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there is no religion at this end of the town. , ratified the knight's commands with a peThe fifty new churches will very much remptory look, mend the prospect; but church-work is As we were going out of the garden, my slow, church-work is slow.'

old friend thinking himself obliged, as a I do not remember I have any where member of the quorum, to animadvert upon nientioned in Sir Roger's character, his the morals of the place, told the mistress custom of saluting every body that passes of the house, who sat at the bar, that he by him with a good-morrow, or a good- should be a better customer to her garden, night. This the old man does out of the if there were more nightingales and fewer overflowings of his humanity; though, at strumpets.

I. the same time, it renders him so popular among all his country neighbours, that it is thought to have gone a good way in making No. 384.] Wednesday, May 21, 1712. him once or twice knight of the shire. He cannot forbear this exercise of benevolence 'Hague, May 24, N. S. The same republican hands, even in town, when he meets with any one who have so often since the chevalier de St. George's in his morning or evening walk. It broke | duced the young dauphin of France to that desperate from him to several boats that passed by us condition of weakness, and death itself, that it is hard on the water; but, to the knight's great to conjecture what method they will take to bring him surprise, as he gave the good-night to two hand from Paris, that on the 20th instant this young or three young fellows a little before our prince was as well as ever he was known to be since landing, one of them, instead of returning the day of his birth. As for the other, they are now the civility, asked us, what queer old put modesty to contradict their assertion of his death,) to we had in the boat, and whether he was commerci in Lorrain, attended only by four gentlemen, not ashamed to go a wenching at his years and a few domestics of little consideration. The Baron with a great deal of the like Thames- qualify him as an ambassador to this

state an office ta ribaldry. Sir Roger seemed a little shocked which his greatest enemies will acknowledge him to be at first, but at length assuming a face of equal,) is gone to Utrecht, whence he will proceed to magistracy, told us, that if he were a Mid-Hanover, but not stay long at that court, for fear the

peace should be made during his lamentable absence.'dlesex justice, he would make such va- Post-Boy, May 20. grants know that her majesty's subjects were no more to be abused by water than should I overlook some excellent pieces

I SHOULD be thought not able to read by land.

We were now arrived at Spring-garden, lately, come out. My lord bishop of St. which is exquisitely pleasant at this time of Asaphs has just now published some serthe year. When I considered the fragrancy determine a great point. He has, like a

mons, the preface to which seems to me to of the walks and bowers, with the choirs of birds, that sung upon the trees, and the good man, and

a good Christian, in opposiloose tribe of people that walked under tion to all the flattery and base submission their shades, I could not but look upon the Christianity left us where it found us as to

of false friends to princes, asserted, that place as a kind of Mahometan Paradise. Sir Roger told me it put him in mind of a shall consist only of a sentence out of the

our civil rights. The present entertainment little coppice by his house in the country: Post-Boy, and the said preface of the lord which his chaplain used to call an aviary of of St. Asaph. I should think it a little odd nightingales. You must understand,' says if the author of the Post-Boy should with the knight, that there is nothing in the world that pleases a man in love so much impunity call men republicans for a gladas your nightingale. Ah, Mr. Spectator, tender; and treat baron Bothmar, the mi

ness on the report of the death of the prethe many moonlight nights that I have walked by myself, and thought on the nister of Hanover, in such a manner as you

see in my motto. I must own, widow by the music of the nightingale!' Here he fetched a deep sigh, and was fall man in England concerned to support the

succession of that family. ing into a fit of musing, when a mask, who came behind him, gave him a gentle tap live, the latest of which was preached about

• The publishing a few sermons, whilst I upon the shoulder, and asked him if he would drink a bottle of mead with her? eight years since, and the first above sevenBut the knight being startled at so unex- to inquire into the occasion of doing so; and

teen, will make it very natural for people pected a familiarity, and displeased to be interrupted in his thoughts of the widow, to such I do very willingly assign these foltold her she was a wanton baggage; and biả lowing reasons: her go about her business.

First, from the observations I have been We concluded our walk with a glass of able to make for these many years last Burton ale, and a slice of hung beef. When past upon our public affairs, and from the we had done eating ourselves, the knight practices, that have of late been studiously

natural tendency of several principles and the remainder to the waterman that had revived, and from what has followed therebut one leg. I perceived the fellow stared upon him at the oddness of the message, here for the Hanoverian family.

