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from her slaves in town to those in the deliver all his sentiments upon the matter country, according to the seasons of the when he pleases to speak.' They both year. She is a reading lady, and far gone kept their countenances, and after I had in the pleasures of friendship. She is al- sat half an hour meditating how to behave ways accompanied by a confidant, who is before such profound casuists, I rose up and witness to her daily protestations against took my leave. Chance has since that time our sex, and consequently a bar to her first thrown me very often in her way, and she steps towards love, upon the strength of as often directed a discourse to me which I her own maxims and declarations.
do not understand. This barbarity has • However, I must needs say, this accom- kept me ever at a distance from the most plished mistress of mine has distinguished beautiful object my eyes ever beheld. It is me above the rest, and has been known to thus also she deals with all mankind, and declare Sir Roger de Coverley was the you must make love to her, as you would tamest and most humane of all the brutes conquer the Sphinx, by posing her. But in the country. I was told she said so by were she like other women, and that there • one who thought he rallied me; and upon were any talking to her, how constant must the strength of this slender encourage- the pleasure of that man be, who could ment of being thought least detestable, I converse with a creature-But, after all, made new liveries, new-paired my coach- you may be sure her heart is fixed on some horses, sent them all to town to be bitted, one or other; and yet I have been credibly and taught to throw their legs well, and informed—but who can believe half that is move altogether, before I pretended to said !-after she had done speaking to me, cross the country, and wait upon her. As she put her hand to her bosom, and adsoon as I thought my retinue suitable to the justed her tucker. Then she cast her eyes character of my fortune and youth, I set a little down, upon my beholding her too out from hence to make my addresses. earnestly. They say she sings excellently; The particular skill of this lady has ever her voice in her ordinary speech has somebeen to inflame your wishes, and yet com- thing in it inexpressibly sweet. You must mand respect. To make her mistress of know I dined with her at a public table the this art, she has a greater share of know- day after I first saw her, and she helped ledge, wit, and good sense, than is usual me to some tansy in the eye of all the geneven among men of merit. Then she is tlemen in the country. She has certainly beautiful beyond the race of women. If the finest hand of any woman in the world. you will not let her go on with a certain I can assure you, sír, were you to behold artifice with her eyes, and the skill of her, you would be in the same condition; beauty, she will arm herself with her real for as her speech is music, her form is ancharms, and strike you with admiration in- gelic. But I find I grow irregular while I stead of desire. It is certain that if you am talking of her; but indeed it would be were to behold the whole woman, there is stupidity to be unconcerned at such perfecthat dignity in her aspect, that composure tion. Oh, the excellent creature! she is as in her motion, that complacency in her inimitable to all women as she is inaccessimanner, that if her form makes you hope, ble to all men. her merit makes you fear. But then again, I found my friend begin to rave, and inshe is such a desperate scholar that no sensibly led him towards the house, that country gentleman can approach her with- we might be joined by some other comout being a jest. As I was going to tell pany; and am convinced that the widow is you, when I came to her house, I was ad- the secret cause of all that inconsistency mitted to her presence with great civility; which appears in some parts of my friend's at the same time she placed herself to be discourse; though he has so much command first seen by me in such an attitude, as I of himself as not directly to mention her, think you call the posture of a picture, that yet according to that of Martial, which one she discovered new charms, and I at last knows not how to render_into English, came towards her with such an awe as Dum tacet hanc loquitur. I shall end this made me speechless. This she no sooner paper with that whole epigram, which observed but she made her advantage of it, represents with much humour my honest and began a discourse to me concerning friend's condition: love and honour, as they both are followed by pretenders, and the real votaries to Quicquid agit Rufus, nihil est, nisi Nævia Rufo, them. When she discussed these points in
Si gaudet, si flet, si tacet, hanc loquitur: a discourse, which I verily believe was as
Cænat, propinat, poscit, negat, annuit, una est
Nævia; si non sit Nævia, mutus erit. learned as the best philosopher in Europe Scriberit hesterna patri cum luce salutem, could possibly make, she asked me whether Nævia lux, inquit, Nævia numen, ave. she was so happy as to fall in with my sen
Epig. 69. 1. i. timents on these important particulars. Her confidant sat by her, and upon my being
Let Rufus weep, rejoice, stand, sit, or walk,
Still he can nothing but of Nævia talk; in the last confusion and silence, this ma Let him eat, drink, ask questions, or dispute, licious aid of her's turning to her, says, “I
Still he must speak of Nævia, or be mute.
