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tolemus, and to meet inen who have lived | All that we admired and adored before as with justice and truth? Is this, do you great and magnificent, is obliterated or vanthink, no happy journey? Do you think it ished; and another form and face of things, nothing to speak with Orpheus, Musæus, plain, simple, and every where the same, Homer, and Hesiod? I would, indeed, suf- overspreads the whole earth. Where are fer many deaths to enjoy these things. With now the great empires of the world, and what particular delight should I talk to their great imperial cities? their pillars, Palamedes, Ajax, and others who like me trophies, and monuments of glory? show have suffered by the iniquity of their judges. me where they stood, read the inscription, I should examine the wisdom of that great tell me the victor's name. What remains, prince, who carried such mighty forces what impressions, what difference or disagainst Troy; and argue with Ulysses and tinction do you see in this mass of fire? Sisyphus upon difficult points, as I have in Rome itself, eternal Rome, the great city, conversation here, without being in danger the empress of the world, whose dominaof being condemned. But let not those tion and superstition, ancient and modern, among you who have pronounced me an make a great part of the history of the innocent man be afraid of death. No harm earth, what is become of her now? She laid can arrive at a good man, whether dead or her foundations deep, and her palaces were living; his affairs are always under the strong and sumptuous. “She glorified herdirection of the gods; nor will I believe the self, and lived deliciously, and said in her fate which is allotted to me myself this day heart, I sit a queen, and shall see no sorto have arrived by chance; nor have I aught row:” But her hour is come, she is wiped to say either against my judges or accusers, away from the face of the earth, and buried but that they thought they did me an in- in everlasting oblivion. But it is not cities jury. -But I detain you too long, it is only, and works of men's hands, but the time that I retire to death, and you to your everlasting hills, the mountains and rocks affairs of life; which of us has the better is of the earth are melted as wax before the known to the gods, but to no mortal man. sun, and “their place is no where found.”

The divine Socrates is here represented Here stood the Alps, the load of the earth, in a figure worthy his great wisdom and that covered many countries, and reached philosophy, worthy the greatest mere man their arms from the ocean to the Black Sea; that ever breathed. But the modern dis- this huge mass of stone is softened and discourse is written upon a subject no less than solved as a tender cloud into rain. Here the dissolution of nature itself. Oh how stood the African mountains, and Atlas with glorious is the old age of that great man, his top above the clouds; there was frozen who has spent his time in such contempla- Caucasus, and Taurus, and Imaus, and the tions as has made this being, what only it mountains of Asia; and yonder towards the should be, an education for heaven! He north, stood the Riphæan hills clothed in has, according to the lights of reason and ice and snow. All these are vanished, revelation, which seemed to him clearest, dropt away as the snow upon their heads. traced the steps of Omnipotence. He has “Great and marvellous are thy works, just with a celestial ambition, as far as it is and true are thy ways, thou King of saints! consistent with humility and devotion, ex- Hallelujah.” ***

T. amined the ways of Providence, from the creation to the dissolution of the visible world. How pleasing must have been the No. 147.] Saturday, August 18, 1711. speculation, to observe Nature and Providence move together, the physical and Pronunciatio est vocis, et vultus et gestus moderatio moral world march the same pace: to ob- cum venustate.

Tull. serve paradise and eternal spring the seat Good delivery is a graceful management of the voice, of innocence, troubled seasons and angry

gesture. skies the portion of wickedness and vice. MR. SPECTATOR,—The well reading of When this admirable author has reviewed the Common Prayer is of so great imporall that has past, or is to come, which re- tance, and so much neglected, that I take lates to the habitable world, and run through the liberty to offer to your consideration the whole face of it, how could a guardian some particulars on that subject. And what angel, that had attended it through all its more worthy your observation than this? courses or changes, speak more emphati- A thing so public, and of so high consecally at the end of his charge, than does our quence. It is indeed wonderful, that the author when he makes, as it were, a funeral frequent exercise of it should not make the oration over this globe, looking to the point performers of that duty more expert in it. where it once stood?