* Ambassador from Hanover, and afterwards agent and was going to be saucy; upon which i | Dr. William Fleetwood.

I think every


upon, I could not help both fearing and sonable and well-grounded, that I believe I presaging, that these nations should some can never have any other. time or other, if ever we should have an • Another reason of my publishing these enterprising prince upon the throne, of sermons at this time is, that I have a mind more ambition than virtue, justice, and true to do myself some honour by doing what honour, fall into the way of all other na- honour I could to the memory of two most tions, and lose their liberty.

excellent princes, and who have very highly ‘Nor could I help foreseeing to whose deserved at the hands of all the people of charge a great deal of this dreadful mis- these dominions, who have any true value chief, whenever it should happen, would for the Protestant religion, and the conbe laid; whether justly or unjustly, was not stitution of the English government of which my business to determine; but I resolved, they were the great deliverers and defor my own particular part, to deliver my-| fenders. I have lived to see their illustrious self, as well as I could, from the reproaches names very rudely handled, and the great and the curses of posterity, by publicly de- benefits they did this nation treated slightly claring to all the world, that, although in and contemptuously. I have lived to see the constant course of my ministry I have our deliverance from arbitrary power and never failed, on proper occasions, to recom- popery traduced and vilified by some who mend, urge, and insist upon the loving, formerly thought it was their greatest merit, honouring, and reverencing the prince's and made it part of their boast and glory to person, and holding it, according to the have had a little hand and share in bringing laws, inviolable and sacred; and paying all it about; and others who, without it, must obedience and submission to the laws, have lived in exile, poverty, and misery, though never so hard and inconvenient to meanly disclaiming it, and using ill the private people: yet did I never think my-glorious instruments thereof. Who could self at liberty, or authorized to tell the peo-expect such a requital of such merit? I ple, that either Christ, St. Peter, or St. have, I own it, an ambition of exempting Paul, or any other holy writer, had, by any myself from the number of unthankful peodoctrine delivered by them, subverted the ple; and as I loved and honoured those laws and constitutions of the country in great princes living, and lamented over which they lived, or put them in a worse them when dead, so I would gladly raise condition, with respect to their civil liber- them up a monument of praise as lasting as ties, than they would have been had they any thing of mine can be; and I choose to not been Christians. I ever thought it a do it at this time, when it is so unfashionmost impious blasphemy against that holy able a thing to speak honourably of them. religion, to father any thing upon it that • The sermon that was preached upon might encourage tyranny, oppression, or the duke of Gloucester's death was printed injustice in a prince, or that easily tended quickly after, and is now, because the subto make a free and happy people slaves and ject was so suitable, joined to the others, miserable. No: people may make them- The loss of that most promising and hopeselves as wretched as they will, but let not ful prince was at that time, I saw, unspeakGod be called into that wicked party. ably great; and many accidents since have When force and violence, and hard neces- convinced us that it could not have been sity, have brought the yoke of servitude overvalued. That precious life, had it upon a people's neck, religion will supply pleased God to have prolonged it the usual them with a patient and submissive spirit space, had saved us many fears and jealunder it till they can innocently shake it off: ousies, and dark distrusts, and prevented but certainly religion never puts it on. This many alarms, that have long kept us, and always was, and this at present is, my will keep us still, waking and uneasy. Nojudgment of these matters: and I would be thing remained to comfort and support us transmitted to posterity (for the little share under this heavy stroke, but the necessity of time such names as mine can live) under it brought the king and nation under of setthe character of one who loved his country, tling the succession in the house of Hanover, and would be thought a good Englishman, and giving it a hereditary right by act of as well as a good clergyman.

parliament, as long as it continues Pro“Thischaracter I thought would be trans- testant. So much good did God, in his mitted by the following sermons, which merciful providence, produce from a miswere made for and preached in a private fortune, which we could never otherwise audience, when I could think of nothing have sufficiently deplored! else but doing my duty on the occasions •The fourth 'sermon was preached upon that were then offered by God's providence, the queen's accession to the throne, and the without any manner of design of making first year in which that day was solemnly them public; and for that reason I give observed (for by some accident or other it them now as they were then delivered; by had been overlooked the year before;) and which I hope to satisfy those people who every one will see, without the date of it, have objected a change of principles to me, that it was preached very early in this as if I were not now the same man I for- reign, since I was able only' to promise and merly was, I never had but one opinion of presage its future glories and successes, these matters; and that I think is so rea- | from the good appearances of things, and

