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be of great use to this sort of gentlemen. I yet taken any notice of it: if you mention it Could you but once convince them, that to in your paper, it may perhaps have a very be civil at least is not beneath the character good effect. What I mean is, the disturbof a gentleman, nor even tender affection ance some people give to others at church, towards one who would make it reciprocal, by their repetition of the prayers after the betrays any softness or effeminacy that the minister; and that not only in the prayers, most masculine disposition need be ashamed but also in the absolution; and the com

could you satisfy them of the generosity mandments fare no better, which are in a of voluntary civility, and the greatness of particular manner the priest's office. This soul that is conspicuous in benevolence with- I have known done in so audible a manner, out immediate obligations; could you re- that sometimes their voices have been as commend to people's practice the saying of loud as his. As little as you would think it, the gentleman quoted in one of your specu- this is frequently done by people seemingly lations, “That he thought it incumbent devout. This irreligious inadvertency is a upon him to make the inclinations of a wo-thing extremely offensive: But I do not reman of merit go along with her duty;" commend it as a thing I give you liberty to could you, I say, persuade these men of the ridicule, but hope it may be amended by beauty and reasonableness of this sort of the bare mention. Sir, your very humble behaviour, I have so much charity, for servant,

*T, S.' some of them at least, to believe you would T. convince them of a thing they are only ashamed to allow. Besides, you would recommend that state in its truest, and con- No. 237.] Saturday, December 1, 1711. sequently its most agreeable colours: and the gentlemen, who have for any time been

Visu carentem magna pars verit latet.

Seneca in Edip such professed enemies to it, when occasion

They that are dim of sight see truth by halves. should serve, would return you their thanks for assisting their interest in prevailing over

It is very reasonable to believe, that part their prejudices. Marriage in general would of the pleasure which happy minds shall by this means be a more easy and comfort- enjoy in a future state, will arise from an able condition; the husband would be no enlarged contemplation of the Divine Wiswhere so well satisfied as in his own par- dom in the government of the world, and a lour, nor the wife so pleasant as in the com- discovering of the secret and amazing steps pany of her husband. A desire of being of Providence, from the beginning to the agreeable in the lover would be increased in end of tiine. Nothing seems to be an enterthe husband, and the mistress be more ami- tainment more adapted to the nature of able by becoming the wife. Besides all man, if we consider that curiosity is one of which, I am apt to believe we should find the strongest and most lasting appetites imthe race of men grow wiser as their pro- planted in us, and that admiration is one of genitors grew kinder, and the affection of our most pleasing passions; and what a pertheir parents would be conspicuous in the petual succession of enjoyments will be afwisdom of their children; in short, men forded to both these, in a scene so large and would in general be much better humoured various as shall there be laid open to our than they are, did they not so frequently view in the society of superior spirits, who exercise the worst turns of their temper perhaps will join with us in so delightful a where they ought to exert the best.' prospect! «Mr. SPECTATOR, I am a woman who part of the punishment of such as are ex

It is not impossible, on the contrary, that left the admiration of the whole town to cluded from bliss, may consist not only in throw myself (for love of wealth) into the their being denied this privilege, but in arms of a fool. When I married him, ! having their appetites at the same time could have had any one of several men of vastly increased without any satisfaction sense who languished for me; but my case afforded to them. In these, the vain puris just. I believed my superior understand- suit of knowledge shall, perhaps, add to ing would form him into a tractable crea- their infelicity, and bewilder them into ture. But, alas! my spouse has cunning and labyrinths of error, darkness, distraction, suspicion, the inseparable companions of and uncertainty of every thing but their little minds; and every attempt I make to own evil state. Milton has thus represented divert, by putting on an agreeable air, a the fallen angels reasoning together in a sudden cheerfulness, or kind behaviour, he kind of respite from their torments, and looks upon as the first act towards an insur- creating to themselves a new disquiet amidst rection against his undeserved dominion their very amusements; he could not pro

Let every one who is still to perly have described the sport of conchoose, and hopes to govern a fool, remem- demned spirits, without that cast of horror ber


and melancholy he has so judiciously minSt. Martin's, Nov. 25. gled with them: * MR. SPECTATOR,- This is to complain of an evil practice which I think very well

Others apart sat on a hill retir'd,

In thoughts more elevate, and reason'd high deserves a redress, though you have not as Of providence, foreknowledge, will, and fate,

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over me.

