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ing ideas in us by the delightfulness of their qualities, and tastes and colours, sounds appearance. Fountains, lakes, and rivers, and smells, heat and cold, but that man, are as refreshing to the imagination, as to while he is conversant in the lower stations the soil through which they pass.
of nature, might have his mind cheered There are writers of great distinction, and delighted with agreeable sensations? who have made it an argument for Provi- In short, the whole universe is a kind of dence, that the whole earth is covered with theatre filled with objects that either raise green rather than with any other colour, in us pleasure, amusement, or admiration. as being such a right mixture of light and The reader's own thoughts will suggest shade, that it comforts and strengthens the to him the vicissitude of day and night, the eye, instead of weakening or grieving it. change of seasons, with all that variety of For this reason several painters have a scenes which diversify the face of nature, green cloth hanging near them to ease the and fill the mind with a perpetual succeseye upon, after too great an application to sion of beautiful and pleasing images. their colouring. A famous modern philoso I shall not here mention the several enpher* accounts for it in the following man- tertainments of art, with the pleasures of
All colours that are more luminous, friendship, books, conversation, and other overpower and dissipate the animal spirits accidental diversions of life, because I would which are employed in sight; on the con- only take notice of such incitements to a trary, those that are more obscure do not cheerful temper as offer themselves to pergive the animal spirits a sufficient exercise; sons of all ranks and conditions, and which whereas, the rays that produce in us the may sufficiently show us that Providence idea of green, fall upon the eye in such a did not design this world should be filled due proportion, that they give the animal with murmurs and repinings, or that the spirits their proper play, and, by keeping heart of man should be involved in gloom up the struggle in a just balance, excite & and melancholy. very pleasing and agreeable sensation. Let I the more inculcate this cheerfulness of the cause be what it will, the effect is cer- temper, as it is a virtue in which our countain; for which reason, the poets ascribe trymen are observed to be more deficient to this particular colour the epithet of than any other nation. Melancholy is a cheerful.
kind of demon that haunts our island, and To consider further this double end in the often conveys herself to us in an easterly works of nature, and how they are at the wind. A celebrated French novelist, in opsame time both useful and entertaining, we position to those who begin their romances find that the most important parts in the with the flowery season of the year, enters vegetable world are those which are the on his story thus, . In the gloomy month of most beautiful. These are the seeds by November, when the people of England which the several races of plants are pro- hang and drown themselves, a disconsolate pagated and continued, and which are al- lover walked out into the fields,'&c. ways lodged in the flowers or blossoms. Every one ought to fence against the Nature seems to hide her principal design, temper of his climate or constitution, and and to be industrious in making the earth frequently to indulge in himself those congay and delightful, while she is carrying on siderations which may give him a serenity her great work, and intent upon her own of mind, and enable him to bear up cheerpreservation. The husbandman, after the fully against those little evils and misforsame manner, is employed in laying out the tunes which are common to human nature, whole country into a kind of garden or land- and which, by a right improvement of them, scape, and making every thing smile about will produce a satiety of joy, and an uninhim, whilst in reality he thinks of nothing terrupted happiness. but of the harvest, and the increase which At the same time that I would engage is to arise from it.
my reader to consider the world in its most We may further observe how Providence agreeable lights, I must own there are has taken care to keep up this cheerfulness many evils which naturally spring up in the mind of man, by having formed it amidst the entertainments that are proafter such a manner as to make it capable vided for us; but these, if rightly consiof conceiving delight from several objects dered, should be far from overcasting the which seem to have very little use in them; mind with sorrow, or destroying that cheeras from the wildness of rocks and deserts, fulness of temper which I have been recomand the like grotesque parts of nature. mending. This interspersion of evil with Those who are versed in philosophy may good, and pain with pleasure, in the works still carry this consideration higher, by of nature, is very truly ascribed by Mr. observing, that if matter had appeared to Locke, in his Essay on Human Underus endowed only with those real qualities standing, to a moral reason, in the following which it actually possesses, it would have words. made but a very joyless and uncomfortable • Beyond all this, we may find another figure; and why has Providence given it a reason why God hath scattered up and power of producing in us such imaginary down several degrees of pleasure and pain,
in all the things that environ and affect us, * Sir Isaac Newton.