This inability, as I conceive, proceeds from Let us only, if you please, to take leave the little care that is taken of their reading, of this subject, reflect upon this occasion on while boys and at school, where, when they the vanity and transient glory of this habita- are got into Latin, they are looked upon as ble world. How by the force of one ele- above English, the reading of which is ment breaking loose upon the rest, all the varieties of nature, all the works of art, all

* Burnet's Theory of the Earth, 1684. fol. Book III. the labours of men are reduced to nothing. Chap. 12. p. 110, 11i.

countenance, and


wholly neglected, or at least read to very | to place the emphasis, and give the proper little purpose, without any due observations accent to each word, and how to vary the made to them of the proper accent and voice according to the nature of the senmanner of reading; by this means they have tence. There is certainly a very great difacquired such ill habits as will not easily be ference between the reading a prayer and removed.. The only way that I know of to a Gazette, which I beg of you to inform a remedy this, is to propose some person of set of readers, who affect, forsooth, a cergreat ability that way as a pattern for them; tain gentleman-like familiarity of tone, and example being most effectual to convince mend the language as they go on, crying, the learned, as well as instruct the ignorant. instead of pardoneth and absolveth,' par

• You must know, sir, I have been a con- dons and absolves. These are often pretty stant frequenter of the service of the church classical scholars, and would think it an unof England for above these four years last pardonable sin to read Virgil or Martial past, and ụntil Sunday was seven-night with so little taste as they do divine service, never discovered to so great a degree, the *This indifferency seems to me to rise from excellency of the Common Prayer. When, the endeavour of avoiding the imputation being at Śt. James's Garlick-Hill church, of cant, and the false notion of it. It will be I heard the service read so distinctly, so proper therefore to trace the original and emphatically, and so fervently, that it was signification of this word. “Cant” is, by next to an impossibility to be unattentive. some people, derived from one Andrew My eyes and my thoughts could not wander Cant, who, they say, was a Presbyterian as usual, but were confined to my prayers. minister in some illiterate part of Scotland, I then considered I addressed myself to the who by exercise and use had obtained the Almighty, and not to a beautiful face. And faculty, alias gift, of talking in the pulpit in when I reflected on my former perform- such a dialect, that it is said he was underances of that duty, I found I had run it over stood by none but his own congregation, and as a matter of form, in comparison to the not by all of them. Since master Cant's manner in which I then discharged it. My time, it has been understood in a larger mind was really affected, and fervent wishes sense, and signifies all sudden exclamations, accompanied my words. The Confession whinings, unusual tones, and in fine all praywas read with such a resigned humility, ing and preaching, like the unlearned of the the Absolution with such a comfortable au- Presbyterians. But I hope a proper elevathority, the Thanksgivings with such a re- tion of voice, a due emphasis and accent, ligious joy, as made me feel those affections are not to come within this description. So of the mind in a manner I never did before that our readers may still be as unlike the To remedy therefore the grievance above Presbyterians as they please. The discomplained of, I humbly propose, that this senters (I mean such as I have heard,) do excellent reader, upon the next, and every indeed elevate their voices, but it is with annual assembly of the clergy of Sion-col- sudden jumps from the lower to the higher lege, and all other conventions, should read part of them; and that with so little sense prayers before them. For then those that or skill, that their elevation and cadence is are afraid of stretching their mouths, and bawling and muttering. They make use spoiling their soft voices, will learn to read of an emphasis, but so improperly, that it with clearness, loudness, and strength. is often placed on some very insignificant Others that affect a rakish, negligent air, particle, as upon 'if' or 'and.' Now if by folding their arms and lolling on their these improprieties have so great an effect books, will be taught a decent behaviour, on the people, as we see they have, how and comely erection of body. Those that great an influence would the service of our read so fast, as if impatient of their work, church, containing the best prayers that may learn to speak deliberately. There is ever were composed, and that in terms another sort of persons, whom I call Pin- most affecting, most humble, and most exdaric readers, as being confined to no set pressive of our wants, and dependence on measure; these pronounce five or six words the object of our worship, disposed in most with great deliberation, and the five or six proper order, and void of all confusion; subsequent ones with as great celerity: the what influence, I say, would these prayers first part of a sentence with a very exalted have, were they delivered with a due emvoice, and the latter part with a submissive phasis, and apposite rising and variation of one: sometimes again with one sort of a voice, the sentence concluded with a gentle tone, and immediately after with a very cadence, and in a word, with such an accent different one. These gentlemen will learn and turn of speech as is peculiar to prayer. of my admired reader an evenness of voice •As the matter of worship is now maand delivery, and all who are innocent of naged, in dissenting congregations, you find these affectations, but read with such an insignificant words and phrases raised by a indifferency as if they did not understand lively vehemence; in our own churches, the language, may then be informed of the the most exalted sense depreciated, by a art of reading movingly and fervently, how dispassionate indolence. I remember to

have heard Doctor S et say in his * The rector of this parish at that time was Mr. Philip Stubbs, afterwards archdeacon of St. Alban's.

