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My Lord,

1712-13. tates powerful or inconsiderable in Europe, VERY many favours and civilities (re- as they are friends or enemies to Great ceived from you in a private capacity) | Britain. The importance of those great which I have no other way to acknowledge, events which happened during that adwill, I hope, excuse this presumption; but ministration in which your lordship bore so the justice I, as a Spectator, owe your cha- important a charge, will be acknowledged racter, places me above the want of an as long as time shall endure. I shall not excuse. Candour and openness of heart, therefore attempt to rehearse those illuswhich shine in all your words and actions, trious passages, but give this application a exact the highest esteem from all who have more private and particular turn, in desirthe honour to know you; and a winning ing your lordship would continue your facondescension to all subordinate to you, vour and patronage to me, as you are a made business a pleasure to those who ex- gentleman of the most polite literature, and ecuted it under you, at the same time that perfectly accomplished in the knowledge it heightened her majesty's favour to all of books* and men, which makes it necesthose who had the happiness of having it sary to beseech your indulgence to the folconveyed through your hands. A secretary lowing leaves, and the author of them, who of state, in the interest of mankind, joined is, with the greatest truth and respect, with that of his fellow-subjects, accom

MY LORD, plished with a great facility and elegance Your Lordship's obliged, obedient, in all the modern as well as ancient lan

and humble servant, guages, was a happy and proper member

THE SPECTATOR. of a ministry, by whose services your sovereign is in so high and flourishing a condi

* His lordship was the founder of the splendid and tion, as makes all other princes and poten- | truly valuable library at Althorp.

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The great part you had, as British amIt is with great pleasure I take an oppor- bassador, in procuring and cultivating the tunity of publishing the gratitude I owe you advantageous commerce between the courts for the place you allow me in your friend- of England and Portugal, has purchased ship and familiarity. I will not acknow you the lasting esteem of all who underledge to you that I'have often had you in stand the interest of either nation. my thoughts, when I have endeavoured to Those personal excellencies which are draw, in some parts of these discourses, the overrated by the ordinary world, and too character of a good-natured, honest, and much neglected by wise men, you have apaccomplished gentleman. But such repre- plied with the justest skill and judgment, sentations give my reader an idea of a per- The most graceful address in horsemanson blameless only, or only laudable for ship, in the use of the sword, and in dancsuch perfections as extend no farther than ing, has been employed by you as lower to his own private advantage and reputa- arts; and as they have occasionally served tion.

to cover or introduce the talents of a skilBut when I speak of you, I celebrate one ful minister. who has had the happiness of possessing also But your abilities have not appeared only those qualities which make a man useful to in one nation. When it was your province to society, and of having had opportunities | act as her majesty's minister at the court of of exerting them in the most conspicuous Savoy, at that time encamped, you accommanner.

panied that gallant prince through all the

vicissitudes of his fortune, and shared by wards Sir Paul Methuen, K. B. He was several years which he recovered his capital. As far as

* of Bishops-Canings, in the county of Wilts; after his side the dangers of that glorious day in ambassador at the court of Lisbon, where he conducted himself with great ability.

lit regards personal qualities, you attained,

in that one hour, the highest military re- have at your table, your easy condescension putation. The behaviour of our minister in little incidents of mirth and diversion, in the action, and the good offices done the and general complacency of manners, are vanquished in the name of the Queen of far from being the greatest obligations we England, gave both the conqueror and the have to you. I do assure you, there is not captive the most lively examples of the one of your friends has a greater sense of courage and generosity of the nation he re- your merit in general, and of the favours presented.

you every day do us, than, Your friends and companions in your ab

SIR, sence frequently talk these things of you; Your most obedient, and you cannot hide from us (by the most

and most humble servant, discreet silence in any thing which regards

RICHARD STEELE. yourself) that the frank entertainment we


TO WILLIAM HONEYCOMB, ESQ.* The seven former volumes of the Spec- their lives. But I need not tell you that the tator having been dedicated to some of the free and disengaged behaviour of a fine most celebrated persons of the age, I take gentleman makes as many awkward beaux, leave to inscribe this eighth and last to you, as the easiness of your favourite hath made as to a gentleman who hath ever been am- insipid poets. bitious of appearing in the best company, At present you are content to aim all