Fixt fate, freewill, foreknowledge absolute, is, that we are not at present in a proper And found no end in wandering mazes lost.*

situation to judge of the councils by which In our present condition, which is a mid- Providence acts, since but little arrives at dle state, our minds are as it were check- our knowledge, and even that little we disered with truth and falsehood: and as our cern imperfectly; or according to the elefaculties are narrow, and our views imper-gant figure in holy writ, 'we see but in fect, it is impossible but our curiosity must part, and as in a glass darkly 'Ş It is to be meet with many repulses, The business considered, that Providence in its economy of mankind in this life being rather to act regards the whole system of time and than to know, their portion of knowledge is things together, so that we cannot disdealt to them accordingly.

cover the beautiful connection between inFrom hence it is, that the reason of the cidents which lie widely separate in time, inquisitive has so long been exercised with and by losing so many links of the chain, difficulties, in accounting for the promiscu- cur reasonings become broken and imperous distribution of good and evil to the vir- fect. Thus those parts of the moral world tuous and the wicked in this world. From which have not an absolute, may yet have hence come all those pathetic complaints a relative beauty, in respect of some other of so many tragical events which happen parts concealed from us, but open to his to the wise and the good; and of such sur-eye before whom 'past,''present,' and 'to prising prosperity, which is often the lott come,'are set together in one point of view: of the guilty and the foolish; that reason is and those events, the permission of which sometimes puzzled, and at a loss what to seems now to accuse his goodness, may in pronounce upon so mysterious a dispen- the consummation of things both magnify sation.

his goodness, and exalt his wisdom. And Plato expresses his abhorrence of some this is enough to check our presumption, fables of the poets, which seem to reflect since it is in vain to apply our measures of on the gods as the authors of injustice; and regularity to matters of which we know lays it down as a principle, that whatever is neither the antecedents nor the consequents, permitted to befal a just man, whether the beginning nor the end. poverty, sickness, or any of those things I shall relieve my readers from this abwhich seem to be evils, shall either in life stracted thought, by relating here a Jewish or death conduce to his good, My reader tradition concerning Moses, which seems will observe how agreeable this maxim is to be a kind of parable, illustrating what I to what we find delivered by a greater au- have last mentioned. That great prophet, thority. Seneca has written å discourse it is said, was called up by a voice from purposely on this subject;ť in which he heaven to the top of a mountain; where in takes pains, after the doctrine of the Stoics, a conference with the Supreme Being, he to show that adversity is not in itself an was admitted to propose to him some quesevil; and mentions a noble saying of Deme- tions concerning his administration of the trius, that ' nothing would be more unhappy universe. In the midst of this divine colthan a man who had never known afflic- loquy he was commanded to lock down on tion.' He compares prosperity to the in- the plain below. At the foot of the moundulgence of a fond mother to a child, which stain there issued out a clear spring of water, often proves his ruin; but the affection of at which a soldier alighted from his horse the Divine Being to that of a wise father, to drink. He was no sooner gone than a who would have his sons exercised with la- little boy came to the same place, and findbour, disappointments, and pain, that they ing a purse of gold which the soldier had may gather ngth and improve their for- dropped, took it up and went away with it. titude. On this occasion, the philosopher Immediately after this came an infirm old rises into that celebrated sentiment, “That man, weary with age and travelling, and there is not on earth a spectacle more worthy having quenched his thirst, sat down to rest the regard of a Creator intent on his work's himself by the side of the spring. The solthan a brave man superior to his sufferings; dier missing his purse returns to search for to which he adds, that it must be a plea- it, and demands it of the old man, who sure to Jupiter himself to look down from affirms he had not seen it, and appeals to heaven, and see Cato amidst the ruins of heaven in witness of his innocence. The his country preserving his integrity.' soldier not believing his protestations, kills

This thought will appear yet more rea- him. Moses fell on his face with horror sonable, if we consider human life as a state and amazement, when the divine voice thus of probation, and adversity as the post of prevented his expostulation: Be not surhonour in it, assigned often to the best and prised, Moses, nor ask why the Judge of most select spirits.

the whole earth has suffered this thing to But what I would chiefly insist on here pass. The child is the occasion that the

blood of the old man is spilt; but know that

the old man whom thou sawest was the * Paradise Lost, b. ii. v. 557.

murderer of that child's father.' † Spect. in folio; for reward, c.

i Vid, Senec. De constantia sapientis, sive quod in sapientem non cadit injuria.

§ 1 Cor. xiii. 12.



