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place in his poems, and the venerable Tro Virgil has indeed admitted Fame as an jan prince, who was the father of so many actress in the Æneid, but the part she acts kings and heroes. There is in these seve- is very short, and none of the most admired ral characters of Homer, a certain dignity circumstances in that divine work. We as well as novelty, which adapts them in a find in mock-heroic poems, particularly in more peculiar manner to the nature of an the Dispensary, and the Lutrin, several heroic poem. Though, at the same time, allegorical persons of this nature, which are to give them the greater variety, he has very beautiful in those compositions, and described a Vulcan, that is a buffoon, among may perhaps be used as an argument, that his gods, and a Thersites among his the authors of them were of opinion such mortals.
characters might have a place in an epic Virgil falls infinitely short of Homer in work. For my own part I should be glad the characters of his poem, both as to their the reader would think so, for the sake of variety and novelty. Æneas is indeed a per- the poem I am now examining: and must fect character; but as for Achates, though further add, that if such empty unsubstanhe is styled the hero's friend, he does nothing tial beings may be ever made use of on in the whole poem which may deserve that this occasion, never were any more nicely title. Gyas, Mnestheus, Sergestus, and imagined, and employed in more proper Cloanthus, are all of them men of the same actions, than those of which I am now stamp and character:
speaking -Fortemque Gyan, fortemque Cloanthum.
Another principal actor in this poem is
the great enemy of mankind. The part of There are, indeed, several natural inci- Ulysses in Homer's Odyssey is very much dents in the part of Ascanius; and that of admired by Aristotle, as perplexing that Dido cannot be sufficiently admired. I do not fable with very agreeable plots and intricasee any thing new or particular in Turnus. cies, not only by the many adventures in Pallas and Evander are remote copies of his voyage, and the subtilty of his beHector and Priam, as Lausus and Mezen- haviour, but by the various concealments tius are almost parallels to Pallas and and discoveries of his person in several Evander. The characters of Nisus and parts of that poem. But the crafty being I Euryalus are beautiful, but common. We have now mentioned makes a much longer must not forget the parts of Sinon, Ca- voyage than Ulysses, puts in practice many milla, and some few others, which are fine more wiles and stratagems, and hides himimprovements on the Greek poet. In short, self under a greater variety of shapes and there is neither that variety nor novelty appearances, all of which are severally dein the persons of the Æneid, which we tected to the great delight and surprise of meet with in those of the Iliad.
the reader. If we look into the characters of Milton,
We may likewise observe with how much we shall find that he has introduced all the art the poet has varied several characters variety his fable was capable of receiving. of the persons that speak in his infernal The whole species of mankind was in two assembly. On the contrary, how has he persons at the time to which the subject represented the whole Godhead exerting of his poem is confined. We have, however, itself towards man in its full benevolence four distinct characters in these two per- under the threefold distinction of a Creator, sons. We see man and woman in the a Redeemer, and a Comforter! highest innocence and perfection, and in Nor must we omit the person of Raphael, the most abject state of guilt and infirmity. who amidst his tenderness and friendship The two last characters are, indeed, very for man, shows such a dignity and condecommon and obvious, but the two first are scension in all his speech and behaviour as not only more magnificent, but more new are suitable to a superior nature. The anthan any characters either in Virgil or gels are indeed as much diversified in MilHomer, or indeed in the whole circle of ton, and distinguished by their proper parts, nature.
as the gods are in Homer or Virgil. The Milton was so sensible of this defect in reader will find nothing ascribed to Uriel, the subject of his poem, and of the few Gabriel, Michael, or Raphael, which is not characters it would afford him, that he has in a particular manner suitable to their brought into it two actors of a shadowy and respective characters. fictitious nature, in the persons of Sin and There is another circumstance in the Death, by which means he has wrought principal actors of the Iljad and Æneid, into the body of his fable a very beautiful which gives a peculiar beauty to those two and well-invented allegory: But notwith-poems, and was therefore contrived with standing the fineness of this allegory may very great judgment. I mean the authors atone for it in some measure, I cannot think having chosen for their heroes, persons who that persons of such a chimerical existence were so nearly related to the people for are proper actors in an epic poem; because whom they wrote. Achilles was a Greek, there is not that measure of probability and Æneas the remote founder of Rome. annexed to them, which is requisite in writings of this kind as I shall show more
* The two last sentences are not in the original at large hereafter,
By this means their countrymen (whom parts of Milton's poem; and hope that they principally propose to themselves for what I shall there advance, as well as what their readers) were particularly attentive I have already written, will not only serve to all the parts of their story, and sympa- as a comment upon Milton, but upon Aristhized with their heroes in all their ad-totle.
