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either;) in consideration of which I avoid By the coarse hands of Althy dungeon villains, giving her the least provocation; and, in
And thrown amongst the common lumber.' deed, we live better together than usually Nothing indeed can be more unhappy folks do who hated one another when they than the condition of bankruptcy. The cawere first joined. To evade the sin against lamity which happens to us by ill-fortune, parents, or at least to extenuate it, my dear or by the injury of others, has in it some rails at my father and mother, and I curse consolation; but what arises from our own hers for making the match.'
misbehaviour, or error, is the state of the *August 8, 1712.
most exquisite sorrow. When a man conMR. SPECTATOR, I like the theme siders not only an ample fortune, but even you lately gave out extremely, and should the very necessaries of life, his pretence to but I find myself no better qualified to write of the dead, with his case thus much be as glad to handle it as any man living: food itself, at the mercy of his creditors, he
cannot but look upon himself in the state about money than about my wife; for, to tell you a secret, which I desire may go no worse, that the last office is performed by farther, I am master of neither of those his adversaries instead of his friends. From subjects. Yours, PILL GARLICK.'
this hour the cruel world does not only
take possession of his whole fortune, but •MR. SPECTATOR,-I desire you will even of every thing else which had no reprint this in italic, so as it may be gene- lation to it. All his indifferent actions have rally taken notice of. It is designed only to new interpretations put upon them; and admonish all persons, who speak either at those whom he has favoured in his former the bar, pulpit, or any public assembly life, discharge themselves of their obligawhatsoever, how they discover their igno- tions to him, by joining in the reproaches rance in the use of similies. There are, in of his enemies.' It is almost incredible that the pulpit itself, as well as in other places, it should be so; but it is too often seen that such gross abuses in this kind, that I give there is a pride mixed with the impatience this warning to all I know. I shall bring of the creditor; and there are who would them for the future before your spectatorial rather recover their own by the downfal authority. On Sunday last, one, who shall of a prosperous man, than be discharged be nameless, reproving several of his con- to the common satisfaction of themselves gregation for standing at prayers, was and their creditors. The wretched man, pleased to say, “One would think, like the who was lately master of abundance, is elephant, you had no knees.” Now I my- now under the direction of others; and the self saw an elephant, in Bartholomew fair, wisdom, economy, good sense, and skill in kneel down to take on his back the in- human life before, by reason of his present genious Mr. William Penkethman. Your misfortune, are of no use to him in the dismost humble servant.'
T, position of any thing. The incapacity of
an infant or a lunatic is designed for his
provision and accommodation; but that of No. 456.] Wednesday, August 13, 1712. a bankrupt, without any mitigation in re
spect of the accidents by which it arrived, De quo libelli in celeberrimis locis proponuntur, huic is calculated for his utter ruin, except ne perire quidem tacite conceditur.-Tul.
there be a remainder ample enough, after The man whose conduct is publicly arraigned, is not the discharge of his creditors, to bear also suffered even to be undone quietiy. Otway, in his tragedy of Venice Pre-I means the effect of all this labour was
the expense of rewarding those by whose served, has described the misery of a man transferred from him. This man is to look whose effects are in the hands of the law, on and see others giving directions upon with great spirit. The bitterness of being what terms and conditions his goods are to the scorn and laughter of base minds, the be purchased; and all this usually done, anguish of being insulted by men hardened not with an air of trustees to dispose of his beyond the sense of shame or pity, and the effects, but destroyers to divide and tear injury of a man's fortune being wasted, un- them to pieces. der pretence of justice, are excellently aggravated in the following speech of Pierre great and good minds; for this reason all
There is something sacred in misery to to Jaffier:
wise lawgivers have been extremely ten*I pass'd this very moment by thy doors,
der how they let loose even the man who And found them guarded by a troop of villaing : The sons of public rapine were destroying.
has right on his side, to act with any mixThey told me by the sentence of the law,
ture of resentment against the defendant. They had commission to seize all thy fortune; Virtuous and modest men, though they be Nay, more, Priuli's cruel hand had signd it. Here stood a ruffian with a horrid face,
used with some artifice, and have it in Lording it o'er a pile of massy plate,
their power to avenge themselves, are Tumbled into a heap for public sale.