He writ to his father, ending with this line, am very glad to observe Sir Roger pauses I am, my lovely Navia, ever thine.' upon this subject: and seems resolved to
No. 114.] Wednesday, July 11, 1711. behaviour would in a short time advance
them to the condition which they pretend -Paupertatis pudor et fuga
Laertes has fifteen hundred pounds a Hor. Lib. 1. Ep. xviii. 14.
year, which is mortgaged for six thousand -The dread of nothing more
pounds; but it is impossible to convince Than to be thought necessitous and poor.- Pooly.
him, that if he sold as much as would pay Economy in our affairs has the same off that debt, he would save four shillings effect upon our fortunes which good-breed in the pound, which he gives for the vanity ing has upon our conversation. There is a of being the reputed master of it. Yet if pretending behaviour in both cases, which Laertes did this he would perhaps be easier instead of making men esteemed, renders in his own fortune; but then Irus, a fellow them both miserable and contemptible. of yesterday, who has but twelve hundred a We had yesterday, at Sir Roger's, a set of year, would be his equal. Rather than this country gentlemen who dined with him: shall be, Laertes goes on to bring well-born and after dinner the glass was taken, beggars into the world, and every twelveby those who pleased, pretty plentifully. month charges his estate with at least one Among others I observed a person of a year's rent more by the birth of a child. tolerably good aspect, who seemed to be Laertes and Irus are neighbours, whose more greedy of liquor than any of the com- way of living are an abomination to each pany, and yet methought he did not taste other. Irus is moved by the fear of poverit with delight. As he grew warm, he was ty, and Laertes by the shame of it. Though suspicious of every thing that was said, and the motive of action is of so near affinity in as he advanced towards being fuddled, his both, and may be resolved into this, that to humour grew worse. At the same time his each of them poverty is the greatest of all bitterness seemed to be rather an inward evils,' yet are their manners very widely dissatisfaction in his own mind, than any different.--Shame of poverty makes Laerdislike he had taken to the company. Upon tes launch into unnecessary equipage, vain hearing his name, I knew him to be a gen- expense, and lavish entertainments. Fear tleman of a considerable fortune in this of poverty makes Irus allow himself only county, but greatly in debt. What gives plain necessaries, appear without a serthe unhappy man this peevishness of spirit vant, sell his own corn, attend his labouris, that his estate is dipped, and is eating ers, and be himself a labourer. Shame of out with usury; and yet he has not the poverty makes Laertes go every day a step heart to sell any part of it. His proud nearer to it; and fear of poverty stirs up Irus stomach, at the cost of restless nights, con- to make every day some further progress stant inquietudes, danger of affronts, and from it. a thousand nameless inconveniences, pre These different motives produce the exserves this canker in his fortune, rather cesses which men are guilty of in the negthan it shall be said he is a man of a fewer ligence of and provision for themselves. hundreds a year than he has been com- Usury, stock-jobbing, extortion, and opmonly reputed. Thus he endures the tor- pression, have their seed in the dread of ment of poverty, to avoid the name of being want; and vanity, riot, and prodigality, less rich. If you go to his house you see from the shame of it: but both these exgreat plenty; but served in a manner that cesses are infinitely below the pursuit of a shows it is all unnatural, and that the mas- reasonable creature. After we have taken ter's mind is not at home. There is a cer- care to command so much as is necessary tain waste and carelessness in the air of for maintaining ourselves in the order of every thing, and the whole appears but a men suitable to our character, the care of covered indigence, a magnificent poverty. superfluities is a vice no less extravagant, That neatness and cheerfulness which at-than the neglect of necessaries would have tends the table of him who lives within been before. compass, is wanting, and exchanged for a Certain it is, that they are both out of libertine way of service in all about him. nature, when she is followed with reason
This gentleman's conduct, though a very and good sense. It is from this reflection common way
of management, is as ridicu- that I always read Mr. Cowley with the lous as that officer's would be who had but greatest pleasure. His magnanimity is as
few men under his command, and should much above that of other considerable men & take the charge of an extent of country as his understanding; and it is a true dis
rather than of a small pass. To pay for, tinguishing spirit in the elegant author who personate, and keep in a man's hands, á published his works, to dwell so much upon greater estate than he really has, is of all the temper of his mind and the moderation others the most unpardonable vanity, and of his desires. By this means he rendered must in the end reduce the man who is his friend as amiable as famous. That guilty of it to dishonour. Yet if we look state of life which bears the face of poverty round us in any county of Great Britain, with Mr. Cowley's great vulgar,t is admiwe shall see many in this fatal error; if that may be called by so soft a name, which proceeds from a false shame of appearing
# Hence, ye profane, I hate ye all,
Both the great vulgar and the small. what they really are, when the contrary
Cowley's Par. of Horace, Od. 3. i.