L. ventures. A Roman could not but rejoice in the escapes, successes, and victories of Æneas, and be grieved at any defeats, mis- No. 274.] Monday, January 14, 1711-12. fortunes, or disappointments that befel him;
Audire est operæ pretium, procedere recte as a Greek must have had the same re Qui mechis non vultisgard for Achilles. And it is plain, that
Hor. Sat. ii. Lib. 1. 37. each of those poems have lost this great
All you, who think the city ne'er can thrive advantage, among those readers to whom Till every cuckold-maker's flay'd alive,
Pope. their heroes are as strangers, or indifferent persons.
I HAVE upon several occasions (that have Milton's poem is admirable in this re- occurred since I first took into my thoughts spect, since it is impossible for any of its the present state of fornication) weighed readers, whatever nation, country, or peo- with myself in behalf of guilty females, the ple he may belong to, not to be related to impulses of flesh and blood, together with the persons who are the principal actors in the arts and gallantries of crafty men; and it; but what is still infinitely more to its ad- reflect with some scorn that most part of vantage, the principal actors in this poem what we in our youth think gay and polite, are not only our progenitors, but our repre- is nothing else but a habit of indulging a sentatives. We have an actual interest in pruriency that way. It will cost some laevery thing they do, and no less than our bour to bring people to so lively a sense of utmost happiness is concerned, and lies at this, as to recover the manly modesty in .stake in all their behaviour.
the behaviour of my men readers, and the I shall subjoin as a corollary to the fore- bashful grace in the faces of my women; going remark, an admirable observation but in all cases which come into debate, out of Aristotle, which has been very much there are certain things previously to be misrepresented, in the quotations of some done before we can have a true light into modern critics; •If a man of perfect and the subject matter: therefore it will, in the consummate virtue falls into a misfortune, it first place, be necessary to consider the raises our pity, but not our terror, because impotent wenchers and industrious hags, we do not fear that it may be our own case, who are supplied with, and are constantly who do not resemble the suffering person.' supplying, new sacrifices to the devil of But, as that great philosopher adds, "if we lust. 'You are to know, then, if you are so see a man of virtue mixed with infirmities, happy as not to know it already, that the fall into any misfortune, it does not only great havock which is made in the habitaraise our pity but our terror; because we tions of beauty and innocence, is committed are afraid that the like misfortunes may by such as can only lay waste and not enhappen to ourselves, who resemble the joy the soil. When you observe the precharacter of the suffering person.
sent state of vice and virtue, the offenders I shall take another opportunity to ob- are such as one would think should have no serve that a person of an absolute and con- impulse to what they are pursuing; as in summate virtue should never be introduced business, you see sometimes fools pretend in tragedy, and shall only remark in this to be knaves, so in pleasure, you will find place, that the foregoing observation of old men set up for wenchers. This latter Aristotle, though it may be true in other sort of men are the great basis and fund of occasions, does not hold in this; because in iniquity in the kind we are speaking of; you the present case, though the persons who shall have an old rich man often receive fall into misfortune are of the most perfect scrawls from the several quarters of the and consummate virtue, it is not to be con- town, with descriptions of the new wares sidered as what may possibly be, but what in their hands, if he will please to send actually is our own case; since we are em- word when he will be waited on. This inbarked with them on the same bottom, and terview is contrived, and the innocent is must be partakers of their happiness or brought to such indecencies as from time misery.
to time banish shame and raise desire. In this, and some other very few in- With these preparatives the hags break stances, Aristotle's rules for epic poetry their wards by little and little, until they (which he had drawn from his reflections are brought to lose all apprehensions of upon Homer) cannot be supposed to quad- what shall befal them in the possession of rate exactly with the hervic poems which younger men. It is a comincn postscript of have been made since his time; since it á hag to a young fellow when she invites is plain his rules would still have been to a new woman, “She has, I assure you, more perfect, could he have perused the seen none but cld Mr. Such-a-one. It Æneid, which was made some hundred pleases the old fellow that the nymph is years after his death.