slow in the application of that power, and There was another inaking villanous jests At thy undoing. He had ta'en possession
are ever constrained to go into rigorous Of all thy ancient most domestic ornaments, measures. They are careful to demonRich hangings intermird and wrought with gold; strate themselves not only persons injured, The very bed, which on thy wedding night
but also that to bear it longer would be a Receiv'd thee to the arms of Belvidera. The scene of all thy joys, was violated
means to make the offender injure others,
before they proceed. Such men clap their rest of the world will regard me for yours. hands upon their hearts, and consider what There is a happy contagion in riches, as it is to have at their mercy the life of a well as a destructive one in poverty: the citizen. Such would have it to say to their rich can make rich without parting with own souls, if possible, that they were mer- any of their store; and the conversation of ciful when they could have destroyed, the poor makes men poor, though they rather than when it was in their power to borrow nothing of them. How this is to be have spared a man, they destroyed. This is accounted for I know not; but men's estia due to the common calamity of human life, mation follows us according to the company due in some measure to our very enemies. we keep. If you are what you were to me, They who scruple in doing the least injury you can go a great way towards my recoare cautious of exacting the utmost justice. very; if you are not, my good fortune, if
Let any one who is conversant in the va- ever it returns, will return by slower apriety of human life reflect upon it, and he proaches. I am, sir, your affectionate will find the man who wants mercy has a friend, and humble servant:' taste of no enjoyment of any kind. There is a natural disrelish of every thing which
This was answered by a condescension is good in his very nature, and he is born that did not, by long impertinent profesan enemy to the world. He is ever ex- sions of kindness, insult his distress, but
was as follows: tremely partial to himself in all his actions, and has no sense of iniquity but from the DEAR TOM, I am very glad to hear punishment which shall attend it. The that you have heart enough to begin the law of the land is his gospel, and all his world a second time. I assure you, I do cases of conscience are determined by his not think your numerous family at all diattorney. Such men know not what it is minished (in the gifts of nature, for which to gladden the heart of a miserable man; I have ever so much admired them,) by that riches are the instruments of serving what has so lately happened to you. I shall the purposes of heaven or hell, according not only countenance your affairs with my to the disposition of the possessor. The appearance for you, but shall accommowealthy can torment or gratify all who are date you with a considerable sum at comin their power, and choose to do one or mon interest for three years. You know other, as they are affected with love or I could make more of 'it; but I have so hatred to mankind. As for such who are great a love for you, that I can waive opinsensible of the concerns of others, but portunities of gain to help you; for I do not merely as they affect themselves, these men care whether they say of me after. I am are to be valued only for their mortality, dead, that I had a hundred or fifty thousand and as we hope better things from their pounds more than I wanted when I was heirs. I could not but read with great de- living. Your obliged humble servant.' light, a letter from an eminent citizen, who has failed, to one who was intimate with him in his better fortune, and able by his No. 457.] Thursday, August 14, 1712. countenance to retrieve his lost condition.
-Multa et præclara minantis. “SIR, -- It is in vain to multiply words
Seeming to promise something wondrous great. and make apologies for what is never to be defended by the best advocate in the world,
I shall this day lay before my readers the guilt of being unfortunate. All that a a letter, written by the same hand with man in my condition can do or say, will be that of last Friday, which contained proreceived with prejudice by the generality posals for a printed newspaper that should of mankind, but I hope not with you: you take in the whole circle of the penny-post. have been a great instrument in helping SIR, -The kind reception you gave my me to get what I have lost; and I know (for last Friday's letter, in which I broached that reason, as well as kindness to me) you cannot but be in pain to see me undone. my project of a newspaper, encourages me
toʻlay before you two or three more; for, To show you I am not a man incapable of bearing calamity, I will, though a poor to be the Lowndes* of the leamed world,
you must know, sir, that we look upon you man, lay aside the distinction between us, and cannot think any scheme practicable and talk with the frankness we did when we were nearer to an equality: as all I do though all the money we raise by it is in
or rational before you have approved of it, will be received with prejudice, all you do
our own funds, and for our private use. will be looked upon with partiality. What
I have often thought that a news-letter I desire of you is, that you, who are court- of whispers, written every post, and sent ed by all, would smile upon me, who am about the kingdom, after the same manner shunned by all. Let that grace and favour as that of Mr. Dyer, Mr. Dawkes, or any which your fortune throws upon you, be turned to make up the coldness and indif- gratifying to the public, as well as bene
other epistolary historian, might be highly ference that is used towards me. All good and generous men will have an eye of
* Secretary at this time of the treasury, and director kindness for me for my own sake, and thel of the mint.
