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be a full and satisfactory answer to all such | have by this admirable person been shown papers and pamphlets as have yet ap- to, and raised in, sir, your most humble peared against the Spectator. C. servant.',
MR. SPECTATOR, -I am a country gen
tleman of a good plentiful estate, and live as No. 240.] Wednesday, December 5, 1711. the rest of my neighbours with great hos
pitality. I have been ever reckoned among Aliter non fit, Avite, liber.
the ladies the best company in the world, Mart. Ep. 17. Lib. 1.
and have access as a sort of favourite. I Of such materials, sir, are books composed.
never came in public but I saluted them, MR. SPECTATOR, I am one of the though in great assemblies, all around; most genteel trades in the city, and under- where it was seen how genteelly I avoided stand thus much of liberal education, as to hampering my spurs in their petticoats, have an ardent ambition of being useful to whilst I moved amongst them; and on the mankind, and to think that the chief end other side how prettily they curtsied and of being, as to this life. I had these good received me standing in proper rows, and impressions given me from the handsome advancing as fast as they saw their elders, behaviour of a learned, generous, and or their betters, despatched by me. But so wealthy man towards me, when Í first it is, Mr. Spectator, that all our good breedbegan the world. Some dissatisfaction being is of late lost, by the unhappy arrival of tween me and my parents made me enter a courtier, or town gentleman, who came into it with less relish of business than I lately among us. This person whenever he ought; and to turn off this uneasiness, I came into a room made a profound bow, gave myself to criminal pleasures, some and fell back, then recovered with a soft excesses, and a general loose conduct. I air, and made a bow to the next, and so to know not what the excellent man above- one or two more, and then took the gross of mentioned saw in me, but he descended the room, by passing them in a continual from the superiority of his wisdom and bow until he arrived at the person he merit, to throw himself frequently into my thought proper particularly to entertain. company. This made me soon hope that This he did with so good a grace and asI had something in me worth cultivating, surance, that it is taken for the present and his conversation made me sensible of fashion; and there is no young gentlewoman satisfactions in a regular way, which I had within several miles of this place has been never before imagined. When he was kissed ever since his first appearance among grown familiar with me, he opened himself us. We country gentlemen cannot begin like a good angel, and told me he had long again and learn these fine and reserved airs; laboured to ripen me into a preparation to and our conversation is at a stand, until we receive his friendship and advice, both have your judgment for or against kissing which I should daily command, and the by way of civility or salutation; which is use of any part of his fortune, to apply impatiently expected by your friends of the measures he should propose to me, for both sexes, but by none so much as your the improvement of my own. I assure you humble servant, I cannot recollect the goodness and confu
RUSTIC SPRIGHTLY.' sion of the good old man when he spoke to this purpose to me without melting into
December 3, 1711. tears; but in a word, sir, I must hasten to MR. SPECTATOR,- I was the other night tell you, that my heart burns with grati- at Philaster, where I expected to hear your tude towards him, and he is so happy a famous trunk-maker, but was unhappily man that it can never be in my power to disappointed of his company, and saw anreturn him his favours in kind, but I am other person who had the like ambition to sure I have made him the most agreeable distinguish himself in a noisy manner, partly satisfaction I could possibly, in being ready by vociferation or talking loud, and partly to serve others to my utmost ability, as far by his bodily agility. This was a very lusty as is consistent with the prudence he pre- fellow, but withal a sort of beau, who getscribes to me. Dear Mr. Spectator, I do not ting into one of the side-boxes on the stage owe to him only the good-will and esteem before the curtain drew, was disposed to of my own relations, (who are people of show the whole audience his activity by distinction,) the present ease and plenty of leaping over the spikes: he passed from my circumstances, but also the government thence to one of the entering doors, where of my passions, and regulation of my de- he took snuff with a tolerable good grace, sires. I doubt not, sir, but in your imagina- displayed his fine clothes, made two or tion such virtues as these of my worthy three feint passes at the curtain with his friend, bear as great a figure as actions cane, then faced about and appeared at the which are more glittering in the common other door. Here he affected to survey the estimation. What I would ask of you, is whole house, bowed and siniled at random, to give us a whole Spectator upon heroic and then showed his teeth, which were virtue in common life, which may incite some of them indeed very white. After this men to the same generous inclinations, as he retired behind the curtain, and obliged
us with several views of his person from am always in good-humour when an east every opening.