* Viz, the land-tax.
rably described; and it is no small satisfac-| the bowels, bones, tendons, veins, nerves, tian to those of the same turn of desire, that and arteries, but every muscle and every he produces the authority of the wisest men ligature, which is a composition of fibres, of the best age of the world, to strengthen that are so many imperceptible tubes or his opinion of the ordinary pursuits of man- pipes interwoven on all sides with invisible kind.
glands or strainers. It would methinks be no ill maxim of This general idea of a human body, withlife, if, according to that ancestor of Sir out considering it in its niceties of anatomy, Roger, whom I lately mentioned, every lets us see how absolutely necessary labour man would point to himself what sum he is for the right preservation of it. There would resolve not to exceed. He might by must be frequent motions and agitations, this means cheat himself into a tranquillity to mix, digest, and separate the juices on this side of that expectation, or convert contained in it, as well as to clear and what he should get above it to nobler uses cleanse that infinitude of pipes and strainthan his own pleasures or necessities. ers, of which it is composed, and to give This temper of mind would exempt a man their solid parts a more firm and lasting from an ignorant envy of restless men above tone. Labour or exercise ferments the him, and a more inexcusable contempt of humours, casts them into their proper happy men below him. This would be channels, throws off redundancies, and sailing by some compass, living with some helps nature in those secret distributions, design; but to be eternally bewildered in without which the body cannot subsist in prospects of future gain, and putting on its vigour, nor the soul act with cheerfulunnecessary armour against improbable ness. blows of fortune, is a mechanic being which I might here mention the effects which has not good sense for its direction, but is this has upon all the faculties of the mind, carried on by a sort of acquired instinct by keeping the understanding clear, the towards things below our consideration, imagination untroubled, and refining those and unworthy our esteem. It is possible spirits that are necessary for the proper that the tranquillity I now enjoy at Sir exertion of our intellectual faculties, during Roger's may have created in me this way the present laws of union between soul and of thinking, which is so abstracted from body. It is to a neglect in this particular the common relish of the world: but as I that we must ascribe the spleen which am now in a pleasant arbour, surrounded is so frequent in men of studious and sewith a beautiful landscape, í find no in- dentary tempers, as well as the vapours clination so strong as to continue in these to which those of the other sex are so often mansions, so remote from the ostentatious subject. scenes of life; and am at this present wri Had not exercise been absolutely necesting, philosopher enough to conclude with sary for our well-being, nature would not Mr. Cowley,
have made the body so proper for it, by
giving such an activity to the limbs, and *If e'er ambition did my fancy cheat, With any wish so mean as to be great ;
such a pliancy to every part, as necessarily
produce those compressions, extensions, The humble blessings of that life I love.' contortions, dilatations, and all other kinds
of motions that are necessary for the preservation of such a system of tubes and
glands as has been before mentioned. And No. 115.] Thursday, July 12, 1711. that we might not want inducements to en-Ut sit mens sana in corpore sano.
gage us in such an exercise of the body as Juv. Sat. x. 356.
is proper for its welfare, it is so ordered Pray for a sound mind in a sound body.