Hor. Sat. iii. Lib. 2. 9.
ficial to the author. By whispers I mean innocent young woman big with child, those pieces of news which are communi- or fill a healthy young fellow with distemcated as secrets, and which bring a double pers that are not to be named. She can pleasure to the hearer: first, as they are turn a visit into an intrigue, and a distant private history; and, in the next place, as salute into an assignation. She can beggar they have always in them a dash of scan- | the wealthy, and degrade the noble. In dal. These are the two chief qualifications short, she can whisper men base or foolish, in an article of news, which recommend it jealous or ill-natured: or, if occasion rein a more than ordinary manner, to the quires, can tell you the slips of their great ears of the curious. Sickness of persons in grandmothers, and traduce the memory of high posts, twilight visits paid and receive honest coachmen, that have been in their ed by ministers of state, clandestine court-graves above these hundred years. By ships and marriages, secret amours, losses these and the like helps, I question not but at play, applications for places, with their I shall furnish out a very handsome news
respective successes and repulses, are the letter. If you approve my project, I shall is materials in which I chiefly intend to deal. begin to whisper by the very next post,
I have two persons, that are each of them and question not but every one of my custhe representative of a species, who are to tomers will be very well pleased with me, furnish me with those whispers which I when he considers that every piece of news intend to convey to my correspondents. I send him is a word in his ear, and lets The first of these is Peter Hush, descend- him into a secret. ed from the ancient family of the Hushes. • Having given you a sketch of this proThe other is the old lady Blast, who has a ject, I shall, in the next place, suggest to very numerous tribe of daughters in the you another for a monthly pamphlet, which two great cities of London and Westmin- I shall likewise submit to your spectatorial ster. Peter Hush has a whispering-hole wisdom, I need not tell you, sir, that there in most of the great coffee-houses about are several authors in France, Germany, town. If you are alone with him in a wide and Holland, as well as in our own counroom, he carries you up into a corner of it, try,* who publish every month what they and speaks in your ear. I have seen Peter call An Account of the Works of the seat himself in a company of seven or eight Learned, in which they give us an abstract persons whom he never saw before in his of all such books as are printed in any part fife; and, after having looked about to see of Europe. Now, sir, it is my design to there was no one that overheard him, has publish every month, An Account of the communicated to them in a low voice, and Works of the Unlearned. Several late
under the seal of secresy, the death of a productions of my own country men, who, i great man in the country, who was, per- many of them make a very eminent figure
haps, a fox-hunting the very moment this in the illiterate world, encourage me in this account was given of him.' If upon your undertaking. I may, in this work, possibly entering into a coffee-house you see a circle make a review of several pieces which of heads bending over the table, and lying have appeared in the foreign accounts above close to one another, it is ten to one but my mentioned, though they ought not to have friend Peter is among them. I have known been taken notice of in works which bear Peter publishing the whisper of the day by such a title. I may likewise take into coneight o'clock in the morning at Garra- sideration such pieces as appear, from time way's, by twelve at Will's, and before two to time, under the names of those gentleat the Smyrna. When Peter has thus ef- men who compliment one another in public
fectually launched a secret, I have been assemblies, by the title of “The Learned - very well pleased to hear people whis- Gentlemen. Our party-authors will also
pering it to one another at second-hand, afford me a great variety of subjects, not to and spreading it about as their own; for mention the editors, commentators, and You must know, sir, the great incentive to others, who are often men of no learning, whispering is the ambition which every or, what is as bad, of no knowledge. I shall one has of being thought in the secret, and not enlarge upon this hint; but if you think being looked upon as a man who has ac- any thing can be made of it, I shall set cess to greater people than one would ima- about it with all the pains and application gine. After having given you this account that so useful a work deserves. Tam ever, of Peter Hush, I proceed to that virtuous most worthy sir, &c.' lady, the old lady Blast, who is to communicate to me the private transactions of the crimp-table, with all the arcana of the No. 458.) Friday, August 15, 1712. fair-sex. The lady Blast, you must under Αιδος και αγαθη -----stand, has such a particular malignity in
her whisper, that it blights like an easterly False modesty. ** wind, and withers every reputation that it
I COULD not but smile at the account that breathes upon. She has a particular knack
was yesterday given me of a modest young at making private weddings, and last winter married above five women of quality to
* Mr. Michael de la Roche, 38 vols. 8vo. in Engl. un. heir footmen. Her whisper can make an der different tities; and in Fr. 8 tomes, 24mo. Vol. II.