† Probably Dr. Smallridge.

pulpit, of the Common Prayer, that, at whatsoever any thing above mere necesleast, it was as perfect as any thing of hu- saries. man institution. If the gentlemen who err As we in England are a sober people, in this kind would please to recollect the and generally inclined rather to a certain many pleasantries they have read upon bashfulness of behaviour in public, it is those who recite good things with an ill amazing whence some fellows come whom grace, they would go on to think that what one meets with in this town; they do not at in that case is only ridiculous, in themselves all seem to be the growth of our island; the is impious. But leaving this to their own pert, the talkative, all such as have no reflections, I shall conclude this trouble sense, of the observation of others, are cerwith what Cæsar said upon the irregularity tainly of foreign extraction,

As for my of tone in one who read before him. “Do part, I am as much surprised when I see a you read or sing? If you sing, you sing talkative Englishman, as I should be to see very ill."* Your most humble servant.' the Indian pine growing on one of our quick

T. set hedges. Where these creatures get sun

enough, to make them such lively animals

and dull men, is above my philosophy. No. 148.] Monday, August 20, 1711.

There are another kind of impertinents

which a man is perplexed with in mixed -Exempta juvat spinis e pluribus

una. company, and those are your loud speakers. Hor. Lib. 2. Ep. ii. 212.

These treat mankind as if we were all deaf; Better one thorn pluck'd out, than all remain. they do not express but declare themselves. My correspondents assure me that the of vanity, because they think all they say is

Many of these are guilty of this outrage out enormities which they lately complained of, well; or that they have their own persons and I published an account of, are so far in such veneration, that they believe nofrom being amended, that new evils arise thing

which concerns them can be insignievery day to interrupt their conversation, ficant to any body else. For these people's in contempt of my reproofs. My friend who writes from the coffee-house near the Tem- sake, I have often lamented that we cannot

close our ears with as much ease as we can ple, informs me that the gentleman who our eyes. It is very uneasy that we must constantly sings a voluntary in spite of the necessarily be under persecution. Next to whole company, was more musical than these bawlers, is a troublesome creature ordinary after reading my paper; and has who comes with the air of your friend and not been contented with that, but has danced

your intimate, and that is your whisperer. up to the glass in the middle of the room, There is one of them ať a coffee-house and practised minuet-steps to his own hum- which I myself frequent, who observing me ming. The incorrigible creature has gone to be a man pretty well made for secrets, still farther, and in the open coffee-house, gets by me, and with a whisper tells me with one hand extended as leading a lady things which all the town knows. It is no in it, he has danced both French and coun- very hard matter to guess at the source of try-dances, and admonished his supposed this impertinence, which is nothing else but partner by smiles and nods to hold up her a method or mechanic art of being wise. head, and fall back, according to the-re- You never see any frequent in it, whom you spective facings and evolutions of the dance. can suppose to have any thing in the world Before this gentleman began this his exer- to do. These persons are worse than bawcise, he was pleased to clear his throat by lers, as much as a secret enemy is more dancoughing and spitting a full half hour; and

gerous than a declared one. I wish this my as soon as he struck up, he appealed to an Coffee-house friend would take this for an attorney's clerk in the room, whether he intimation, that I have not heard one word hit as he ought, •Since you from death he has told me for these several years; have saved me?' and then asked the young whereas he now thinks me the most trusty fellow (pointing to a chancery-bill under repository of his secrets. The whisperers his arm,) whether that was an opera-score have a pleasant way of ending the close he carried or not? Without staying for an conversation, with saying aloud, "Do not answer, he fell into the exercise above

you think so?' Then whisper again, and mentioned, and practised his airs to the full then aloud, But you know that person;' house who were turned upon him, without then whisper again. The thing would be the least shame or repentance for his for-well enough, if they whispered to keep the mer transgressions.

folly of what they say among friends; but, I am to the last degree at a loss what to alas, they do it to preserve the importance do with this young

fellow, except I declare of their thoughts. “I am sure I could name him an outlaw, and pronounce it penal for you more than one person whom no man any one to speak to him in the said house living ever heard talk upon any subject in which he frequents, and direct that he be nature, or ever saw in his whole life with a obliged to drink his tea and coffee without book in his hand, that, I know not how, sugar, and not receive from any person can whisper something like knowledge of

what has and does pass in the world: which * Si legis, cantas: si cantas, male cantas. you would think he learned from some fa