No. 238.] Monday, December 3, 1711. with merit enough to be a coxcomb. But if

flattery be the most sordid act that can be Nequicquam populo bibulas donaveris aures; Respue quod non es

Persius, Sat. iv. 50.

complied with, the art of praising justly is No more to flattering crowds thine ear incline,

as commendable; for it is laudable to praise Eager to drink the praise which is not thine.

well; as poets at one and the same time

give immortality, and receive it themselves Among all the diseases of the mind, there for a reward. "Both are pleased; the one is not one more epidemical or more perni- whilst he receives the recompence of merit, cious than the love of flattery. For as the other whilst he shows he knows how to where the juices of the body are prepared discern it; but above all, that man is happy to receive a malignant influence, there the in this art, who, like a skilful painter, redisease rages with most violence; so in this tains the features and complexion, but still distemper of the mind, where there is ever softens the picture into the most agreeable a propensity and inclination to suck in the likeness. poison, it cannot be but that the whole order There can hardly, I believe, be imagined of reasonable action must be overturned, a more desirable pleasure than that of for, like music, it

praise unmixed with any possibility of flat-So softens and disarms the mind,

tery. Such was that which Germanicus That not one arrow can resistance find.

enjoyed, when, the night before a battle, First we flatter ourselves, and then the desirous of some sincere mark of the esteem flattery of others is sure of success. It of his legions for him, he is described by awakens our self-love within, a party which Tacitus listening in a disguise to the disis ever ready to revolt from our better judg- course of a soldier, and wrapt up in the ment, and join the enemy without. Hence fruition of his glory, whilst with an undeit is, that the profusion of favours we so signed sincerity they praised his noble and often see poured upon the parasite, are re- majestic mien, his affability, his valour, presented to us by our self-love, as justice conduct, and success in war.

How must a done to the man who so agreeably recon

man have his heart full-blown with joy in ciled us to ourselves. When we are over- such an article of glory as this? What a come by such soft insinuations and ensnaring spur and encouragement still to proceed in compliances, we gladly recompense the ar- those steps which had already brought him tifices that are made use of 'to blind our to so pure a taste of the greatest of mortal reason, and which triumph over the weak- enjoyments? nesses of our temper and inclinations. It sometimes happens that even enemies

But were every man persuaded from how and envious persons bestow the sincerest mean and low a principle this passion is de- marks of esteem when they least design rived, there can be no doubt but the person it. Such afford a greater pleasure, as exwho should attempt to gratify it, would then torted by merit, and freed from all suspicion be as contemptible as he is now successful. of favour or flattery. Thus it is with MalIt is the desire of some quality we are not volio; he has wit, learning, and discernpossessed of, or inclination to be something ment, but tempered with an allay of envy, we are not, which are the causes of our self-love, and detraction. Malvolio turns giving ourselves up to that man who be- pale at the mirth and good-humour of the stows upon us the characters and qualities company, if it centre not in his person; he of others, which perhaps suit us as ill, and grows jealous and displeased when he were as little designed for our wearing, as ceases to be the only person admired, and their clothes. Instead of going out of our looks upon the commendations paid to anown complexional nature into that of others, other as a detraction from his merit, and an it were a better and more laudable industry attempt to lessen the superiority he affects; to improve our own, and instead of a mise | but by this very method, he bestows such rable copy become a good original; for praise as can never be suspected of flattery. there is no temper, no disposition so rude His uneasiness and distastes are so many and untractable, but may in its own pecu

sure and certain signs of another's title to liar cast and turn be brought to some agree that glory he desires, and has the mortifiable use in conversation, or in the affairs of cation to find himself not possessed of. life., A person of a rougher deportment,

A good name is fitly compared to a preand less tied up to the usual ceremonies of cious ointment, and when we are praised behaviour, will, like Manly in the play,* with skill and decency, it is indeed the please by the grace which 'nature gives to most agreeable perfume; but if too strongly every action wherein she is complied with; admitted into a brain of a less vigorous and the brisk and lively will not want their ad- | happy texture, it will, like too strong an mirers, and even a more reserved and odour, overcome the senses, and prove permelancholy temper may at sometimes be nicious to those nerves it was intended to agreeable.

refresh. A generous mind is of all others When there is not vanity enough awake the most sensible of praise and dispraise; in a man to undo him, the fatterer stirs up and a noble spirit is as much invigorated that dormant weakness, and inspires him with its due proportion of honour and ap* Wycherley's comedy of the Plain Dealer.

Eccles. vii. 1.