VOL. II. 14

the happy turn our affairs began to take; Friendship is a strong and habitual inand could not then count up the victories clination in two persons to promote the good and triumphs that, for seven years after, and happiness of one another. Though the made it, in the prophet's language, a name pleasures and advantages of friendship have and a praise among all the people of the been largely celebrated by the best moral earth. "Never did seven such years to- writers, and are considered by all as great gether pass over the head of any English ingredients of human happiness, we very monarch, nor cover it with so much honour. rarely meet with the practice of this virtue The crown and sceptre seemed to be the in the world. queen's least ornaments; those, other princes Every man is ready to give in a long cawore in common with her, and her great talogue of those virtues and good qualities personal virtues were the same before and he expects to find in the person of a friend, since; but such was the fame of her ad- but very few of us are careful to cultivate ministration of affairs at home, such was them in ourselves. the reputation of her wisdom and felicity Love and esteem are the first principles in choosing ministers, and such was then of friendship, which always is imperfect esteemed their faithfulness and zeal, their where either of these two is wanting ; diligence and great abilities in executing As, on the one hand, we are soon ashamed her commands; to such a height of military of loving a man whom we cannot esteem; so, glory did her great general and her armies on the other, though we are truly sensible carry the British name abroad; such was of a man's abilities, we can never raise ourthe harmony and concord betwixt her and selves to the warmth of friendship, withher allies; and such was the blessing of out an affectionate good-will towards his God upon all her councils and undertakings, person. that I am as sure as history can make me, Friendship immediately banishes envy no prince of ours ever was so prosperous under all its disguises. A man who can and successful, so beloved, esteemed, and once doubt whether he should rejoice in his honoured by their subjects and their friends, friend's being happier than himself, may nor near so formidable to their enemies. depend upon it that he is an utter stranger We were, as all the world imagined then, to this virtue. just entering on the ways that promised to There is something in friendship so very lead to such a peace as would have answered great and noble, that in those fictitious stoall the prayers of our religious queen, the ries which are invented to the honour of any care and vigilance of a most able ministry, particular person, the authors have thought the payments of a willing and most obedient it as necessary to make their hero a friend people, as well as all the glorious toils and as a lover. Achilles has his Patroclus, and hazards of the soldiery; when God, for our Æneas his Achates. In the first of these sins, permitted the spirit of discord to go instances we may observe, for the reputaforth, and by troubling sore the camp, the tion of the subject I am treating of, that city and the country, (and oh that it had Greece was almost ruined by the hero's altogether spared the places sacred to his love, but was preserved by his friendship. worship!) to spoil, for a time, this beautiful The character of Achates suggests to us and pleasing prospect, and give us in its an observation we may often make on the stead, I know not what -Our ene- intimacies of great men, who frequently mies will tell the rest with pleasure. It will choose their companions rather for the become me better to pray to God to restore qualities of the heart than those of the us to the power of obtaining such a peace head, and prefer fidelity in an easy, inofas will be to his glory, the safety, honour, fensive, complying temper, to those endowand welfare of the queen and her dominions, ments which make a much greater figure and the general satisfaction of all her high among mankind. I do not remember that and mighty allies. *

Achates, who is represented as the first May 2, 1712.

favourite, either gives his advice, or strikes a blow, through the whole Æneid.

A friendship which makes the least noise No. 385.] Thursday, May 22, 1712. is very often most useful: for which reason

I should prefer a prudent friend to a zealous - Thesea pectora juncta fide.

Atticus, one of the best men of ancient Breasts that with sympathizing ardour glow'd, And holy friendship, such as Theseus vow'd.

Rome, was a very remarkable instance of I INTEND the paper for this day as a

what I am here speaking. This extraorloose essay upon friendship, in which I shall country, when he saw the designs of all

nary person, amidst the civil wars of his throw my observations together without parties equally tended to the subversion of any set form, that I may avoid repeating liberty, by constantly preserving the esteem what has been often said on this subject.

and affection of both the competitors, found

means to serve his friends on either side: * This Preface was seized on by the Tory ministry, and, while he sent money to young Marius, and condemned, by a motion of the House of Commons, whose father was declared an enemy to to be burned by the common hangman.-See Biographia Britannica, vol. iii. p. 1974.

the commonwealth, he was himself one of

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Ovid. Trist. iii. Lib. 1. 66.