and blended them together, in almost all
that our thoughts and senses have to do Through all my veins the passion flies,
My feeble soul forsakes its place,. with; that we, finding imperfection, dis
A trembling faintness seals my eyes, satisfaction, and want of complete happi And paleness dwells upon my face : ness, in all the enjoyments which the crea O! let my love with pow'rful odours stay
My fainting love-sick soul, that dies away, tures can afford us, might be led to seek it
One hand beneath me let him place, in the enjoyment of Him with whom “there With t'other press me in a chaste embrace. is fulness of joy, and at whose right hand
V. are pleasures for evermore.”
L. “I charge you, nymphs of Sion, as you go
Arm'd with the sounding quiver and the bow,
You ne'er disturb my sleeping love.
Be only gentle Zephyrs there
With downy wings to fan the air;
Let sacred silence dwell around,
To keep off each intruding sound.
And when the balmy slumber leaves his eyes,
May he to joys, unknown till then, arise ! For thee, I dare unlock the sacred spring,
VI. And arts disclos'd by ancient sages sing.
"But see! he comes! with what majestic gait • MR. SPECTATOR, --It is my custom,
He onward bears his lovely state! when I read your papers, to read over the
Now through the lattice he appears,
With softest words dispels my fears. quotations in the authors from whence you Arise, my fair one, and receive take them. As you mentioned a passage
All the pleasures love can give!
For now the sullen winter's past, lately out of the second chapter of Solo
No more we fear the northern blast; mon's Song, it occasioned my looking into No storms nor threat'ning clouds appear, it; and, upon reading it, I thought the ideas No falling rains deform the year;
My love admits of no delay, so exquisitely soft and tender, that I could
Arise, my fair, and come away! not help making this paraphrase . of it:
VII. which, now it is done, I can as little for
“ Already, see! the teeming earth bear sending to you.
Some marks of your Brings forth the flow'rs, her beauteous birth, approbation, which I have already re
The dews, and soft-descending show'rs,
Nurse the new-born tender flow'rs. ceived, have given me so sensible a taste Hark! the birds inelodious sing, of them, that I cannot forbear endeavouring And sweetly usher in the spring. after them as often as I can with any ap
Close by his fellow sits the dove,
And billing whispers her his love. pearance of success. I am, sir, your most The spreading vines with blossoms swell, obedient humble servant,'
Diffusing round a grateful smell.
Arise, my fair one, and receive THE SECOND CHAPTER OF SOLOMON'S SONG.
All the blessings love can give :
For love admits of no delay,
Arise, my fair, and come away!
VIII. Does its chaste bosom to the morn disclose,
“ As to its mate the constant dove Whilst all around the Zephyrs bear The fragrant odours through the air,
Flies through the covert of the spicy grove,
So let us hasten to some lonely shade,
There let me safe in thy lov'd arms be laid,
Where no intruding hateful noise In fair pre-eminence, superior to the rest :
Shall damp the sound of thy melodious voice; Bo if my Love, with happy influence, shed
Where I may gaze, and mark each beauteous grace: His eyes' bright sunshine on his lover's head,
For sweet thy voice, and lovely is thy face. Then shall the rose of Sharon's field,
IX. And whitest lilies, to my beauties yield,
" As all of me, my Love, is thine, Then fairest flow'rs with studious art combine,
Let all of thee be ever mine, The roses with the lilies join,
Among the lilies we will play,
Fairer, my Love, thou art, than they;
Till the purple morn arise,
And balmy sleep forsake thine eyes; A thorn in beauty, or in height the grass ;
Till the gladsome beams of day
Remove the shades of night away; So does my Love, among the virgins shine,
Then when soft sleep shall from thy eyes depart, Adorn'd with graces more than half divine:
Rise like the bounding roe, or lusty hart, Or as a tree, that, glorious to behold,
Glad to behold the light again Is hung with apples all of ruddy gold,
From Bether's mountains darting o'er the plain." Hesperian fruit, and, beautifully high,
T. Extends its branches to the sky; So does my Love the virgins' eyes invite; "Tis he alone can fix their wand'ring sight, Among ten thousand eminently bright.
