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pedant, that is perpetually putting cases, who is very well acquainted with my hurepeating the transactions of Westminster-mour, lets me rise and go to bed when I hall, wrangling with you upon the most in- please, dine at his own table or in my different circumstances of life, and not to be chamber, as I think fit, sit still and say noconvinced of the distance of a place, or of thing without bidding me be merry. When the most trivial point in conversation, but the gentlemen of the country come to see by dint of argument. The state pedant is him, he only shows me at a distance. As I wrapt up in news, and lost in politics. If have been walking in his fields, I have obyou mention either of the kings of Spain or served them stealing a sight of me over a Poland, he talks very notably; but if you hedge, and have heard the knight desiring go out of the Gazette, you drop him. In them not to let me see them, for that I short, a mere courtier, a mere soldier, a hated to be stared at. mere scholar, a mere any thing, is an in I am the more at ease in Sir Roger's sipid pedantic character, and equally ridi- family, because it consists of sober and staid culous.
persons; for as the knight is the best masOf all the species of pedants, which I ter in the world, he seldom changes his serhave mentioned, the book-pedant is much vants; and as he is beloved by all about the most supportable; he has at least an him, his servants never care for leaving exercised understanding, and a head which him: by this means his domestics are all in is full though confused, so that a man who years, and grown old with their master. converses with him may often receive from You would take his valet de chambre for him hints of things that are worth knowing, his brother, his butler is gray-headed, his and what he may possibly turn to his own groom is one of the gravest men that I have advantage, though they are of little use to ever seen, and his coachman has the looks the owner. The worst kind of pedants of a privy counsellor. You see the goodamong learned men, are such as are natu- ness of the master even in the old houserally endued with a very small share of dog, and in a gray pad that is kept in the common sense, and have read a great num- stable with great care and tenderness out of ber of books without taste or distinction. regard to his past services, though he has
The truth of it is, learning, like travel- been useless for several years. ling, and all other methods of improvement, I could not but observe with a great deal as it finishes good sense, so it makes a silly of pleasure the joy that appeared in the man ten thousand times more insufferable, countenances of these ancient domestics by supplying variety of matter to his im- upon my friend's arrival at his country-seat. pertinence, and giving him an opportunity Some of them could not refrain from tears of abounding in absurdities.
at the sight of their old master; every one Shallow pedants cry up one another much of them pressed forward to do something more than men of solid and useful learning: for him, and seemed discouraged if they To read the titles they give an editor, or were not employed. At the same time the collector of a manuscript, you would take good old knight, with a mixture of the fahim for the glory of the commonwealth of ther and the master of the family, tempered letters, and the wonder of his age, when the inquiries after his own affairs with seveperhaps upon examination you find that he ral kind questions relating to themselves. has only rectified a Greek particle, or laid This humanity, and good-nature engages out a whole sentence in proper commas. every body to him, so that when he is plea
They are obliged indeed to be thus lavish sant upon any of them, all his family are in of their praises, that they may keep one good humour, and none so much as the peranother in countenance; and it is no wonder son whom he diverts himself with: on the if a great deal of knowledge, which is not contrary, if he coughs, or betrays any incapable of making a man wise, has a natu- firmity of old age, it is easy for a stander-by ral tendency to make him vain and arro- to observe a secret concern in the looks of gant.
L, all his servants.
My worthy friend has put me under the
particular care of his butler, who is a very No. 106.] Monday, July 2, 1711.
prudent man, and, as well as the rest of
his fellow-servants, wonderfully desirous of -Hinc tibi copia Manabit ad plenum, benigno
pleasing me, because they have often heard Ruris honorum opulenta cornu.
their master talk of me as of his particular
My chief companion, when Sir Roger is
diverting himself in the woods or the fields,
is a very venerable man who is ever with HAVING often received an invitation from Sir Roger, and has lived at his house in the my friend Sir Roger de Coverley to pass nature of a chaplain above thirty years. away a month with him in the country, I This gentleman is a person of good sense last week accompanied him thither, and and some learning, of a very regular life am settled with him for some time at his and obliging conversation: he heartily loves country-house, where I intend to form seve- Sir Roger, and knows that he is very much ral of my ensuing speculations, Sir Roger, in the old knight's esteem, so that he lives
Hor. Lib. 1. Od. xvii. 14.