that nothing, valuable can be produced
without it. Not to mention riches and hoBodily labour is of two kinds, either nour, even food and raiment are not to be that which a man submits to for his liveli- come at without the toil of the hands and hood, or that which he undergoes for his sweat of the brows. Providence furnishes pleasure.-The latter of them generally materials, but expects that we should work changes the name of labour for that of them up ourselves. The earth must be laexercise, but differs only from ordinary boured before it gives its increase, and labour as it rises from another motive. when it is forced into its several products,
A country life abounds in both these how many hands must they pass through kinds of labour, and for that reason gives a before they are fit for use! Manufactures, man a greater stock of health, and conse- trade, and agriculture, naturally employ quently a more perfect enjoyment of him- more than nineteen parts of the species in self, than any other way of life. I consider twenty; and as for those who are not the body as a system of tubes and glands, obliged to labour, by the condition in which or, to use a more rustic phrase, a bundle they are born, they are more miserable of pipes and strainers, fitted to one another than the rest of mankind, unless they inafter so wonderful a manner as to make a dulge themselves in that voluntary labour Proper engine for the soul to work with. which goes by the name of exercise. This description does not only comprehend | My friend Sir Roger has been an inde
Continue, Heav'n, still from me to remove
fatigable man in business of this kind, and I written with a great deal of erudition:f it has hung several parts of his house with is there called the examplexus, or the fighting the trophies of his former labours. The with a man's own shadow, and consists in walls of his great hall are covered with the the brandishing of two short sticks grasped horns of several kinds of deer that he has in each hand, and loaded with plugs of lead killed in the chase, which he thinks the at either end. This opens the chest, exermost valuable furniture of his house, as cises the limbs, and gives a man all the they afford him frequent topics of dis- pleasure of boxing, without the blows. I course, and show that he has not been idle. could wish that several learned men would At the lower end of the hall is a large lay out that time which they employ in otter's skin stuffed with hay, which his mo- controversies and disputes about nothing, ther ordered to be hung up in that manner, in this method of fighting with their own and the knight looks upon with great satis- shadows. It might conduce very much to faction, because it seems he was but nine evaporate the spleen, which makes them years old when his dog killed him. A little uneasy to the public as well as to themmom adjoining to the hall is a kind of ar- selves. senal, filled with guns of several sizes and To conclude,--As I am a compound of inventions, with which the knight has made soul and body, I consider myself as obliged great havoc in the woods, and destroyed to a double scheme of duties; and think I many thousands of pheasants, partridges, have not fulfilled the business of the day and woodcocks. His stable-doors are patch- when I do not thus employ the one in laed with noses that belonged to foxes of the bour and exercise, as well as the other in knight's own hunting down. Sir Roger study and contemplation.
L. showed me one of them that for distinction sake has a brass nail stuck through it, which cost him about fifteen hours' riding, No. 116.] Friday, July 13, 1711. carried him through half a dozen counties, killed him a brace of geldings, and lost
-Vocat ingenti clamore Citharon, above half his dogs. This the knight looks
Virg. Georg. ii. upon as one of the greatest exploits of his
The echoing hills and chiding hounds invite. life. The perverse widow, whom I have Those who have searched into human given some account of, was the death of nature observe, that nothing so much shows several foxes; for Sir Roger has told me the nobleness of the soul, as that its felicity that in the course of his amours he patched consists in action. Every man has such an the western door of his stable. Whenever active principle in him, that he will find the widow was cruel, the foxes were sure out something to employ himself upon, in to pay for it. In proportion as his passion whatever place or state of life he is posted. for the widow abated and old age came I have heard of a gentleman who was unon, he left off fox-hunting; but a hare is der close confinement in the Bastile seven not yet safe that sits within ten miles of his years; during which time he amused himhonse.
self in scattering a few small pins about There is no kind of exercise which I his chamber, gathering them up again, would so recommend to my readers of both and placing them in different figures on sexes as this of riding, as there is none the arm of a great chair. He often told his which so much conduces to health, and is friends afterwards, that unless he had every way accommodated to the body, ac- found out this piece of exercise, he verily cording to the idea which I have given of believed he should have lost his senses. it. Doctor Sydenham is very lavish in its After what has been said, I need not inpraises; and if the English reader will see form my readers, that Sir Roger, with the mechanical effects of it described at whose character I hope they are at present length, he may find them in a book pub- pretty well acquainted, has in his youth lished not many years since under the title gone through the whole course of those of Medicina Gymnastica.* For my own rural diversions which the country abounds part, when I am in town, for want of these in; and which seem to be extremely well opportunities, I exercise myself an hour suited to that laborious industry a man may every morning upon a dumb-bell that is observe here in a far greater degree than in placed in a corner of my room, and it towns and cities. I have before hinted at pleases me the more because it does every some of my friend's exploits; he has in his thing I require of it in the most profound youthful days taken forty coveys of parsilence. My landlady and her daughters tridges in a season; and tired many a salmon are so well acquainted with my hours of with a line consisting but of a single hair. exercise, that they never come into my The constant thanks and good wishes of the room to disturb me whilst I am ringing. neighbourhood always attended him, on ac
When I was some years younger than I count of his remarkable enmity towards am at present, I used to employ myself in foxes; having destroyed more of those vera more laborious diversion, which I learned from a Latin treatise of exercises that is
† Hieronymus Mercurialis's celebrated book, Artis
Gymnasticæ apud Antiquos, &c. Libri sel. Venet. 1569. * By Francis Fuller, M. A.