No. 389.] Tuesday, May 27, 1712. III. “ Beneath his pleasing shade
-Meliora pii docuere parentes. Hor, My wearied limbs at ease I laid,
Their pious sires a better lesson taught.
NOTHING has more surprised the learned With sparkling wine he crown'd the bowl, in England, than the price which a small With gentle ecstacies he fill'd my soul;
book, entitled Spaccio della Bestia triomJoyous we sat beneath the shady grove,
fante, bore in a late auction.* This book And o'er my head he hung the banners of his love.
IV. " I faint! I die! my lab'ring breast
* The book here mentioned, was bought by Walter Is with the mighty weight of love opprest!
Clavel, esq. at the auction of the library of Charles BarI feel the fire possess my heart,
nard, esq. in 1711, for 28 pounds. The same copy beAnd pain convey'd to every part.
came successively the property of Mr. John Nicholas, of
was sold for thirty pounds. As it was writ- / brated, since our adversaries challenge all ten by one Jordanus Brunus, a professed those, as men who have too much interest atheist, with a design to depreciate religion, in this case to be impartial evidences. every one was apt to fancy, from the extra But what has been often urged as a convagant price it bore, that there must be sideration of much more weight, is not only something in it very formidable.
the opinion of the better sort, but the geneI must confess that, happening to get a ral consent of mankind to this great truth; sight of one of them myself, I could not for which I think could not possibly have come bear perusing it with this apprehension; to pass, but from one of the three following but found there was so very little danger in reasons, either that the idea of a God is it, that I shall venture to give my reader a innate and co-existent with the mind itself; fair account of the whole plan upon which or that this truth is so very obvious, that it this wonderful treatise is built.
is discovered by the first exertion of reason The author pretends that Jupiter once in persons of the most ordinary capacities; upon a time, resolved upon a reformation or lastly, that it has been delivered down to of the constellations: for which purpose, us through all ages by a tradition from the having summoned the stars together, he first man. complains to them of the great decay of the The atheists are equally confounded, to worship of the gods, which he thought so whichever of these three causes we assign much the harder, having called several of it; they have been so pressed by this last those celestial bodies by the names of the argument from the general consent of manheathen deities, and by that means made kind, that after great search and pains they the heavens as it were a book of the pagan pretend to have found out a nation of athétheology. Momus tells him that this is not ists, I mean that polite people the Hottento be wondered at, since there were so many tots. scandalous stories of the deities. Upon I dare not shock my readers with the dewhich the author takes occasion to cast re- scription of the customs and manners of flections upon all other religions, concluding these barbarians, who are in every respect that Jupiter, after a full hearing, discarded scarce one degree above brutes, having no the deities out of heaven, and called the language among them but a confused gabstars by the names of the moral virtues. ble, which is neither well understood by
The short fable, which has no pretence themselves nor others. in it to reason or argument, and but a very It is not, however, to be imagined how small share of wit, has however recom- much the atheists have gloried in these mended itself, wholly by its impiety, to their good friends and allies. those weak men who would distinguish If we boast of a Socrates or a Seneca, they themselves by the singularity of their opi- may now confront them with these great nions.