Patere honoris scirent ut cunctis viam.
in the family rather as a relation than a Calamy, with several living authors who dependent.
have published discourses of practical diI have observed in several of my papers vinity. I no sooner saw this venerable man that my friend Sir Roger, amidst all his in the pulpit, but I very much approved of good qualities, is something of a humorist; my friend's insisting upon the qualifications and that his virtues, as well as imperfec- of a good aspect and a clear voice; for I was tions, are as it were tinged by a certain ex- so charmed with the gracefulness of his travagance, which makes them particularly figure and delivery, as well as with the dishis, and distinguishes them from those of courses he pronounced, that I think I never other men. This cast of mind, as it is gene- passed any time more to my satisfaction. rally very innocent in itself, so it renders A sermon repeated after this manner, is his conversation highly agreeable, and more like the composition of a poet in the mouth delightful than the same degree of sense of a graceful actor.
and virtue would appear in their common I could heartily wish that more of our 1 and ordinary colours. As I was walking country clergy would follow this example;
with him last night, he asked me how I and instead of wasting their spirits in laboliked the good man whom I have just now rious compositions of their own, would enmentioned? and without staying for my an-deavour after a handsome elocution, and swer told me, that he was afraid of being all those other talents that are proper to insulted with Latin and Greek at his own enforce what has been penned by greater table; for which reason he desired a par- masters. This would not only be more easy ticular friend of his at the university to find to themselves, but more edifying to the him out a clergyman rather of plain sense people.
L. than much learning, of a good aspect, a clear voice, a sociable temper, and, if possible, a man that understood a little of back- No. 107.] Tuesday, July 3, 1711. gammon. My friend,' says Sir Roger, * found me out this gentleman, who, besides
Æsopo ingentem statuam posuere Attici,
Servumque collocarunt æterna in basi, the endowments required of him, is, they tell me, a good scholar, though he does not
Phædr. Ep. I. 2. show it. I have given him the parsonage of The Athenians erected a large statue to Æsop, and the parish; and because I know his value, placed him, though a slave, on a lasting pedestal; to have settled upon him a good annuity for show, that the way to honour lies open indifferently life. If he outlives me, he shall find that he was higher in my esteem than perhaps he The reception, manner of attendance, thinks he is. He has now been with me undisturbed freedom and quiet, which Í thirty years; and though he does not know meet with here in the country, has conI have taken notice of it, has never in all firmed me in the opinion I always had, that that time asked any thing of me for him- the general corruption of manners in serself, though he is every day soliciting me vants is owing to the conduct of masters. for something in behalf of one or other of The aspect of every one in the family carmy tenants his parishioners. There has not ries so much satisfaction, that it appears he been a law-suit in the parish since he has knows the happy lot which has befallen lived among them; if any dispute arises him in being a member of it. There is one they apply themselves to him for the deci- particular which I have seldom seen but at sion; if they do not acquiesce in his judg- Sir Roger's; it is usual in all other places, ment, which I think never happened above that servants fly from the parts of the house once or twice at most, they appeal to me. through which their master is passing; on At his first settling with me, I made him a the contrary, here they industriously place present of all the good sermons which have themselves in his way; and it is on both been printed in English, and only begged sides, as it were, understood as a visit, of him that every Sunday he would pro- when the servants appear without calling. nounce one of them in the puipit. Accord- This proceeds from the humane and equal ingly he has digested them into such a temper of the man of the house, who also series, that they follow one another natu- perfectly well knows how to enjoy a great rally, and make a continued system of prac-estate with such economy as ever to be tical divinity.'
much beforehand. This makes his own As Sir Roger was going on in his story, mind untroubled, and consequently unapt the gentleman we were talking of came up to vent peevish expressions, or give pasto us; and upon the knight's asking him sionate or inconsistent orders to those about who preached to-morrow (for it was Satur- him. Thus respect and love go together; day night,) told us the bishop of St. Asaph* and a certain cheerfulness in performance in the morning, and Dr. South in the after- of their duty is the particular distinction of noon. He then showed us his list of preach- the lower part of this family. When a serers for the whole year, where I saw with a vant is called before his master, he does great deal of pleasure, archbishop Tillot- not come with an expectation to hear himsor, bishop Saunderson, Dr. Barrow, Dr. self rated for some trivial fault, threatened
to be stripped, or used with any other unI becoming language, which mean masters
• Dr. Fleetwood.