Sylla's chief favourites, and always near, No. 386.] Friday, May 23, 1712. that general.

During the war between Cæsar and Pom Cum tristibus severe, cum remissis jucunde, cum sepey, he still maintained the same conduct. nibus graviter, cum juventute comiter vivere. After the death of Cæsar, he sent money to

Tully. Brutus in his troubles, and did a thousand The piece of Latin on the head of this good offices to Antony's wife and friends paper is part of a character extremely viwhen that party seemed ruined. Lastly, cious, but I have set down no more than even in that bloody war between Antony may fall in with the rules of justice and and Augustus, Atticus still kept his place honour. Cicero spoke it of Catiline, who, in both their friendships: insomuch that the he said, 'lived with the sad severely, with first, says Cornelius Nepos, whenever he the cheerful agreeably, with the old gravewas absent from Rome in any part of the ly, with the young pleasantly;' he added, empire, writ punctually to him what he with the wicked boldly, with the wanton was doing, what he read, and whither he lasciviously.' The two last instances of his intended to go; and the latter gave him complaisance I forbear to consider, having constantly an exact account of all his affairs. it in my thoughts at present only to speak

A likeness of inclinations in every parti- of obsequious behaviour as it sits upon a cular is so far from being requisite to form companion in pleasure, not a man of design a benevolence in two minds towards each and intrigue. To vary with every humour other, as it is generally imagined, that I in this manner cannot be agreeable, except believe we shall find some of the firmest it comes from a man's own temper and nafriendships to have been contracted be- tural complexion; to do it out of an ambitween persons of different humours; the tion to excel that way, is the most fruitless mind being often pleased with those per- and unbecoming, prostitution imaginable. fections which are new to it, and which it To put on an artful part to obtain no other does not find among its own accomplish-end but an unjust praise from the undiscernments. Besides that a man in some mea-ing, is of all endeavours the most despicasure supplies his own defects, and fancies ble. A man must be sincerely pleased to himself at second-hand possessed of those become pleasure, or not to interrupt that good qualities and endowments, which are of others; for this reason it is a most calain the possession of him who in the eye of mitous circumstance, that many people who the world is looked upon as his other self. want to be alone, or should be so, will come

The most difficult province in friendship into conversation. It is certain that all men, is the letting a man see his faults and errors, who are the least given to reflection, are which should, if possible, be so contrived, seized with an inclination that way, when, that he may perceive our advice is given perhaps, they had rather be inclined to him not so much to please ourselves as for company; but indeed they had better go his own advantage. The reproaches there- home and be tired with themselves, than fore of a friend should always be strictly force themselves upon others to recover just, and not too frequent.

their good humour. In all this, the case of The violent desire of pleasing in the per- communicating to a friend a sad thought or son reproved may otherwise change into a difficulty, in order to relieve a heavy heart, despair of doing it, while he finds himself stands excepted; but what is here meant censured for faults he is not conscious of. is, that a man should always go with incliA mind that is softened and humanized by nation to the turn of the company he is friendship cannot bear frequent reproaches; going into, or not pretend to be of the party. either it must quite sink under the oppres- It is certainly a very happy temper to be sion, or abate considerably of the value and able to live with all kinds of dispositions, esteem it had for him who bestows them. because it argues a mind that lies open to

The proper business of friendship is to receive what is pleasing to others, and not inspire life and courage: and a soul thus obstinately bent on any particularity of his supported outdoes itself: whereas, if it be own. unexpectedly deprived of these succours, This is it which makes me pleased with it droops and languishes.

the character of my good acquaintance We are in some measure more inexcusa- Acasto. You meet him at the tables and ble if we violate our duties to a friend than conversations of the wise, the impertinent, to a relation; since the former arise from the grave, the frolic, and the witty; and a voluntary choice, the latter from a ne- yet his own character has nothing in it that cessity to which we could not give our own can make him particularly agreeable to any consent.

one sect of men; but Acasto has natural As it has been said on one side, that a good sense, good-nature, and discretion, so man ought not to break with a faulty friend, that every man enjoys himself in his comthat he may not expose the weakness of pany; and though Acasto contributes nohis choice; it will doubtless hold much thing to the entertainment, he never was at stronger with respect to a worthy one, that a place where he was not welcome a second he may never be upbraided for having lost time. Without the subordinate good qualiso valuable a treasure which was once in ties of Acasto, a man of wit and learning his possession.


would be painful to the generality of man

kind, instead of being pleasing. Witty men cause he just now saw her. But I think I are apt to imagine they are agreeable as need not dwell on this subject, since I have such, and by that means grow the worst acknowledged there can be no rules made companions imaginable; they deride the for excelling this way; and precepts of this absent or rally the present in a wrong man- kind fare like rules for writing poetry, ner, not knowing that if you pinch or tickle which, it is said, may have prevented ili a man till he is uneasy in his seat, or un- poets, but never made good ones. T. gracefully distinguished from the rest of the company, you equally hurt him.