philosophers the Hottentots. There are two considerations which have Though even this point has, not without been often urged against atheists, and which reason, been several times controverted, I they never yet could get over. The first is, see no manner of harm it could do to relithat the greatest and most eminent persons gion, if we should entirely give them up this of all ages have been against them, and al- elegant part of mankind. ways complied with the public forms of Methinks nothing more shows the weakworship established in their respective coun- ness of their cause, than that no division of tries, when there was nothing in them either their fellow-creatures join with them but derogatory to the honour of the Supreme those among whom they themselves own Being, or prejudicial to the good of mankind. reason is almost defaced, and who have but
The Platos and Ciceros among the an- little else but their shape which can entitle cients; the Bacons, the Boyles, and the them to any place in the species. Lockes, among our own countrymen; are all Besides these poor creatures, there have instances of what I have been saying; not to now and then been instances of a few crazy mention any of the divines, however cele- people in several nations who have denied
the existence of a deity.
The catalogue of these is, however, very Mr. Joseph Ames, of Sir Peter Thompson, and of M. C. Tutet, esq. among whose books it was lately sold by short; even Vanina, the most celebrated auction, at Mr. Gerrard's in Litchfield-street. The au champion for the cause, professed before thor of this book, Giordano Bruno, was a native of his judges that he believed the existence of Nola, in the kingdom of Naples, and burnt at Rome by order of the inquisition in 1600. Morhoff speaking of
a God: and, taking up a straw which lay atheists, says, Jordanum tamen Brunum huic classi non before him on the ground, assured them annumerarem, -manifesto in illo atheisini vestigia non that alone was sufficient to convince him of deprehendo. Polyhist. i. 1. 8. 22. Bruno published many other writings said to be atheistical. The book spoken it: alleging several arguments to prove that of here was printed, not at Paris, as is said in the title it was impossible nature alone could create page, nor in 1544, but at London, and in 1584, 12mo.
any thing dedicated to sir Philip Sidney. It was for some time so little regarded, that it was sold with five other books of
Í was the other day reading an account of the same author, for 25 pence French, at the sale of Mr. Casimir Lyszynski, a gentleman of Poland, Bigor's library in 1706 ; but it is now very scarce, and who was convicted and executed for this has been sold at the exorbitant price of 501. Niceron. crime. The manner of his punishment was Hommes Illust. tom. xvii. p. 211. There was an edition of it in English in 1713,
very particular. As soon as his body was
barnt, his ashes were put into a cannon, and their own behaviour so unhappily, that shot into the air towards Tartary.
there indeed lies some cause of suspicion I am apt to believe, that if something like upon them. It is certain, that there is no this method of punishment should prevail in authority for persons who have nothing else England (such is the natural good sense of to do, to pass away hours of conversation the British nation) that whether we ram- upon the miscarriages of other people; but med an atheist whole into a great gun, or since they will do so, they who value their pulverized our infidels, as they do in Po- reputation should be cautious of appearland, we should not have many charges. ances to their disadvantage: but very often
I should, however, premise, while our our young women, as well as the middleammunition lasted, that, instead of Tartary, aged, and the gay part of those growing we should always keep two or three cannons old, without entering into a formal league ready pointed towards the Cape of Good for that purpose, to a woman, agree upon Hope, in order to shoot our unbelievers into a short way to preserve their characters, the country of the Hottentots.
and go on in a way that at best is only not In my opinion, a solemn judicial death is vicious. The method is, when an ill-natured too great an honour for an atheist; though I or talkative girl has said any thing that bears must allow the method of exploding him, as hard upon some part of another's carriage, it is practised in this ludicrous kind of mar- this creature, if not in any of their little tyrdom, has something in it proper enough cabals, is run down for the most censorious, to the nature of his offence.
dangerous body in the world. Thus they There is indeed a great objection against guard their reputation rather than their this manner of treating them. Zeal for re- modesty; as if guilt lay in being under the ligion is of so effective a nature that it sel-imputation of a fault, and not in a commisdom knows where to rest: for which reason sion of it. Orbicilla is the kindest poor I am afraid, after having discharged our thing in town, but the most blushing creaatheists, we might possibly think of shoot- ture living. It is true, she has not lost the ing off our sectaries; and as one does not sense of shame, but she has lost the sense foresee the vicissitudes of human affairs, it of innocence. If she had more confidence, might one time or other come to a man's and never did any thing which ought to own turn to fly out of the mouth of a demi- stain her cheeks, would she not be much culverin.