often give to worthy servants; but it is oftenment will make his successor be as diligent, to know, what road he took, that he came as humble, and as ready as he was. There so readily back according to order; whe- is something wonderful in the narrowness of ther he passed by such a ground; if the old those minds, which can be pleased, and be man who rents it is in good health; or whe- barren of bounty to those who please them. ther he gave Sir Roger's love to him, or One might, on this occasion, recount the the like.
sense that great persons in all ages have A man who preserves a respect founded had of the merit of their dependents, and on his benevolence to his dependents, lives the heroic services which men have done rather like a prince than a master in his their masters in the extremity of their forfamily; his orders are received as favours tunes, and shown to their undone patrons, rather than duties; and the distinction of that fortune was all the difference between approaching him is part of the reward for them; but as I design this my speculation executing what is commanded by him. only as a gentle admonition to thankless
There is another circumstance in which masters, I shall not go out of the occurmy friend excels in his management, which rences of common life, but assert it as a is, the manner of rewarding his servants. general observation, that I never saw, but He has ever been of opinion, that giving in Sir Roger's family, and one or two more, his cast clothes to be worn by valets has a good servants treated as they ought to be. very ill effect upon little minds, and creates Sir Roger's kindness extends to their chila silly sense of equality between the par- dren's children, and this very morning, he ties, in persons affected only with outward sent his coachman's grandson to prentice. things. I have heard him often pleasant on I shall conclude this paper with an account this occasion, and describe a young gentle- of a picture in his gallery, where there are man abusing his man in that coat, which a many which will deserve my future obmonth or two before was the most pleasing servation. distinction he was conscious of in himself. At the very upper end of this handsome He would turn his discourse still more plea- structure I saw the portraiture of two young santly upon the bounties of the ladies of this men standing in a river, the one naked, the kind; and I have heard him say he knew a other in livery. The person supported fine woman, who distributed rewards and seemed half dead, but still so much alive as punishments in giving becoming or unbe- to show in his face exquisite joy and love coming dresses to her maids.
towards the other. I thought the fainting But my good friend is above these little figure resembled my friend Sir Roger: and instances of good-will, in bestowing only looking at the butler who stood by me, for trifles on his servants; a good servant to an account of it, he informed me that the him is sure of having it in his choice very person in the livery was a servant of Sir soon of being no servant at all. As I before Roger's, who stood on the shore while his observed, he is so good a husband, and master was swimming, and observing him knows so thoroughly that the skill of the taken with some sudden illness, and sink purse is the cardinal virtue of this life; I under water, jumped in and saved him. say, he knows so well that frugality is the He told me Sir Roger took off the dress he support of generosity, that he can often was in as soon as he came home, and by a spare a large fine when a tenement falls, great bounty at that time, followed by his and give that settlement to a good servant favour ever since, had made him master of who has a mind to go into the world, or that pretty seat which we saw at a distance make a stranger pay the fine to that ser- as we came to this house. I remembered vant, for his more comfortable maintenance, indeed Sir Roger said, there lived a very if he stays in his service.
worthy gentleman, to whom he was highly A man of honour and generosity considers obliged, without mentioning any thing furit would be miserable to himself to have no ther. Upon my looking a little dissatisfied will but that of another, though it were of at some part of the picture, my attendant the best person breathing, and for that rea- informed me that it was against Sir Roger's son goes on as fast as he is able to put his will, and at the earnest request of the genservants into independent livelihoods. The tleman himself, that he was drawn in the greatest part of Sir Roger's estate is ten- habit in which he had saved his master. anted by persons who have served himself R. or his ancestors. It was to me extremely pleasant to observe the visitants from several parts to welcome his arrival into the No. 108.] Wednesday, July 4, 1711. country: and all the difference that I could
Gratis anhelans, multa agendo nihil agens. take notice of between the late servants who came to see him, and those who staid Out of breath to no purpose and very busy about nothing. in the family, was that these latter were looked upon as finer gentlemen and better
was yesterday morning walking
with Sir Roger before his house, a countrycourtiers. This manumission and placing them in a told him, Mr. William Wimble* had caught
fellow brought him a huge fish, which, he way of livelihood, I look upon as only what is due to a good servant; which encourage * Mr. Thomas Morecraft, a Yorkshire gentleman.