brought to him unadorned, and from his In my next, I shall go through other bounty she is accommodated with enough to
dress her for other lovers. This is the most | MY LORD,-I having a great esteem for ordinary method of bringing beauty and your honour, and a better opinion of you poverty into the possession of the town: but than of any of the quality, makes me acthe particular cases of kind keepers, skilful quaint you of an affair that I hope will pimps, and all others who drive a separate oblige you to know. I have a niece that trade, and are not in the general society or came to town about a fortnight ago. Her commerce of sin, will require distinct con- parents being lately dead, she came to me sideration. At the same time that we are expecting to have found me in so good a thus severe on the abandoned, we are to condition as to set her up in a milliner's represent the case of others with that shop. Her father gave fourscore pound mitigation as the circumstances demand. with her for five years: her time is out, Calling names does no good; to speak worse and she is not sixteen: as pretty a black of any thing than it deserves, does only gentlewoman as ever you saw; a little take off from the credit of the accuser, and woman, which I know your lordship likes; has implicitly the force of an apology in the well shaped, and as fine a complexion for behalf of the person accused. We shall, red and white as ever I saw; I doubt not but therefore, according as the circumstances your lordship will be of the same opinion. differ, vary our appellations of these crimi- She designs to go down about a month nals: those who offend only against them- hence, except I can provide for her, which selves, and are not scandals to society, but I cannot at present. Her father was one out of deference to the sober part of the with whom all he had died with him, so world, have so much good left in them as there is four children left destitute: so if to be ashamed, must not be huddled in the your lordship thinks proper to make an apcommon word due to the worst of women; pointment where I shall wait on you with but regard is to be had to their circum- my niece, by a line or two, I stay for your stances when they fell, to the uneasy per- answer; for I have no place fitted up since plexity under which they lived under sense- I left my house, fit to entertain your honour. less and severe parents; to the importunity I told her she should go with me to see a of poverty; to the violence of a passion in its gentleman, a very good friend of mine; so beginning well grounded, and all other al- I desire you to take notice of my letter, by leviations which make unhappy women reason she is ignorant of the ways of the resign the characteristic of their sex, mo- town. My lord, I desire if you meet us to desty. To do otherwise than this, would come alone; for upon my word and honour be to act like a pedantic Stoic, who thinks you are the first that I ever mentioned her all crimes alike, and not like an impartial to. So I remain your lordship’s most humSpectator, who looks upon them with all ble servant to command. the circumstances that diminish or enhance 'I beg of you to burn it when you've the guilt. I am in hopes, if this subject be read it."
T. well pursued, women will hereafter from their infancy be treated with an eve to their future state in the world; and not have their No. 275.] Tuesday, January 15, 1711-12. tempers made too untractable from an improper sourness, or pride, or too complying
-tribus Anticyris caput insanabilefrom familiarity or forwardness contracted at their own houses. After these hints on
A head, no hellebore can cure. this subject, I shall end this paper with the I was yesterday engaged in an assembly following genuine letter; and desire all who of virtuosos, where one of them produced think they may be concerned in future many curious observations which he had speculations on this subject, to send in what lately made in the anatomy of a human they have to say for themselves for some body. Another of the company communiincidents in their lives, in order to have cated to us several wonderful discoveries proper allowances made for their conduct which he had also made on the same sub
ject, by the help of very fine glasses. Jan. 5, 1711-12. This gave birth to a great variety of unMR. SPECTATOR,—The subject of your common remarks, and furnished discourse yesterday's paper, is of so great import- for the remaining part of the day. ance, and the thorough handling of it may The different opinions which were started be so very useful to the preservation of on this occasion presented to my imaginamany an innocent young creature, that I tion so many new ideas, that by mixing think every one is obliged to furnish you with those which were already there, they with what lights he can to expose the per- employed my fancy all the last night, and nicious arts and practices of those unnatural composed a very wild extravagant dream. women called bawds. In order to this, the I was invited, methought, to the dissecenclosed is sent to you, which is verbatim tion of a beau's head, and a coquette's the copy of a letter written by a bawd of heart, which were both of them laid on a figure in this town to à noble lord. I have table before us. An imaginary operator concealed the names of both, my intention opened the first with a great deal of nicety, being not to expose the persons but the which upon a cursory and superficial view, thing I am, sir, your humble servant.' appeared like the head of another man;
Hor. Ars Poet. v. 300
but upon applying our glasses to it, we must have been entirely deprived of the made a very odd discovery, namely, that faculty of blushing. what we looked upon as brains, were not Thé os cribriforme wasexceedingly stuffsuch in reality, but a heap of strange ma- ed, and in some places damaged with snuff. terials wound up in that shape and texture, We could not but take notice in particular and packed together with wonderful art in of that small muscle which is not often disthe several cavities of the skull. For, as covered in dissections, and draws the nose Homer tells us, that the blood of the gods upward when it expresses the contempt is not real blood, but only, something like which the owner of it has, upon seeing any it; so we found that the brain of a beau thing he does not like, or hearing any thing was not real brain, but only something he does not understand. I need not tell my like it.