gentleman, who, being invited to an enter-nature, that men should not be ashamed of tainment, though he was not used to drink, speaking or acting in a dissolute or irrahad not the confidence to refuse his glass in tional manner, but that one who is in their his turn, when on a sudden he grew so flus company should be ashamed of governing tered, that he took all the talk of the table himself by the principles of reason and into his own hands, abused every one of the virtue. company, and fung a bottle at the gentle In the second place, we are to consider man's head who treated him. This has false modesty as it restrains a man from given me occasion to reflect upon the ill doing what is good and laudable. My reaeffects of a vicious modesty, and to remem- der's own thoughts will suggest to him ber the saying of Brutus, as it is quoted by many instances and examples under this Plutarch, that the person has had but an head. I shall only dwell upon one reflecill education, who has not been taught to tion, which I cannot make without a secret deny any thing.' This false kind of mo- concern. We have in England a particu desty has, perhaps, betrayed both sexes lar bashfulness in every thing that regards into as many vices as the most abandoned religion. A well-bred man is obliged to impudence; and is the more inexcusable conceal any serious sentiment of this nato reason, because it acts to gratify others ture, and very often to appear a greater rather than itself, and is punished with a libertine than he is, that he may keep himkind of remorse, not only like other vicious self in countenance among the men of mode. habits when the crime is over, but even at Our excess of modesty makes us shamethe very time that it is committed. faced in all the exercises of piety and devo
Nothing is more amiable than true mo- tion. This humour prevails upon us daily; desty, and nothing is more contemptible insomuch that, at many, well-bred tables, than the false. The one guards virtue, the the master of the house is so very modest a other betrays it. True modesty is ashamed man, that he has not the confidence to say to do any thing that is repugnant to the rules grace at his own table: a custom which is of right reason; false modesty is ashamed not only practised by all the nations about to do any thing that is opposite to the hu- us, but was never omitted by the heathens mour of the company. True modesty avoids themselves. English gentlemen, who travel every thing that is criminal, false modesty into Roman-catholic countries, are not a litevery thing that is unfashionable. The latter tle surprised to meet with people of the best is only a general undetermined instinct; the quality kneeling in their churches, and enformer is that instinct, limited and circum- gaged in their private devotions, though it scribed by the rules of prudence and re- be not at the hours of public worship. An ligion.
officer of the army, or a man of wit and We may conclude that modesty to be pleasure, in those countries, would be afraid false and vicious which engages a man to of passing not only for an irreligious, but an do any thing that is ill or indiscreet, or ill-bred man, should he be seen to go to bed, which restrains him from doing any thing or sit down at table, without offering up that is of a contrary nature. How many his devotions on such'occasions. The same men, in the common concerns of life, lend show of religion appears in all the foreign sums of money which they are not able to reformed churches, and enters so much in spare, are bound for persons whom they their ordinary conversation, that an Enghave but little friendship for, give recom- lishman is apt to term them hypocritical mendatory characters of men whom they are and precise. not acquainted with, bestow places on those This little appearance of a religious dewhom they do not esteem, live in such a portment in our nation, may proceed in manner as they themselves do not approve, some measure from that modesty which is and all this merely because they have not natural to us; but the great occasion of it the confidence to resist solicitation, impor- is certainly this. Those swarms of sectatunity, or example!
ries that overran the nation in the time of Nor does this false modesty expose us the great rebellion, carried their hypocrisy only to such actions as are indiscreet, but so high, that they had converted our whole very often to such as are highly criminal. language into a jargon of enthusiasm: inWhen Xenophanes was called timorous, somuch, that upon the restoration, men because he would not venture his money in thought they could not recede too far from a game of dice: “I confess,' said he, that the behaviour and practice of those perI am exceeding timorous, for I dare not do sons who had made religion a cloak to so an ill thing.' On the contrary, a man of many villanies. This led them into the vicious modesty complies with every thing, other extreme; every appearance of devoand is only fearful of doing what may look tion was looked upon as puritanical, and singular in the company where he is en- falling into the hands of the ridiculers' gaged. He falls in with the torrent, and who flourished in that reign, and attacked lets himself go to every action or discourse, every thing that was serious, it has ever however unjustifiable in itself, so it be in since been out of countenance among us. vogue among the present party. This, By this means we are gradually fallen into though one of the most common, is one of that vicious modesty, which has in some the most ridiculous dispositions in human measure worn out from among us the ap
pearance of Christianity in ordinary life. Fourthly, Because the rule of morality and conversation, and which distinguishes is much more certain than that of faith, all us from all our neighbours.