Phædr. Fab. v. 1. 2.
that very morning; and that he presented it his guest discovered at sight of the good old with his service to him, and intended to knight. After the first salutes were over, come and dine with him. At the same time will desired Sir Roger to lend him one of he delivered a letter, which my friend read his servants to carry a set of shuttlecocks to me as soon as the messenger left him. he had with him in a little box, to a lady that
lived about a mile off, to whom it seems he SIR ROGER, -I desire you to accept of had promised such a present for above this a jack, which is the best I have caught half year. Sir Roger's back was no sooner this season. I intend to come and stay with turned but honest Will began to tell me of you a week, and see how the perch bite in a large cock pheasant that he had sprung the Black river. I observed with some in one of the neighbouring woods, with two concern, the last time I saw you upon the or three other adventures of the same nabowling-green, that your whip wanted a ture. Odd and uncommon characters are lash to it: I will bring half a dozen with me the game that I look for, and most delight that I twisted last week, which I hope will in; for which reason I was as much pleased serve you all the time you are in the country. with the novelty of the person that talked I have not been out of the saddle for six to me, as he could be for his life with days last past, having been at Eton with the springing of a pheasant, and therefore Sir John's eldest son. He takes to his listened to him with more than ordinary learning hugely.--I am sir, your humble attention. servant,
In the midst of this discourse the bell •WILL WIMBLE.' rung to dinner, where the gentleman I
have been speaking of had the pleasure of This extraordinary letter, and message seeing the huge jack he had caught, served that accompanied it, made me very curious up for the first dish in a most sumptuous to know the character and quality of the gen- manner. Upon our sitting down to it he tleman who sent them; which I found to be gave us a long account how he had hooked as follows.-Will Wimble is younger bro- it, played with it, foiled it, and at length ther to a baronet, and descended of the an- drew it out upon the bank, with several cient family of the Wimbles. He is now other particulars that lasted all the first between forty and fifty; but being bred to course. A dish of wild fowl that came no business, and born to no estate, he gene- afterwards furnished conversation for the rally lives with his elder brother as su- rest of the dinner, which concluded with perintendent of his game. He hunts a pack a late invention of Will's for improving the of dogs better than any man in the country, quail-pipe. and is very famous for finding out a hare. Upon withdrawing into my room after He is extremely well versed in all the little dinner, I was secretly touched with comhandicrafts of an idle man. He makes a passion towards the honest gentleman that May-fly to a miracle; and furnishes the had dined with us; and could not but conwhole country with angle-rods. As he is sider with a great deal of concern, how so a good-natured officious fellow, and very good a heart and such busy hands were much esteemed upon account of his fa- wholly employed in trifles; that so much mily, he is a welcome guest at every house, humanity should be so little beneficial to and keeps up a good correspondence among others, and so much industry so little adall the gentlemen about him. He carries vantageous to himself. The same temper a tulip root in his pocket from one to an- of mind and application to affairs might other, or exchanges a puppy between a have recommended him to the public couple of friends that live perhaps in the esteem, and have raised his fortune in anopposite sides of the country. Will is a parti- other station of life. What good to his cular favourite of all the young heirs, whom country or himself might not a trader or a he frequently obliges with a net that he merchant have done with such useful has weaved, or a setting-dog that he has though ordinary qualifications? made himself. He now and then presents Will Wimble's is the case of many a a pair of garters of his own knitting to their younger brother of a great family, who had mothers or sisters; and raises a great deal rather see their children starve like gentleof mirth among them, by enquiring, as often men, than thrive in a trade or profession as he meets them, “ how they wear!" that is beneath their quality. This humour These gentleman-like manufactures and fills several parts of Europe with pride and obliging little humours make Will the dar- beggary. It is the happiness of a trading ling of the country.