min in one year, than it was thought the who knows that none of my extraordinary whole county could have produced. In-motions are insignificant, rode up to me and deed the knight does not scruple to own asked me if puss was gone that way? Upon among his most intimate friends, that in my answering yes, he immediately called order to establish his reputation this way, in the dogs, and put them upon the scent. he has secretly sent for great numbers of As they were going off, I heard one of the them out of other counties, which he used country-fellows muttering to his companion, to turn loose about the country by night, That 'twas a wonder they had not lost all that he might the better signalize himself their sport, for want of the silent gentlein their destruction the next day. His hunt- man's crying, Stole away.' ing horses were the finest and best managed This, with my aversion to leaping hedges, in all these parts. His tenants are still full made me withdraw to a rising ground, from of the praises of a gray stone-horse that un- whence I could have the pleasure of the happily staked himself several years since, whole chase, without the fatigue of keeping and was buried with great soleinnity in the in with the hounds. The hare immediately orchard.
threw them above a mile behind her; but I Sir Roger, being at present too old for was pleased to find, that instead of running fox-hunting, to keep himself in action, has straight forwards, or, in hunter's language, disposed of his beagles and got a pack of Aying the country,' as I was afraid she stop-hounds. What these want in speed, might have done, she wheeled about, and he endeavours to make amends for by the described a sort of circle round the hill, deepness of their mouths and the variety of where I lead taken my station, in such a their notes, which are suited in such a man- manner as gave me a very distinct view of ner to each other, that the whole cry makes the sport. I could see her first pass by, and up a complete concert. He is so nice in this the dogs some time afterwards, unravelling particular, that a gentleman having made the whole track she had made, and followhim a present of a very fine hound the other ing her through all her doubles. I was at day, the knight returned it by the servant the same time delighted in observing that with a great many expressions of civility; deference which the rest of the pack paid but desired him to tell his master, that the to each particular hound, according to the dog he had sent was indeed a most excel- character he had acquired among them. lent bass, but that at present he only wanted If they were at a fault, and an old hound of a counter-tenor. Could I believe my friend reputation opened but once, he was immehad ever read Shakspeare, I should cer- diately followed by the whole cry; while a tainly conclude he had taken the hint from raw dog, or one who was a noted liar, might Theseus in the Midsummer Night's Dream: have yelped his heart out without being
taken notice of. My hounds are bred out of the Spartan kind, So flu’d, so sanded; and their heads are hung
The hare now, after having squatted two With ears that sweep away the morning dew. or three times, and been put up again as Crook-knee'd and dew-lapt like Thessalian bulls,
often, came still nearer to the place where Slow in pursuit, but match'd in mouths like bells, Each under each. A cry more tunable
she was at first started. The dogs pursued Was never halloo'd to, nor cheer'd with horn.'* her, and these were followed by the jolly
Sir Roger is so keen at this sport that he knight, who rode upon a white gelåing, has been out almost every day since I came and cheering his hounds with all the gaiety
encompassed by his tenants and servants, down; and upon the chaplain's offering to of five-and-twenty. One of the sportsmen lend me his easy pad, I was prevailed on rode up to me, and told me that he was yesterday morning to make one of the com, sure the chase was, almost at an end, bepany. I was extremely pleased as we rid cause the old dogs, which had hitherto lain along, to observe the general benevolence behind, now headed the pack. The fellow of all the neighbourhood towards my friend. was in the right. Our hare took a large The farers' sons thought themselves field just under us, followed by the full cry happy if they could open a gate for the in view. I must confess the brightness of good old knight as he passed by; which he the weather, the cheerfulness of every thing generally requited with a nod or a smile, around me, the chiding of the hounds, which and a kind inquiry after their fathers or uncles.
was returned upon us in a double echo from After we had rid about a mile from home, of the sportsmen, and the sounding of the
two neighbouring hills, with the hallooing we came upon a large heath, and the sports- horn, lifted my spirits into a most lively men began to beat. They had done so for pleasure, which I freely indulged because some time, when, as I was at a little dis- I was sure it was innocent. If I was under tance from the rest of the company, a hare por out from a small furze-brake any concern, it was on the account of the almost under my horse's feet. I marked almost within the reach of her enemies;
poor hare, that was now quite spent, and the way she took, which I endeavoured to when the huntsman getting forward, threw make the company sensible of by extending down his pole before the dogs. They were my arm; but to no purpose, till Sir Roger, now within eight yards of that game which
they had been pursuing for almost as many hours; yet on the signal before-inentioned
* Aet it. Sc. 1.