wind blows, because it seldom fails of bring. During the time of acting, he appeared ing me a letter from him. Let me entreat frequently in the prince's apartment, made you, sir, to give me your advice upon this one at the hunting-match, and was very for- occasion, and to let me know how I may ward in the rebellion.* If there were no relieve myself in this my widowhood. I injunctions to the contrary, yet this practice am, sir, your most humble servant, must be confessed to diminish the pleasure
•ASTERIA.' of the audience, and for that reason presumptuous and unwarrantable; but since
Absence is what the poets call death in her majesty's late command has made it love, and has given occasion to abundance criminal,t you have authority to take no
of beautiful complaints in those authors who tice of it. Sir, your humble servant,
have treated of this passion in verse. Ovid's •CHARLES EASY.' Epistles are full of them. Otway's Moni
mia talks very tenderly upon this subject:
It was not kind
To leave me like a turtle, here alone, No. 241.] Thursday, December 6, 1711.
To droop and mourn the absence of my mate.
When thou art from me, every place is desert;
And I, methinks, am savage and forlorn.
Thy presence only 'tis can make me blest,
Heal my unquiet mind, and tune my soul.
Orphan, Act ii. And left to wander wide through paths unknown.-P.
The consolations of lovers on these occa•Mr. SPECTATOR,—Though you have sions are very extraordinary. Besides those considered virtuous love in most of its dis- mentioned by Asteria, there are many other tresses, I do not remember that you have motives of comfort which are made use of given us any dissertation upon the absence by absent lovers. of lovers, or laid down any methods how I remember in one of Scudery's Romances they should support themselves under those a couple of honourable lovers agreed at long separations which they are sometimes their parting to set aside one half hour in forced to undergo. I am at present in this the day to think of each other during a unhappy circumstance, having parted with tedious'absence. The romance tells us, that the best of husbands, who is abroad in the they both of them punctually observed the service of his country, and may not possibly time thus agreed upon; and that whatever return for some years. His warm and gener company or business they were engaged in, ous affection while we were together, with they left it abruptly as soon as the clock the tenderness which he expressed to me warned them to retire. The romance furat parting, make his absence almost insup- ther adds, that the lovers expected the portable. I think of him every moment of return of this stated hour with as much imthe day, and meet him every night in my patience as if it had been a real assignation, dreams. Every thing I see puts me in mind and enjoyed an imaginary happiness, that of him. I apply myself with more than was almost as pleasing to them as what they ordinary diligence to the care of his family would have found from a real meeting. It and his estale; but this instead of relieving was an inexpressible satisfaction to these me, gives me but so many occasions of wish- divided lovers to be assured that each was ing for his return. I frequent the rooms at the same time employed in the same where I used to converse with him, and not kind of contemplation, and making equal meeting him there, sit down in his chair returns of tenderness and affection. and fall a weeping. I love to read the books If I may be allowed to mention a more he delighted in, and to converse with the serious expedient for the alleviating of abpersons whom he esteemed. I visit his pic-sence, I shall take notice of one which I ture a hundred times a day, and place my, have known two persons practise, who self over against it whole hours together. I joined religion to that elegance of sentipass a great part of my time in the walks ments with which the passion of love genewhere I used to lean upon his arm, and rally inspires its votaries. This was, at the recollect in my mind the discourses which return of such an hour, to offer up a certain have there passed between us: I look over prayer for each other, which they had the several prospects and points of view agreed upon before their parting. The huswhich we used to survey together, fix my band, who is a man that makes a figure in eye upon the objects which he has made the polite world, as well as in his own me take notice of; and call to mind a thou- family, has often told me, that he could not sand agreeable remarks which he has made have supported an absence of three years on those occasions. I write to him by every without this expedient. conveyance, and contrary to other people, Strada, in one of his Prolusions, I gives an
account of a chimerical correspondence be* Different scenes in Beaumont and Fletcher's tragedy tween two friends by the help of a certain f In the play-bills of that time, these words were in.
loadstone, which had such virtue in it, that serted: By her majesty's command, no person is to be
1 Lib. ii. prol. 6.
admitted behind the scenes.'