learned reader, this is that muscle which The pineal gland, which many of our performs the motion so often mentioned modern philosophers suppose to be the seat by the Latin poets, when they talk of a of the soul, smelt very strong of essence man's cocking his nose, or playing the rhiand orange-flower water, and was encom- noceros. passed with a kind of horny substance, cut We did not find any thing very remarkinto a thousand little faces or mirrors, able in the eye, saving only, that the muswhich were imperceptible to the naked culi amatorii, or, as we may translate it eye, insomuch that the soul, if there had into English, the ogling muscles, were very been any here, must have been always taken much worn and decayed with use; whereup in contemplating her own beauties.
as, on the contrary, the elevator, or the We observed a large antrum or cavity in muscle which turns the eye towards heaven, the sinciput, that was filled with ribands, did not appear to have been used at all. lace, and embroidery, wrought together in I have only mentioned in this dissection a most curious piece of net-work, the parts such new discoveries as we were able to of which were likewise imperceptible to make, and have not taken any notice of the naked eye. Another of these antrums those parts which are to be met with in or cavities was stuffed with invisible billet-common heads. As for the skull, the face, doux, love-letters, pricked dances, and and indeed the whole outward shape and other trumpery of the same nature. In an- figure of the head, we could not discover other we found a kind of powder, which set any difference from what we observe in the whole conipany a sneezing, and by the the heads of other men. We were informscent discovered itself to be right Spanish. ed that the person to whom this head beThe several other cells were stored with longed, had passed for a man above five commodities of the same kind, of which it and thirty years: during which time he eat would be tedious to give the reader an ex- and drank like other people, dressed well, act inventory.
talked loud, laughed frequently, and on There was a large cavity on each side of particular occasions had acquitted himself the head, which I must not omit. That on tolerably at a ball or an assembly; to which the right side was filled with fictions, flat- one of the company added that a certain teries, and falsehoods, vows, promises, and knot of ladies took him for a wit. He was protestations; that on the left with oaths cut off in the flower of his age by the blow and imprecations. There issued out a duct of a paring-shovel, having been surprised from each of these cells, which ran into by an eminent citizen, as he was tendering the root of the tongue, where both joined some civilities to his wife. together, and passed forward in one com When we had thoroughly examined this mon duct to the tip of it. We discovered head with all its apartments, and its seveseveral little roads or canals running from ral kinds of furniture, we put up the brain, the ear into the brain, and took particular such as it was, into its proper place, and care to trace them out through their seve- laid it aside under a broad piece of scarlet ral passages. One of them extended itself cloth, in order to be prepared, and kept in to a bundle of sonnets and little musical in- a great repository of dissections; our ope, struments. Others ended in several blad- rator telling us that the preparation would ders, which were filled either with wind or not be so difficult as that of another brain, froth. But the large canal entered into a for that he had observed several of the little great cavity of the skull, from whence pipes and tubes which ran through the there went another canal into the tongue. brain were already filled with a kind of This great cavity was filled with a kind of mercurial substance, which he looked upon spongy substance, which the French ana- to be true quicksilver. tomists call galimatias, and the English, He applied himself in the next place to
the coquette's heart, which he likewise The skins of the forehead were extremely laid open with great dexterity. There octough and thick, and what very much sur- curred to us many particulars in this disprised us, had not in them any single blood- section: but being unwilling to burden my vessel that we were able to discover, either reader's memory tco much, I shall reserve with or without our glasses; from whence this subject for the speculation of another we concluded, that the party when alive day.
Hor. Sat. iii. Lib. 1. 45.