more modest, without that ambiguous sufIf any of my readers imagine that I have fusion which is the livery both of guilt and treated these gentlemen in too ludicrous a innocence? Modesty consists in being conmanner, I must confess, for my own part, I scious of no ill, and not in being ashamed think reasoning against such unbelievers, of having done it. When people go upon upon a point that shocks the common sense any other foundation than the truth of their of mankind, is doing them too great an ho- own hearts for the conduct of their actions, nour, giving them a figure in the eye of the it lies in the power of scandalous tongues to world, and making people fancy that they carry the world before them, and make have more in them than they really have.
the rest of mankind fall in with the ill for As for those persons who have any scheme fear of reproach. On the other hand, to do of religious worship, I am for treating such what you ought, is the ready way to make with the utmost tenderness, and should calumny either silent, or ineffectually maendeavour to show them their errors with licious. Spenser, in his Fairy Queen, says the greatest temper and humanity; but as admirably to young ladies under the disthese miscreants are for throwing down re-tress of being defamed: ligion in general, for stripping mankind of
• The best,' said he, 'that I can you advise, what themselves own is of excellent use in all great societies, without once offering to For when the cause, whence evil doth arise, establish any thing in the room of it, I think
Removed is, th' effect surceaseth still.
Abstain from pleasure, and restrain your will,
Shun secresy, and talk in open sight;
Instead of this care over their words and No. 390.] Wednesday, May 28, 1712.
actions, recommended by a poet in old
queen Bess's days, the modern way is to Non puidendo, sed non fasciendo id quod non decet, say and do what you please, and yet be the impudentiæ nomen effugere debemus.
prettiest sort of woman in the world. If It is not by blushing, but by not doing what is unbe fathers and brothers will defend a lady's coming, that we ought to guard against
the imputation honour, she is quite as safe as in her own of impudence.
innocence. Many of the distressed, who Many are the epistles I receive from suffer under the malice of evil torigues, are ladies extremely afflicted that they lie so harmless, that they are every day they under the observation of scandalous people, live asleep till twelve at noon; concern who love to defame their neighbours, and themselves with nothing but their own permake the unjustest interpretation of inno- sons till two; take their necessary food becent and indifferent actions. They describetween that time and four ; visit, go to the
Is to avoid th' occasion of the ill:
Pers. Sat. ii. v. 3.
play, and sit up at cards till towards the Ebullit patrui præclarum funus! Et O si
Sub rastrocrepet argenti mihi seria dextro ensuing morn; and the malicious world shall
Hercule! pupillumve utinam, quem proximus hæres draw conclusions from innocent glances, Tinpello, expungam! short whispers, or pretty familiar railleries
-Thou know'st to join with fashionable men, that these fair ones No bribe unhallow'd to a praver of thine ; are not as rigid as vestals. It is certain, Thine, which can ev'ry ear's full test abide, say these 'goodesť creatures, very well,
Nor need be mutter'd to the gods aside!
No, thou aloud may'st thy petitions trust; that virtue does not consist in constrained Thou need'st not whisper, other great ones must. behaviour and wry faces; that must be al For few, iny friend, few dare like thee be plain, lowed: but there is a decency in the aspect
And prayer's low artifice at shrines disdain.
Few from their pious mumblings dare depart, and manner of ladies, contracted from a
And make profession of their inmost heart. habit of virtue, and from general reflec Keep me, indulgent Heaven, through life sincere, tions that regard a modest conduct, all
Kerpiny mind sound, my reputation clear,
These wishes they can speak, and we can hear. which may be understoed, though they Thus far their wants are audibly express'd; cannot be described. A young woman of Then sinks the voice, and muttering groans the rest. this sort claims an esteem mixed with affec
Hear, hear at length, good Hercules, my vow!