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For women born to be controllid

miliar spirit that did not think him worthy being really so? Come to us; forget the to receive the whole story. But in truth gigglers; let your inclination go along with whisperers deal only in half accounts of you, whether you speak or are silent; and what they entertain you with. A great help / let all such women as are in a clan or sisto their discourse is, That the town says, terhood go their own way; there is no room and people begin to talk very freely, and for you in that company who are of the they had it from persons too considerable common taste of the sex. to be named, what they will tell you when things are riper.' My friend has winked Stoop to the forward and the bold; upon me any day since I came to town last,

Affect the hanghty and the proud, and has communicated to me as a secret,

The gay, the frolic, and the loud.'*

T. that he designed in a very short time to tell me a secret; but I shall know what he means, he now assures me, in less than a No. 149.] Tuesday, August 21, 1711. fortnight's time.

Cui ut manu sit quem esse dementem velit, But I must not omit the dearer part of Quem sapere, quem sanari, quem in morbum injici, mankind, I mean the ladies, to take up a

Quem contra amari, quem accersiri, quem expeti.

Cecil. apud Tull. whole paper upon grievances which concern the men only; but shall humbly pro

Who has it in her pow'r to make men mad,

Or wise, or sick, or well: and who can choose pose, that we change fools for an experi The object of her appetite at pleasure. ment only. A certain set of ladies complain

The following letter, and my answer, they are frequently perplexed with a visitant, who affects to be wiser than they are;

shall take up the present speculation. which character he hopes to preserve

• MR. SPECTATOR,-I am the young by an obstinate gravity, and great guard widow of a country gentleman, who has against discovering his opinion upon any left me entire mistress of a large fortune, occasion whatsoever. A painful silence which he agreed to as an equivalent for the has hitherto gained him no farther advan- difference in our years. In these circumtage, than that as he might, if he had be- stances it is not extraordinary to have a haved himself with freedom, been excepted crowd of admirers; which I have abridged against, but as to this and that particular, in my own thoughts, and reduced to a couhe now offends in the whole. To relieve ple of candidates only, both young, and these ladies, my good friends and corre- neither of them disagrecable in their perspondents, I shall exchange my dancing sons: according to the common way of outlaw for their dumb visitant, and assign computing, in one the estate more than dethe silent gentleman all the haunts of the serves my fortune, in the other my fortune dancer; in order to which, I have sent more than deserves the estate. When I them by the penny-post the following let- consider the first, I own I am so far a ters for their conduct in their new conver- woman I cannot avoid being delighted with sations.

the thoughts of living great; but then he 'Sir,—I have, you may be sure, heard seems to receive such a degree of courage of your irregularities without regard to my looks as if he was going to confer an obliga

from the knowledge of what he has, he observations upon you; but shall not treat you with so much rigour as you deserve. If tion on me; and the readiness he accosts you will give yourself the trouble to repair me with, makes me jealous I am only hearto the place mentioned in the postscript to ing a repetition of the same things he has this letter, at seven this evening, you will said to a hundred women before. When I be conducted into a spacious room, well-consider the other, I see myself approachlighted, where there are ladies and music. such a doubt of himself, as betrays, me

ed with so much modesty and respect, and You will see a young lady laughing next the window to the street; you may take thinks, an affection within, and

a belief at her out, for she loves you as well as she the same time that he himself would be does any man, though she never saw you unexceptionable husband could I make out

the only gainer by my consent. What an before. She never thought in her life, any of both but since that is impossible, I beg more than yourself. She will not be sur to be concluded by your opinion. It is abprised when you accost her, nor concerned when you leave her. Hasten from a place solutely in your power to dispose of, your

SYLVIA.' where you are laughed at, to one where most obedient servant, you will be admired. You are of no con Madam,—You do me great honour in sequence, therefore go where you will be your application to me on this important welcome for being so. Your humble ser- occasion; I shall therefore talk to you with vant.'

the tenderness of a father, in gratitude for

You “ŞIR,—The ladies whom you visit, think your giving me the authority of one. a wise man the most impertinent creature between these gentlemen as to their per

do not seem to make any great distinction living, therefore you cannot be offended that they are displeased with you. Why circumstances and behaviour. If the one

sons; the whole question lies upon their will you take pains to appear wise, where you would not be the more esteemed for