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plause as it is depressed by neglect and and a sweet smile sits in the charming contempt. But it is only persons far above space which divides her lips. One would the common level who are thus affected swear that voice and speech were issuing with either of these extremes; as in a ther-out, and that one's ears felt the melodious mometer, it is only the purest and most sound. How often have I, deceived by a sublimated spirit that is either contracted lover's credulity, hearkened if she had not or dilated by the benignity or inclemency something to whisper me? and when frusof the season.

trated of my hopes, how often have I taken •MR. SPECTATOR,—The translations

my revenge in kisses from her cheeks and

eyes, and softly wooed her to my embrace, which you have lately given us from the whilst she (as to me it seemed,) only withGreek, in some of your last papers, have held her tongue the more to infame me. been the occasion of my looking into some But, madman that I am, shall I be thus of those authors: among whom I chanced taken with the representation only of a on a collection of letters which pass under beauteous face, and flowing hair, and thus the name of Aristænetus. Of all the re- waste myself and melt to tears for a shamains of antiquity, I believe there can be dow? Ah, sure it is something more, it is nothing produced of an air so gallant and a reality; for see, her beauties shine out polite; each letter contains a little novel or with new lustre, and she seems to upbraid adventure, which is told with all the beau-me with unkind reproaches. Oh, may I ties of language, and heightened with a have a living mistress of this form, that luxuriance of wit. There are several of when I shall compare the work of nature them translated;* but with such wide devia- with that of art, I may be still at a loss tions from the original, and in a style so far which to choose, and be long perplexed differing from the author's, that the trans- with the pleasing uncertainty.'

T. lator seems rather to have taken hints for the expressing his own sense and thoughts, than to have endeavoured to render those of Aristænetus. In the following transla- No. 239.) Tuesday, December 4, 1711. tion, I have kept as near the meaning of the Greek as I could, and have only added a few

-Bella, horrida bella! Virg. Æn. vi. 86. words to make the sentences in English sit

-Wars, horrid wars! Dryden. together a little better than they would I HAVE sometimes amused myself with otherwise have done. The story seems to considering the several methods of managbe taken from that of Pygmalion and the ing a debate which have obtained in the statue in Ovid; some of the thoughts are world. of the same turn, and the whole is written The first races of mankind used to disin a kind of poetical prose.'

pute, as our ordinary people do now-a-days, Philopinar to Chromation.

in a kind of wild logic, uncultivated by rules

of art. “ Never was a man more overcome with

Socrates introduced a catechetical method so fantastical a passion as mine; I have of arguing. He would ask his adversary painted a beautiful woman, and am despair- question upon question, until he had coning, dying for the picture. My own skill vinced him out of his own mouth that his has undone me; it is not the dart of Venus, opinions were wrong. This way of debatbut my own pencil has thus wounded me. ing drives an enemy up into a corner, seizes Ah, me! with what anxiety am I necessi- all the passes through which he can make tated to adore my own idol? How misera- an escape, and forces him to surrender at ble am I, whilst every one must as much discretion. pity the painter as he praises the picture,

Aristotle changed this method of attack, and own my torment more than equal to and invented a great variety of little weamy art. But why do I thus complain? pons, called syllogisms. As in the Socratic Have there not been more unhappy and way of dispute you agree to every thing unnatural passions than mine? Yes, I have which your opponent advances, in the Arisseen the representation of Phædra, Nar-totelic you are still denying and contradictcissus, and Pasiphæ. Phædra was unhappy ing some part or other of what he says. in her love: that of Pasiphæ was monstrous; Socrates conquers you by stratagem, Arisand whilst the other caught at his beloved totle by force! The one takes the town by likeness, he destroyed the watery image, sap, the other sword in hand. which ever eluded his embraces. The

The universities of Europe for many fountain represented Narcissus to himself, years carried on their debates by syllogism, and the picture both that and him, thirst- insomuch that we see the knowledge of ing after his adored image. But I am yet several centuries laid out into objections less unhappy. I enjoy her presence con- and answers, and all the good sense of the tinually, and if I touch her, I destroy not age cut and minced into almost an infinithe beauteous form, but she looks pleased, tude of distinctions.

