Are they impaired in show or smell ? heart. I asked a gentleman the other day,

II. that is famous for a good carver, (at which “So, though I robh'd you of a kiss, acquisition he is out of countenance, imagin

Sweeter than their ambrosial dew; ing it may detract from some of his more

Why are you angry at my bliss ?

Has it at all impoverish'd you ? essential qualifications,) to help me to some

INT. thing that was near him; but he excused

" "Tis by this cunning I contrive, himself, and blushing told me, “Of all In spite of your unkind reserve, things he could never carve in his life;" To keep my famish'd love alive, though it can be proved upon him that he

Which you inhumanly would starve." cuts up, disjoints, and uncases with incom I am, sir, your humble servant, parable dexterity. I would not be under

TIMOTHY STANZA.' stood as if I thought it laudable for a man of quality and fortune to rival the acquisi

* Aug. 23, 1712. tions of artificers, and endeavour to excel

"Sir,-Having a little time upon my in little handy qualities; no, I argue only hands, I could not think of bestowing ít against being ashamed of what is really better, than in writing an epistle to the praise-worthy. As these pretences to in- Spectator, which I now do, and am, sir, genuity show themselves several ways, you

your humble servant, BOB SHORT. will often see a man of this temper ashamed •P. S. If you approve of my style, I am to be clean, and setting up for wit, only from likely enough to become your correspondnegligence in his habit. Now I am upon ent. I desire your opinion of it. I design it this head, I cannot help observing also upon for that way of writing called by the judia very different folly proceeding from the cious “the familiar.

T. As these above-mentioned arise from affecting an equality with men of greater talents, from having the same No. 474.] Wednesday, September 3, 1712. faults, there are others that would come at a parallel with those above them, by pos Asperitas agrestis et inconcinna sessing little advantages which they want.

Hor. Ep. 18. Lib. 1. 6. I heard a young man not long ago, who has

Rude, rustic, and inelegant. sense, comfort himself in his ignorance of •Mr. SPECTATOR,—Being of the number Greek, Hebrew, and the Orientals: at the of those that have lately retired from the same time that he published his aver-centre of business and pleasure, my uneasision to those languages, he said that the Iness in the country, where I am, arises

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