You are now wholly retired from the your charms, at your own spouse, without busy part of mankind, and at leisure to re- farther thought of mischief to any others flect upon your past achievements; for of the sex. I know you had formerly which reason I look upon you as a person a very great contempt for that pedantic very well qualified for a dedication. race of mortals who call themselves philo

I may possibly disappoint my readers, sophers; and yet, to your honour be it and yourself too, if I do not endeavour on spoken, there is not a sage of them all could this occasion to make the world acquainted have better acted up to their precepts in with your virtues. And here, sir, I shall one of the most important points of life: I not compliment you upon your birth, per- mean, in that generous disregard of popuson, or fortune; nor on any other the like lar opinion which you showed some years perfections which you possess, whether you ago, when you chose for your wife an obwill or no; but shall only touch upon those scure young woman, who doth not indeed which are of your own acquiring, and in pretend to an ancient family, but has cerwhich every one must allow you have a tainly as many forefathers as any lady in real merit.

the land, if she could but reckon up their Your janty air and easy motion, the vo- names. lubility of your discourse, the suddenness I must own I conceived very extraordiof your laugh, the management of your nary hopes of you from the moment that snuff-box, with the whiteness of your hands you confessed your age, and from eightand teeth (which have justly gained you and-forty (where you had stuck so many the envy of the most polite part of the years) very ingeniously stepped into your male world, and the love of the greatest grand climacteric. Your deportment has beauties in the female) are entirely to be since been very, venerable and becoming. ascribed to your own personal genius and If I am rightly'informed, you make a reapplication.

gular appearance every quarter-sessions You are formed for these accomplish- among your brothers of the quorum; and ments by a happy turn of nature, and have if things go on as they do, stand fair for finished yourself in them by the utmost im- being a colonel of the militia. I am told provements of art. A man that is defective that your time passes away as agreeably in either of these qualifications (whatever in the amusements of a country life, as it may be the secret ambition of his heart) ever did in the gallantries of the town; and must never hope to make the figure you that you now take as much pleasure in the have done, among the fashionable part of planting of young trees, as you did formerly his species. It is therefore no wonder we see in the cutting down of your old ones. In such multitudes of aspiring young men fall short, we hear from all hands that you are short of you in all these beauties of your thoroughly reconciled to your dirty acres, character, notwithstanding the study and and have not too much wit to look into your practice of them is the whole business of own estate.

After having spoken thus much of my * Generally supposed to be Col. Cleland. patron, I must take the privilege of an au

thor in saying something of myself. I shall though you know how often many protherefore beg leave to add, that I have pur- found critics in style and sentiments have posely omitted setting those marks to the very judiciously erred in this particular, end of every paper, which appeared in my before they were let into the secret. former volumes, that you may have an op- am, portunity of showing Mrs. Honeycomb the

SIR, shrewdness of your conjectures, by ascrib Your most faithful humble servant, ing every speculation to its proper author:



In the six hundred and thirty-second Perhaps it will be unnecessary to inform Spectator the reader will find an account the reader, that no other papers which of the rise of this eighth and last volume. have appeared under the title of the Spec

I have not been able to prevail upon the tator, since the closing of this eighth volseveral gentlemen who were concerned in ume, were written by any of those gentlethis work to let me acquaint the world with men who had a hand in this or the former their names.