O chink some pot of gold beneath my plow! tion and honour, and meets with no defa
Could I, O could I to my ravishd eyes mation; or, if she does, the wild malice is See my rich uncle's pompous funeral rise ; overcome with an undisturbed persever
Or could I once my ward's cold corpse attend; ance in her innocence. To speak freely,
Then all were mine! there are such coveys of coquettes about WHERE Homer represents Phænix, the this town, that if the peace were not kept tutor of Achilles, as persuading his pupil to by some impertinent tongues of their own lay aside his resentment, and give himself sex, which keep them under some re- up to the entreaties of his countrymen, the straint, we should have no manner of en- poet, in order to make him speak in chagagement upon them to keep them in any racter, ascribes to him a speech full of tolerable order.
those fables and allegories which old men As I am a Spectator, and behold how take delight in relating, and which are very plainly one part of woman-kind balance the proper for instruction. The gods, says behaviour of the other, whatever I may he, 'suffer themselves to be prevailed upon think of tale-bearers or slanderers, I can- by entreaties. When mortals have offendnot wholly suppress them, no more than a ed them by their transgressions, they apgeneral would discourage spies. The enemy pease them by vows and sacrifices. You would easily surprise him whom they knew must know, Achilles, that prayers are the had no intelligence of their motions. It is daughters of Jupiter. They are crippled so far otherwise with me, that I acknow- by frequently kneeling, have their faces ledge I permit a she-slanderer or two in full of scars and wrinkles, and their eyes every quarter of the town, to live in the always cast towards heaven. They are characters of coquettes, and take all the constant attendants on the goddess Ate, innocent freedoms of the rest, in order to and march behind her. This goddess walks send me information of the behaviour of the forward with a bold and haughty air; and, respective sisterhoods.
being very light of foot, runs through the But as the matter of respect to the world whole earth, grieving and afflicting the which looks on, is carried on, methinks it sons of men. She gets the start of Prayers, is so very easy to be what is in general who always follow her, in order to heal called virtuous, that it need not cost one those persons whom she wounds. He who hour's reflection in a month to deserve that honcurs these daughters of Jupiter, when appellation. It is pleasant to hear the they draw near to him, receives great benepretty rogues talk of virtue and vice fit from them; but as for him who rejects among each other. She is the laziest them, they entreat their father to give his creature in the world, but I must confess, orders to the goddess Ate, to punish him for strictly virtuous; the peevishest hussy his hardness of heart.' This noble allegory breathing, but as to her virtue, she is with needs but little explanation; for, whether out blemish. She has not the least charity the goddess Ate signifies injury, as some for any of her acquaintance, but I must have explained it; or guilt in general, as allow her rigidly virtuous.' As the unthink- others; or divine justice, as I am more apt to ing part of the male world call every man think; the interpretation is obvious enough. a man of honour who is not a coward; so
I shall produce another heathen fable the crowd of the other sex terms every relating to prayers, which is of a more diwoman who will not be a wench, virtuous. verting kind. One would think by some
passages in it, that it was composed by Lucian, or at least by some author who has
endeavoured to imitate his way of writing; No. 391.] Thursday, May 29, 1712.
but as dissertations of this nature are more Non tu prece poscis emaci,
curious than useful, I shall give my reader Que nisi seductis nequeas committere divis : At bona pars procerum tacita libabit acerra. (susurros the fable, without any further inquiries Haud cuivis promptum est, mirmurque humilesque after the author. Tollere de templis; et aperto vivere voto. Mens bona, fama, fides ; haeclare, et mit andiathospes | time taken up into heaven by Jupiter, when
Menippus the philosopher was a second Illa sibi introrsum et sub lingua immurmurat: 0 si Vol. II