No. 276.] Wednesday, Jan. 16, 1711-12. I mean here to say to you is, that the most
free person of quality can go no further Errori nomen virtus posuisset honestum. than being a kind woman; and you should Misconduct screen'd behind a specious name.
never say of a man of figure worse than
that he knows the world. I am, sir, your MR. SPECTATOR, I hope you have most humble servant, philosophy enough to be capable of hearing
FRANCIS COURTLY." the mention of your faults. Your papers which regard the fallen part of the fair
MR. SPECTATOR,-I am a woman of sex, are, I think, written with an indeli- unspotted reputation, and know nothing I
have ever done which should encourage cacy which makes them unworthy to be inserted in the writings of a moralist who such insolence; but here was one the other knows the world. I cannot allow that you
day, and he was dressed like a gentleman are at liberty to observe upon the actions too, who took the liberty to name the words of mankind with the freedom which you not but you will resent it in behalf of, şir,
lusty fellow” in my presence. I doubt seem to resolve upon; at least, if
CELIA.' you should take along with you the distinc- your humble servant, tion of the manners of the world, according to MR. SPECTATOR,—You lately put out the quality and way of life of the persons a dreadful paper, wherein you promise a concerned. A man of breeding speaks full account of the state of criminal love; of even misfortune among ladies, without and call all the fair who have transgressed giving it the most terrible aspect it can in that kind by one very rude name, which bear: and this tenderness towards them is I do not care to repeat: but I desire to know much more to be preserved when you speak of you whether I am or am not one of those? of vices. All mankind are so far related, My case is as follows: I am kept by an old that care is to be taken, in things to which bachelor who took me so young that I know all are liable, you do not mention what not how he came by me.' He is a bencher concerns one in terms which shall disgust of one of the inns of court, a very gay another. Thus to tell a rich man of the in- healthy old man, which is a very lucky digence of a kinsman of his, or abruptly thing for him; who has been, he tells me, to inform a virtuous woman of the lapse of a scowerer, a scamperer, a breaker of winone who until then was in the same degree dows, an invader of constables, in the days of esteem with herself, is a kind of involv- of yore, when all dominion ended with the ing each of them in some participation of day, and males and females met helter those disadvantages. It is therefore ex- skelter, and the scowerers drove before pected from every writer, to treat his ar- them all who pretended to keep up order gument in such a manner as is most proper or rule to the interruption of love and hoto entertain the sort of readers to whom his nour. This is his way of talk, for he is very discourse is directed. It is not necessary gay when he visits me; but as his former when you write to the tea-table, that you knowledge of the town has alarmed him should draw vices which carry all the hor- into an invincible jealousy, he keeps me in ror of shame and contempt: if you paint an a pair of slippers, neat bodice, warm pettiimpertinent self-love, an artful glance, an coats, and my own hair woven in ringlets, assumed complexion, you say all which after a manner, he says, he remembers. I you ought to suppose they can be possibly am not mistress of one farthing of money, guilty of. When you talk with this limita- but have all necessaries provided for me, tion, you behave yourself so as that you under the guard of one who procured for may expect others in conversation may him while he had any desires to gratify. I second your raillery; but when you do it in know nothing of a wench's life, but the rea style which every body else forbears in putation of it: I have a natural voice, and respect to their quality, they have an easy a pretty untaught step in dancing. His remedy in forbearing to read you, and hear- manner is to bring an old fellow who has ing no more of their faults. 'A man that is been his servant from his youth, and is now and then guilty of an intemperance is gray-headed. This man makes on the vionot to be called a drunkard; but the rule of lin a certain jiggish noise to which I dance; polite raillery is to speak of a man's faults and when that is over I sing to him some as if you loved him. “Of this nature is what loose air that has more wantonness than was said by Cæsar: when one was railing music in it. You must have seen a strange with an uncourtly vehemence, and broke windowed house near Hyde Park, which is out with, “What must we call him who so built that no one can look out of any of was taken in an intrigue with another man's the apartments; my rooms are after this wife?” Cæsar answered very gravely, “A manner, and I never see man, woman, or careless fellow.” This was at once a re- child, but in company with the two persons primand for speaking of a crime which in above-mentioned. He sends me in all the those days had not the abhorrence attending books, pamphlets, plays, operas, and songs it as it ought, as well as an intimation that that come out; and his utmost delight in all intemperate behaviour before superiors me, as a woman, is to talk over his old loses its aim, by accusing in a method unfit amours in my presence, to play with my for the audience. A word to the wise. All neck, say " the time was," give me a kiss,