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No. 1.] Thursday, March 1, 1710-11. it over in silence. I find, that during my

nonage, I had the reputation of a very sulNon fumum ex fulgore, sed ex fumo dare lucem Cogitat, ut speciosa dehinc miracula promat.

len youth, but was always a favourite with Hor. Ars Poet, ver. 143. my schoolmaster, who used to say, 'that One with a flash begins, and ends in smoke;

my parts were solid, and would wear well.' Another out of smoke brings glorious light,

I had not been long at the university, beAnd, (without raising expectation high)

fore I distinguished myself by a most proSurprises us with dazzling miracles. Roscommon.

found silence; for during the space of I HAVE observed that a reader seldom eight years, excepting in the public exerperuses a book with pleasure, till he knows cises of the college, I scarce uttered the whether the writer of it be a black or a fair quantity of an hundred words; and indeed man, of a mild or choleric disposition, mar- do not remember that I ever spoke three ried or a bachelor, with other particulars sentences together in my whole life. of the like nature, that conduce very much Whilst I was in this learned body, I apto the right understanding of an author. plied myself with so much diligence to my To gratify this curiosity, which is so na- studies, that there are very few celebrated tural to a reader, I design this paper and books, either in the learned or the modern my next, as prefatory discourses to my fol- tongues, which I am not acquainted with. lowing writings, and shall give some ac Upon the death of my father, I was recount in them of the several persons that are solved to travel into foreign countries, and engaged in this work. As the chief trouble therefore left the university, with the chaof compiling, digesting and correcting will racter of an odd, unaccountable fellow, that fall to my share, I must do myself the jus- had a great deal of learning, if I would but tice to open the work with my own history. show it. An insatiable thirst after know

I was born to a small hereditary estate, ledge carried me into all the countries of which according to the tradition of the vil- Europe, in which there was any thing new lage where it lies, was bounded by the or strange to be seen; nay, to such a desame hedges and ditches in William the gree was my curiosity raised, that having Conqueror's time that it is at present, and read the controversies of some great men has been delivered down from father to concerning the antiquities of Egypt, I son, whole and entire, without the loss or made a voyage to Grand Cairo, on puracquisition of a single field or meadow, pose to take the measure of a pyramid: during the space of six hundred years. and as soon as I had set myself right in that There runs a story in the family, that particular, returned to my native country when my mother was gone with child of with great satisfaction. * me about three months, she dreamt that I have passed my latter years in this city, she was brought to bed of a judge. Whe- where I am frequently seen in most public ther this might proceed from a lawsuit places, though there are not above half a which was then depending in the family, dozen of my select friends that know me; or my father's being a justice of the peace, of whom my next paper shall give a more I cannot determine; for I am not so vain particular account. There is no place of as to think it presaged any dignity that I general resort wherein I do not often should arrive at in my future life, though make my appearance; sometimes I am seen that was the interpretation which the thrusting my head into a round of politineighbourhood put upon it. The gravity cians at Will's, and listening with great atof my

behaviour at my very first appear- tention to the narratives that are made in ance in the world, and all the time that I those little circular audiences. Sometimes sucked, seemed to favour my mother's I smoke a pipe at Child's, f and whilst I dream : for, as she has often told me, I threw away my rattle before I was two months old, and would not make use of my astronomical professor at Oxford, who in 1646 publish

* This is, probably, an allusion to Mr. John Greaves, coral until they had taken away the bells ed a work entitled Pyramidographia.' from it.

† Child's coffee house was in Si. Paul's church-yard, As for the rest of my infancy, there be- and much frequented loy the clergy; St. James's is in ing nothing in it remarkable, I shall pass alley, and the Ruse was on the west side of Temple-bar.