I was going to say, the true art of being No. 387.] Saturday, May 24, 1712. agreeable in company (but there can be no such thing as art in it) is to appear well

Quid pure tranquillet

Hor. Ep. xviii. Lib. 102. pleased with those you are engaged with,

What calms the breast and makes the mind serene. and rather to seem well entertained, than to bring entertainment to others. A man In my last Saturday's paper, I spoke of thus disposed is not indeed what we ordi- cheerfulness as it is a moral habit of the narily call a good companion, but essentially mind, and accordingly mentioned such mois such, and in all the parts of his conversa- ral motives as are apt to cherish and keep tion has something friendly in his behaviour, alive this happy temper in the soul of man. which conciliate men's minds more than the I shall now consider cheerfulness in its nahighest sallies of wit or starts of humour can tural state, and reflect on those motives to possibly do. The feebleness of age in a man it which are indifferent either as to virtue of this turn has something which should be or vice. treated with respect even in a man no other Cheerfulness is, in the first place, the wise venerable. The forwardness of youth, best promoter of health. Repinings, and when it proceeds from alacrity and not in- secret murmurs of heart, give imperceptisolence, has also its allowances. The com- ble strokes to those delicate fibres of which panion who is formed for such by nature, the vital parts are composed, and wear gives to every character of life its due re- out the machine insensibly; not to mention gards, and is ready to account for their im- those violent ferments which they stir up perfections, and receive their accomplish- in the blood, and those irregular disturbed ments as if they were his own. It must motions which they raise in the animal appear that you receive law from, and not spirits. I scarce remember, in my own give it to, your company, to make you observation, to have met with many old agreeable.

men, or with such, who (to use our English I remember Tully, speaking, I think, of phrase,) wear well, that had not at least a Antony, says, that, In eo facetiæ erant, quæ certain indolence in their humour, if not a nulla arte iradi possunt: «He had a witty more than ordinary gayety and cheerfulmirth, which could be acquired by no art. ness of heart. The truth of it is, health This quality must be of the kind of which and cheerfulness mutually beget each other, I am now speaking; for all sorts of beha- with this difference, that we seldom meet viour which depend upon observation and with a great degree of health which is not knowledge of life are to be acquired; but attended with a certain cheerfulness, but that which no one can describe, and is ap- very often see cheerfulness where there is parently the act of nature, must be every no great degree of health. where prevalent, because every thing it Cheerfulness bears the same friendly remeets is a fit occasion to exert it; for he gard to the mind as to the body. It banishes who follows nature can never be improper all anxious care and discontent, soothes and or unseasonable.

composes the passions, and keeps the soul How unaccountable then must their be- in a perpetual calm. But having already haviour be, who, without any manner of touched on this last consideration, I shall consideration of what the company they here take notice, that the world in which have now entered are upon, give themselves we are placed is filled with innumerable the air of a messenger, and make as distinct objects that are proper to raise and keep relations of the occurrences they last met alive this happy temper of mind. with, as if they had been despatched from If we consider this world in its subserthose they talk to, to be punctually exact viency to man, one would think it was made in a report of those circumstances! It is for our use; but if we consider it in its natuunpardonable to those who are met to enjoy ral beauty and harmony, one would be apt one another, that a fresh man shall pop in, to conclude it was made for our pleasure. and give us only the last part of his own The sun, which is as the great soul of the life, and put a stop to ours during the his- universe, and produces all the necessaries tory. If such a man comes from Change, of life, has a particular influence in cheer. whether you will or not, you must hear how ing the mind of man, and making the heart the stock's go; and, though you are never glad. so intently employed on a graver subject, a Those several living creatures which are young fellow of the other end of the town made for our service or sustenance, at the will take his place, and tell you, Mrs. same time either fill the woods with their Such-a-one is charmingly handsome, be- music, furnish us with game, or raise please

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