* Waller.

is less respectful because he is rich, and other's person and conduct. In company the other more obsequious because he is they are in a purgatory, when only together not so, they are in that point moved by the in a hell, same principle, the consideration of for • The happy marriage is where two pertune, and you must place them in each sons meet and voluntarily make choice of other's circumstances before you can judge each other, without principally regarding of their inclination. To avoid confusion in or neglecting the circumstances of fortune discussing this point, I will call the richer or beauty. These may still love in spite man Strephon, and the other Florio. If of adversity or sickness: the former we you believe Florio with Strephon's estate may in some measure defend ourselves would behave himself as he does now, from, the other is the portion of our very Florio is certainly your man; but if you make. When you have a true notion of think Strephon were he in Florio's condi- this sort of passion, your humour of living tion, would be as obsequious as Florio is great will vanish out of your imagination, now, you ought for your own sake to choose and you will find love has nothing to do Strephon; for where the men are equal, with state. Solitude, with the person bethere is no doubt riches ought to be a rea- loved, has a pleasure, even in a woman's son for preference. After this manner, my mind, beyond show or pomp. - You are dear child, I would have you abstract them therefore to consider which of your lovers from their circumstances; for you are to will like you best undressed, which will take it for granted, that he who is very bear with you most when out of humour; humble only because he is poor, is the and your way to this is to ask of yourself, very same man in nature, with him who is which of them you value most for his own haughty because he is rich.

sake? and by that judge which gives the When you have gone thus far, as to greater instances of his valuing you for consider the figure they make towards yourself only. you; you will please, my dear, next to con • After you have expressed some sense sider the appearance you make towards of the humble approach of Florio, and a them. If they are men of discerning, they little disdain at Strephon's assurance in his can observe the motives of your heart: and address, you cry out, “What an unexcepFlorio can see when he is disregarded only tionable husband could I make out of both!' upon account of fortune, which makes you It would therefore, methinks, be a good to him a mercenary creature; and you are wav to determine yourself. Take him in still the same thing to Strephon, in taking whom what you like is not transferable to him for his wealth only; you are therefore another; for if you choose otherwise, there is to consider whether you had rather oblige, no hope your husband will ever have what than receive an obligation.

you liked in his rival; but intrinsic quali'The marriage-life is always an insipid, ties in one man may very probably pura vexatious, or a happy condition. The first chase every thing that is adventitious in is, when two people of no genius or taste another. In plainer terms: he whom you for themselves meet together upon such a take for his personal perfections will sooner settlement as has been thought reasonable arrive at the gifts of fortune, than he whom by parents and conveyancers, from an ex- you take for the sake of his fortune, atact valuation of the land and cash of both tain to personal perfections. If Strephon parties. In this case the young lady's per- is not as accomplished and agreeable as son is no more regarded, than the house Florio, marriage to you will never make and improvements in purchase of an estate: him so: but marriage to you may make but she goes with her fortune, rather than Florio as rich as Strephon. Therefore to her fortune with her. These make up the make a sure purchase, employ, fortune crowd or vulgar of the rich, and fill up the upon certainties, but do not sacrifice cerlumber of human race, without beneficence tainties to fortune. I am, your most obetowards those below them, or respect to- dient, humble servant.'

T. wards those above them; and lead a despicable, independent, and useless life, without sense of the laws of kindness, good-nature, No. 150.] Wednesday, August 18, 1711. mutual offices, and the elegant satisfactions

Nil habet infelix paupertas durius in se, which Aow from reason and virtue.

Quam quod ridiculos homines facit. X4 The vexatious life arises from a conjunction of two people of quick taste and

Want is the scorn of every wealthy fool, resentment, put together for reasons well

And wit in rags is turn'd to ridicule.--Dryden. known to their friends, in which special As I was walking in my chamber the care is taken to avoid (what they think the morning before I went last into the counchief of evils) poverty, and ensure to them try, I heard the hawkers with great veheriches, with every evil besides. These mence crying about a paper, entitled, The good people live in a constant constraint Ninety-nine Plagues of an Empty Purse. before company, and too great familiarity I had indeed sometime before observed, alone. When they are within observation that the orators of Grub-street had dealt they fret at each other's carriage and very much in plagues. They have albehaviour; when alone they revile each ready published in the same month, The

Juv. Sat. iii. 152.

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