seem attentive to nothing but the Post-is reasonable; but as for these three partiman, overhear the conversation of every culars, though I am sensible they might table in the room. I appear on Sunday tend very much to the embellishment of nights at St. James's coffee-house, and my paper, I cannot yet come to a resolusometimes join the little committee of po- tion of communicating them to the public. litics in the inner-room, as one who comes They would indeed draw me out of that obthere to hear and improve. My face is scurity which I have enjoyed for many likewise very well known at the Grecian, years, and expose me in public places to the Cocoa-tree, and in the theatres both of several salutes and civilities, which have Drury-lane and the Hay-market. I have been always very disagreeable to me; for been taken for a merchant upon the Ex- the greatest pain I can suffer, is the being change for above these ten years, and talked to, and being stared at. It is for sometimes pass for a Jew in the assembly this reason likewise, that I keep my comof stock-jobbers at Jonathan's. In short, plexion and dress as very great secrets; wherever I see a cluster of people, I al-I though it is not impossible but I may make ways mix with them, though I never open discoveries of both in the progress of the my lips but in my own club.

work I have undertaken. Thus I live in the world rather as a After having been thus particular upon Spectator of mankind, than as one of the myself, I shall in to-morrow's paper give species, by which means I have made my- an account of those gentlemen who are conself a speculative statesman, soldier, mer- cerned with me in this work; for, as I have chant, and artisan, without ever meddling before intimated, a plan of it is laid and with any practical part in life. I am very concerted (as all other matters of importwell versed in the theory of a husband, or ance are) in a club. However, as my a father, and can discern the errors in the friends have engaged me to stand in the economy, business, and diversion of others, front, those who have a mind to correbetter than those who are engaged in them; spond with me, may direct their letters to as standers-by discover blots, which are the Spectator, at Mr. Buckley's, in Little apt to escape those who are in the game. Britain. For I must further acquaint the I never espoused any party with violence, reader, that though our club meet only on and am resolved to observe an exact neu- Tuesdays and Thursdays, we have aptrality between the Whigs and Tories, un- pointed a committee to sit every night for less I shall be forced to declare myself by the inspection of all such papers as may the hostilities of either side. In short, I contribute to the advancement of the pub- . have acted in all the parts of my life as a lic weal.

C. looker-on, which is the character I intend to preserve in this paper.

I have given the reader just so much of my history and character, as to let him see No. 2.] Friday, March 2, 1710-11. I am not altogether unqualified for the business I have undertaken. As for other par

Et plures, uno conclamant ore. - Jud. Sat. vii. 167. ticulars in my life and adventures, I shall insert them in following papers, as I shall

Six more at least join their consenting voice. see occasion. In the mean time, when I consider how much I have seen, read, and Worcestershire, of an ancient descent, a

The first of our society is a gentleman of heard, I begin to blame my own tacitur- baronet, his name is sir Roger de Coverly. nity; and since I have neither time nor in- His great grandfather was inventor of that clination, to communicate the fulness of my famous country-dance which is called after heart in speech, I am resolved to do it in him. All who know that shire are very writing, and to print myself out, if possi; well acquainted with the parts and the ble, before I die. I have been often told merits of sir Roger. He is a gentleman by my friends, that it is a pity so many that is very singular in his behaviour, but useful discoveries which I have made his singularities proceed from his good should be in the possession of a silent man.

sense, and are contradictions to the manFor this reason, therefore, I shall publish a sheet full of thoughts every morning, for world is in the wrong. However, this hu

ners of the world, only as he thinks the " the benefit of my contemporaries; and if I

mour creates him no enemies, for he does can any way contribute to the diversion, or nothing with sourness or obstinacy; and his improvement of the country in which I being unconfined to modes and forms, live, I shall leave it when I am summoned makes him but the readier and more capaout of it, with the secret satisfaction of ble to please and oblige all who know him. thinking that I have not lived in vain.

When he is in town, he lives in SohoThere are three very material points

square. It is said, he keeps himself a í which I have not spoken to in this paper; and which, for several important reasor:s, I must keep to myself, at least for some Soho-square was at that time the genteelest part time: I mean an account of my name, my of the town. The landsome house, built by the unfor. age, and my lodgings. I must confess, I tunate Duke of Monmouth, occupied, until the year

1773, the whole of the ground on which Bateman's would gratify my reader in any thing that I buildings now stand.

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