When our universities found there was By Tom Brown and others. See his Works 4 vols.

no end of wrangling this way, they invented a kind of argument, which is not reducible


to any mood or figure in Aristotle. It was reasoning, which may be called arguing by called the argumentum Basilinum, (others poll; and another which is of equal force, write it Bacilinum or Baculinum,) which is in which wagers are made use of as argupretty well expressed in our English word ments, according to the celebrated line in club-law. When they were not able to Hudibras. Il confute their antagonist, they knocked him But the most notable way of managing a down. It was their method in these po- controversy, is that which we may call lemical debates, first to discharge their arguing by torture. This is a method of syllogisms, and afterwards to betake them- reasoning which has been made use of with selves to their clubs, until such time as they the poor refugees, and which was so fashionhad one way or other confounded their able in our country during the reign of gainsayers. There is in Oxford a narrow Queen Mary, that in a passage of an audefile, (to make use of a military term,) thor quoted by Monsieur Bayle, it is said where the partisans used to encounter; for the price of wood was raised in England, which reason it still retains the name of by reason of the executions that were made Logic-lane. I have heard an old gentle- in Smithfield.? These disputants convince man, a physician, make his boasts, that their adversaries with a sorites,** commonly when he was a young fellow he marched called a pile of faggots. The rack is also a several times at the head of a troop of kind of syllogism which has been used with Scotists,* and cudgelled a body of Smigle- good effect, and has made multitudes of sianst half the length of High-street, until converts. Men were formerly disputed out they had dispersed themselves for shelter of their doubts, reconciled to truth by force into their respective garrisons.

of reason, and won over to opinions by the This humour, I find, went very far in candour, sense, and ingenuity of those who Erasmus's time. For that author tells us, had the right on their side; but this method that upon the revival of Greek letters, most of conviction operated too slowly. Pain of the universities in Europe were divided was found to be much more enlightening into Greeks and Trojans. The latter were than reason. Every scruple was looked those who bore a mortal enmity to the lan- upon as obstinacy, and not to be removed guage of the Grecians, insomuch that if but by several engines invented for that they met with any who understood it, they purpose. In a word, the application of did not fail to treat him as a foe. Erasmus whips, racks, gibbets, galleys, dungeons, himself had, it seems, the misfortune to fire and faggot, in a dispute, may be looked fall into the hands of a party of Trojans, upon as popish refinements upon the old who laid on him with so many blows and heathen logic. buffets that he never forgot their hostilities There is another way of reasoning which to his dying day.

seldom fails, though it be of a quite different There is a way of managing an argument nature to that I have last mentioned. I not much unlike the former, which is made mean convincing a man by ready money, tise of by states and communities, when they or as it is ordinarily called, bribing a man draw up a hundred thousand disputants, on to an opinion. This method has often each side, and convince one another by dint proved successful, when all the others have of sword. A certain grand monarchi was been made use of to no purpose. A man so sensible of his strength in this way of who is furnished with arguments from the reasoning, that he writ upon his great mint, will convince his antagonist much guns Ratio ultima regum, .The logic of sooner than one who draws them from reakings;' but, God be thanked, he is now son and philosophy. Gold is a wonderful pretty well baffled at his own weapons. clearer of the understanding; it dissipates When cne has to do with a philosopher of every doubt and scruple in an instant; acthis kind, one should remember the old commodates itself to the meanest capacigentleman's saying, who had been engaged ties; silences the loud and clamourous, and in an argument with one of the Roman brings over the most obstinate and inflexiemperors.s Upon his friend's telling him ble. Philip of Macedon was a man most that he wondered he would give up the invincible reason this way. He refuted by question, when he had visibly the better of it all the wisdom of Athens, confounded the dispute; 'I am never ashamed,' says their statesmen, struck their orators dumb, he, 'to be confuted by one who is master and at length argued them out of all their of fifty legions.'

liberties. I shall but just mention another kind of Having here touched upon the several

methods of disputing, as they have pre* The followers of Duns Scotus, a celebrated Fran. vailed in different ages of the world, I shall ciscan divine, born in Northumberland. From Oxford,

very suddenly give my reader an account where he was educated, he went to Paris, where his of the whole art of cavilling; which shall reputation was so high as a disputant, that he acquired the name of the subtile doctor.' His opposition to the || Part 2, c. 1. v. 297. doctrine of Thomas Aquinas gave birth to two parties, The author quoted is And. Ammonius. See his life the Scotists and Thomists. He died at Cologne, in 1308 in Bavle's Dict. The Spectator's memory deceived him The followers of Martin Smiglecius, a famous logi. in applying the remark, which was made in the reign

of Henry VIII. It was, however, niuch mote applicable

to that of Queen Mary. The Emperor Adrian.

** A sorites is a heap of propositions thrown togethet.

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cian in the 16th century.

1 Lewis XIV. of France.

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