the civilized nations of the world agreeing Hypocrisy cannot indeed be too much in the great points of morality, as much as detested, but at the same time it is to be they differ in those of faith. preferred to open impiety. They are both Fifthly, Because infidelity is not of so maequally destructive to the person who is lignant a nature as immorality; or, to put possessed with them; but, in regard to the same reason in another light, because others, hypocrisy is not so pernicious as it is generally owned, there may be salvabare-faced irreligion. The due mean to be tion for a virtuous infidel, (particularly in observed is, to be sincerely virtuous, and the case of invincible ignorance,) but none at the same time to let the world see we are for a vicious believer. so.' I do not know a more dreadful me Sixthly, Because faith seems to draw its nace in the holy writings, than that which principal, if not all its excellency, from the is pronounced against those who have this influence it has upon morality; as we shall perverted modesty to be ashamed before see more at large, if we consider wherein men in a particular of such unspeakable consists the excellency of faith, or the beimportance.
lief of revealed religion; and this I think is,
First, In explaining, and carrying to
greater height, several points of morality. No. 459.) Saturday, August 16, 1712. Secondly, In furnishing new and stronger
motives to enforce the practice of morality. —Quicquid dignum sapiente bonoque est. Thirdly, In giving us more amiable ideas
Hor. Ep. iv. Lib. 1.5.
of the Supreme Being, more endearing no-Whate'er befits the wise and good.-- Creech. tions of one another, and a truer state of RELIGIon may be considered under two ourselves, both in regard to the grandeur general heads. The first comprehends what and vileness of our natures. we are to believe, the other what we are to Fourthly, By showing us the blackness practise. By those things which we are to and deformity of vice, which in the Chrisbelieve, I mean whatever is revealed to us tian system is so very great, that he who is in the holy writings, and which we could possessed of all perfection, and the sovenot have obtained the knowledge of by the reign judge of it, is represented by several light of nature; by the things which we are of our divines as hating sin to the same deto practise, I mean all those duties to which gree that he loves the sacred person who we are directed by reason or natural reli- was made the propitiation of it. gion. The first of these I shall distinguish Fifthly, In being the ordinary and preby the name of faith, the second by that of scribed method of making morality effectual morality.
to salvation. If we look into the more serious part of I have only touched on these several mankind, we find many who lay so great a heads, which every one who is conversant stress upon faith, that they neglect mo- in discourses of this nature will easily enrality; and many who build so much upon large upon in his own thoughts, and draw morality, that they do not pay a due regard conclusions from them which may be useful to faith. The perfect man should be defec- to him in the conduct of his life. One I am tive in neither of these particulars, as will sure is so obvious that he cannot miss it, be very evident to those who consider the namely, that a man cannot be perfect in his benefits which arise from each of them, and scheme of morality, who does not strengthen which I shall make the subject of this day's and support it with that of the Christian paper.
faith. Not withstanding this general division of Besides this, I shall lay down two or three Christian duty into morality and faith, and other maxims, which I think we may dethat they have both their peculiar excel- duce from what has been said. lencies, the first has the pre-eminence in First, That we should be particularly several respects.
cautious of making any thing an article of First, Because the greatest part of mo- faith, which does not contribute to the conrality (as I have stated the notion of it,) is firmation or improvement of morality. of a fixed eternal nature, and will endure Secondly, Thai no article of faith can be when faith shall fail, and be lost in convic- true and authentic, which weakens or subtion.
verts the practical part of religion, or what Secondly, Because a person may be qua- I have hitherto called morality. lified to do greater good to mankind, and Thirdly, That the greatest friend of mo become more beneficial to the world, by rality and natural religion cannot possibly morality without faith, than by faith with- apprehend any danger from embracing out morality.
Christianity, as it is preserved pure and Thirdly, Because morality gives a greater uncorrupt in the doctrines of our national perfection to human nature, by quieting the church. mind, moderating the passions, and advanc There is likewise another maxim which ing the happiness of every man in his private capacity.
• The Gospel.