if it touched two several needles, when one yours concerning the misbehaviour of peoof the needles so touched began to move, the ple, who are necessarily in each other's other, though at never so great a distance, company in travelling, ought to have been moved at the same time, and in the same a lasting admonition against transgressions manner. He tells us, that the two friends of that kind. But I had the fate of your being each of them possessed of one of these quaker, in meeting with a rude fellow in a needles, made a kind of dial-plate, inscrib- stage-coach, who entertained two or three ing it with the four-and-twenty letters, in women of us (for there was no man besides the same manner as the hours of the day himself) with language as indecent as ever are marked upon the ordinary dial-plate. was heard upon the water. The impertiThey then fixed one of the needles on each nent observations which the coxcomb made of these plates in such a manner that it upon our shame and confusion were such, could move round without impediment, so that it is an unspeakable grief to reflect as to touch any of the four-and-twenty let- upon them. As much as you have declaimters. Upon their separating from one an- ed against duelling, I hope you will do us other into distant countries, they agreed to the justice to declare, that if the brute has withdraw themselves punctually into their courage enough to send to the place where closets at a certain hour of the day, and to he saw us all alight together to get rid of converse with one another by means of this him, there is not one of us but has a lover their invention. Accordingly when they who shall avenge the insult. It would cerwere some hundred miles asunder, each of tainly be worth your consideration, to look them shut himself up in his closet at the into the frequent misfortunes of this kind, time appointed, and immediately cast his to which the modest and innocent are exeye upon his dial-plate. If he had a mind posed, by the licentious behaviour of such to write any thing to his friend, he directed as are as much strangers to good-breeding his needle to every letter that formed the as to virtue. Could we avoid hearing what words which he had occasion for, making a we do not approve, as easily as we can seelittle pause at the end of every word or ing what is disagreeable, there were some sentence, to avoid confusion. The friend in consolation; but since in a box at a play, the meanwhile saw his own sympathetic in an assembly of ladies, or even in a pew needle moving of itself to every letter which at church, it is in the power of a gross coxthat of his correspondent pointed at. By this comb to utter what a woman cannot avoid mcans they talked together across a whole hearing, how miserable is her condition continent, and conveyed their thoughts to who comes within the power of such imone another in an instant over cities or pertinents? and how necessary is it to remountains, seas or deserts.
peat invectives against such a behaviour? If Monsieur Scudery, or any other writer If the licentious had not utterly forgot what on romance, had introduced a necromancer, it is to be modest, they would know that who is generally in the train of a knight-offended modesty labours under one of the errant, making a present to two lovers of a greatest sufferings to which human life can couple of these above-mentioned needles, he exposed. If these brutes could reflect the reader would not have been a little thus much, though they want shame, they pleased to have seen them corresponding would be moved by their pity, to abhor an with one another when they were guarded impudent behaviour in the presence of the by spies and watches, or separated by cas-chaste and innocent. If you will oblige us tles and adventures.
with a Spectator on this subject, and proIn the meanwhile, if ever this invention cure it to be pasted against every stageshould be revived or put in practice, I would coach in Great Britain as the law of the propose that upon the lover's dial-plate journey, you will highly oblige the whole there should be written not only the four-sex, for which you have professed so great and-twenty letters, but several entire words an esteem; and in particular the two ladies which have always a place in passionate my late fellow-sufferers, and, sir, your most epistles; as flames, darts, die, languish, humble servant, absence, Cupid, heart, eyes, hang, drown, *REBECCA RIDINGHOOD.' and the like. This would very much abridge the lover's pains in this way of writing a Mr. SPECTATOR,—The matter which letter, as it would enable him to express I am now going to send you, is an unhappy the most useful and significant words with story in low life, and will recommend itself, a single touch of the needle.
C. so that you must excuse the manner of ex
pressing it. A poor idle drunken weaver in
Spitalfields has a faithful laborious wife, No. 242.] Friday, December 7, 1711.
who by her frugality and industry had laid
by her as much money as purchased her a Creditur, ex medio quia res arcessit, habere
ticket in the present lottery. She had hid Sudoris minimum
Hor. Lib. 2, Ep. i. 168. To write on vulgar themes, is thought an easy task.
this very privately in the bottom of a trunk
and had given her number to a friend and • Mr. SPECTATOR, -Your speculations confidant, who had promised to keep the do not so generally prevail over men's man- secret, and bring her news of the success ners as I could wish. A former paper of The poor adventurer was one day gone
abroad, when her careless husband, sus- that distemper, when my niece Kitty begpecting she had saved some money, searches ged leave to assure me, that whatever I every corner, till at length he finds this might think, several great philosophers, same ticket; which he immediately carries both ancient and modern, were of opinion, abroad, sells, and squanders away the mo- that both pleasure and pain were imaginary ney without the wife's suspecting any thing distinctions, and that there was no such of the matter. A day or two after this, this thing as either in rerum natura. I have friend, who was a woman, comes and brings often heard them affirm that the fire was the wife word, that she had a benefit of not hot; and one day when I, with the aufive hundred pounds. The poor creature thority of an old fellow, desired one of them overjoyed, flies up stairs to her husband, to put my blue cloak on my knees, she anwho was then at work, and desires him to swered, “Sir, I will reach the cloak; but leave his loom for that evening, and come take notice, I do not do it as allowing your and drink with a friend of his and her's be description; for it might as well be called low. The man received this cheerful in- yellow as blue; for colour is nothing but the vitation as bad husbands sometimes do, and various infractions of the rays of the sun. after a cross word or two, told her he would Miss Molly told me one day, that to say not come. His wife with tenderness renew- snow was white, is allowing a vulgar error; ed her importunity, and at length said to for as it contains a great quantity of nitrous him, “My love! I have within these few particles, it might be more reasonably supmonths, unknown to you, scraped together posed to be black. In short, the young as much money as has bought us a ticket husseys would persuade me, that to believe in the lottery, and now here is Mrs, Quick one's eyes is a sure way to be deceived; and come to tell me, that it is come up this have often advised me, by no means to trust morning a five hundred pound prize." The any thing so fallible as my senses. What husband replies immediately, “You lie, I have to beg of you now is, to turn one you slut, you have no ticket, for I have sold speculation to the due regulation of female it.” The poor woman upon this faints away literature, so far at least as to make it conin a fit, recovers, and is now run distracted. sistent with the quiet of such whose fate it As she had no design to defraud her hus- is to be liable to its insults; and to tell us band, but was willing only to participate in the difference between a gentleman that his good fortune, every one pities her, but should make cheese-cakes and raise paste, thinks her husband's punishment but just and a lady that reads Locke, and underThis, sir, is a matter of fact, and would, stands the mathematics. In which you will if the persons and circumstances were extremely oblige your hearty friend and greater, in a well-wrought play be called humble servant, Beautiful Distress. I have only sketched
T. * ABRAHAM THRIFTY.' it out with chalk, and know a good hand can make a moving picture with worse materials. Sir, &c.
No. 243.] Saturday, December 8, 1711. MR. SPECTATOR,~I am what the world honesti vides;
Formam quidem ipsam, Marce fili, et tanquam faciem
quæ si oculis cerneretur, mirabiles calls a warm fellow, and by good success in amores (ut ait Plato) excitaret sapientiæ. Tull. Offic. trade I have raised myself to a capacity of You see, my son Marcus, virtue as it were embodied, making some figure in the world; but no which, if i could be made the object of sight, would (as matter for that. I have now under my Plato says) excite in us a wonderful love of wisdom. guardianship a couple of nieces, who will I do not remember to have read any discertainly make me run mad; which you course written expressly upon the beauty will not wonder at, when I tell you they and loveliness of virtue, without considerare female virtuosos, and during the three ing it as a duty, and as the means of making years and a half that I have had them un us happy both now and hereafter. I design der my care, they never in the least in therefore this speculation as an essay upon clined their thoughts towards any one single that subject in which I shall consider virtue part of the character of a notable woman. no farther than as it is in itself of an amiable Whilst they should have been considering nature, after having premised, that I unthe proper ingredients for a sack-posset, derstand by the word virtue such a general you should hear a dispute concerning the notion as is affixed to it by the writers of magnetic virtue of the loadstone, or per- morality, and which by devout men genehaps the pressure of the atmosphere. rally goes under the name of religion, and Their language is peculiar to themselves, by men of the world under the name of and they scorn to express themselves, on honour. the meanest trifles, with words that are not Hypocrisy itself does great honour, or of a Latin derivation. But this were sup- rather justice, to religion, and tacitly acportable still, would they suffer me to en- knowledges it to be an ornament to human joy an uninterrupted ignorance; but unless nature. The hypocrite would not be at so I fall in with their abstracted ideas of much pains to put on the appearance of things, (as they call them) I must not ex- virtue, if he did not know it was the most pect to smoke one pipe in quiet. In a late proper and effectual means to gain the love fit of the gout I complained of the pain of land esteem of mankind.
We learn from Hierocles, it was a com- | views, and make her altogether lovely, are mon saying among the heathens, that the cheerfulness and good-nature. These genewise man hates nobody, but only loves the rally go together, as a man cannot be virtuous.
agreeable to others who is not easy within Tully has a very beautiful gradation of himself. They are both very requisite in a thoughts to show how amiable virtue is. virtuous mind, to keep out melancholy from *We love a virtuous man,' says he, 'who the many serious thoughts it is engaged in, lives in the remotest parts of the earth, and to hinder its natural hatred of vice from though we are altogether out of the reach souring into severity, and censoriousness. of his virtue, and can receive from it no If virtue is of this amiable nature, what manner of benefit. Nay, one who died se- can we think of those who can look upon veral ages ago, raises a secret fondness and it with an eye of hatred and ill-will, or can benevolence for him in our minds, when we suffer their aversion for a party to blot out read his story. Nay, what is still more, one all the merit of the person who is engaged who has been the enemy of our country, in it? A man must be excessively stupid, provided his wars were regulated by justice as well as uncharitable, who believes there and humanity, as in the instance of Pyrrhus, is no virtue but on his own side, and that whom Tully mentions on this occasion in there are not men as honest as himself who opposition to Hannibal. Such is the natural may differ from him in political principles. beauty and loveliness of virtue.
Men may oppose one another in some parStoicism, which was the pedantry of vir- ticulars, but ought not to carry their hatred tue, ascribes all good qualifications of what to those qualities which are of so amiable a kind soever to the virtuous man. Accord- nature in themselves, and have nothing to ingly Cato, in the character Tully has left do with the points in dispute. Men of vir, of hím, carries matters so far, that he would tue, though of different interests ought to not allow any one but a virtuous man to be consider themselves as more nearly united handsome. This indeed looks more like a with one another, than with the vicious philosophical rant than the real opinion of part of mankind, who embark with them a wise man; yet this was what Cato very in the same civil concerns. We should seriously maintained. In short, the Stoics bear the same love towards a man of honour thought they could not sufficiently repre- who is a living antagonist, which Tully sent the excellence of virtue, if they did not tells us in the forementioned passage, every comprehend in the notion of it all possible one naturally does to an enemy that is dead, perfections; and therefore did not only sup- In short, we should esteem virtue though pose, that it was transcendently beautiful in a foe, and abhor vice though in a friend. in itself, but that it made the very body I speak this with an eye to those cruel amiable, and banished every kind of de- treatments which men of all sides are apt formity from the person in whom it resided to give the characters of those who do not
It is a common observation that the most agree with them. How many persons abandoned to all sense of goodness, are apt of undoubted probity and exemplary virto wish those who are related to them of a tue, on either side, are blackened and dedifferent character; and it is very observ- famed? How many men of honour exposed able, that none are more struck with the to public obloquy and reproach? Those charms of virtue in the fair sex than those therefore who are either the instruments who by their very admiration of it are car- or abettors in such infernal dealings, ought ried to a desire of ruining it.
to be looked upon as persons who make use A virtuous mind in a fair body is indeed of religion to promote their cause, not of a fine picture in a good light, and therefore their cause to promote religion. C. it is no wonder that it makes the beautiful sex all over charms.
As virtue in general is of an amiable and No. 244.] Monday, December 10, 1711. lovely nature, there are some particular kinds of it which are more so than others, and these are such as dispose us to do good
A judge of painting you, a connoisseur. to mankind. Temperance and abstinence, faith and devotion, are in themselves per
•Covent Garden, Dec. 7. haps as laudable as any other virtues: but MR. SPECTATOR, -I cannot, without those which make a man popular and be-a double injustice, forbear expressing to loved, are justice, charity, munificence, you the satisfaction which a whole clan of and, in short, all the good qualities that virtuosos have received from those hints render us beneficial to each other. For this which you have lately given the town on reason even an extravagant man, who has the cartoons of the inimitable Raphael. It nothing else to recommend him but a false should methinks be the business of a Specgenerosity, is often more beloved and es- tator to improve the pleasures of sight, and teemed than a person of a much more there cannot be a more immediate way to finished character, who is defective in this it than recommending the study and obparticular.
servation of excellent drawings and picThe two great ornaments of virtue, tures. When I first went to view those of which show her in the most advantageous Raphael which you have celebrated, I must
Judex et callidus audis.
Hor. Lib. 2. Sat, vii. 101.