nation like ours, that the younger sons, Sir Roger was proceeding in the charac- though incapable of any liberal art or proter of him, when he saw him make up to fession, may be placed in such a way of us with two or three hazle twigs in his life, as may perhaps enable them to vie hand that he had cut in Sir Roger's woods, with the best of their family. Accordingly as he came through them, in his way to the we find several citizens that were launched house. I was very much pleased' to ob- into the world with narrow fortunes, rising serve on one side the hearty and sincere by an honest industry to greater estates welcome with which Sir Roger received than those of their elder brothers. It is him, and on the other, the secret joy which not improbable but Will was formerly triel
at divinity, law, or physic; and that finding him on the pummel of his saddle, he in his genius did not lie that way, his parents that manner rid the tournament over, with gave him up at length to his own inven-an air that showed he did it rather to pertions. But certainly, however improper form the rule of the lists, than expose his he might have been for studies of a higher enemy; however, it appeared he knew how nature, he was perfectly well turned for to make use of a victory, and with a gentle the occupations of trade and commerce. trot he marched up to a gallery, where As I think this a point which cannot be too their mistress sat, (for they were rivals,) much inculcated, I shall desire my reader and let him down with laudable courtesy to compare what I have here written with and pardonable insolence. I do not know what I have said in my twenty-first specu- but it might be exactly where the coffeelation.
L. house is now.
• You are to know this my ancestor was
not only a military genius, but fit also for No. 109.) Thursday, July 5, 1711.
the arts of peace, for he played on the base
viol as well as any gentleman at court; you Abnormis sapiens — Hor. Lib. 2. Sat. ii. 3.
see where his viol hangs by his basket-hilt
sword. The action at the Tilt-yard you Of plain good sense, untutor’d in the schools.
may be sure won the fair lady, who was a I was this morning walking in the gal- maid of honour, and the greatest beauty of lery, when sir Roger entered at the end her time; here she stands, the next picture. opposite to me, and advancing towards You see, sir, my great great great grandme, said he was glad to meet me among mother has on the new-fashioned petticoat, his relations the De Coverleys, and hoped except that the modern is gathered at the I liked the conversation of so much good waist; my grandmother appears as if she company, who were as silent as myself. I stood in a large drum, whereas the ladies knew he alluded to the pictures, and as he now walk as if they were in a go-cart. For is a gentleman who does not a little value all this lady was bred at court, she behimself upon his ancient descent, I expect- came an excellent country wife, she brought ed he would give me some account of them. ten children, and when I show you the We were now arrived at the upper end of library, you shall see in her own hand (althe gallery, when the knight faced towards lowing for the difference of the language) one of the pictures, and as we stood before the best receipt now in England both for a it, he entered into the matter, after his hasty-pudding and a white-pot. blunt way of saying things, as they occur to If you please to fall back a little, because his imagination, without regular introduc- it is necessary to look at the three next tion, or care to preserve the appearance of pictures at one view; these are three sisters. a chain of thought.
She on the right hand who is so very beau• It is,' said he, worth while to consider tiful, died a maid; the next to her, still the force of dress; and how the persons handsomer, had the same fate, against her of one age differ from those of another, will; this homely thing in the middle had merely by that only. One may observe, both their portions added to her own, and also, that the general fashion of one age was stolen by a neighbouring gentleman, a has been followed by one particular set of man of stratagem and resolution, for he people in another, and by them preserved poisoned three mastiffs to come at her, and from one generation to another. Thus the i knocked down two deer-stealers in carryvast jetting coat and small bonnet, which ing her off. Misfortunes happen in all was the habit in Henry the Seventh's time, families. The theft of this romp, and so is kept on in the yeoman of the guard; not much money, was no great matter to our without a good and politic view, because estate. But the next heir that possessed it they look a foot taller, and a foot and a was this soft gentleman, whom you see there. half broader: besides, that the cap leaves Observe the small buttons, the little boots, the face expanded, and consequently more the laces, the slashes about his clothes, terrible, and fitter to stand at the entrance and above all the posture he is drawn in, of palaces.
(which to be sure was his own choosing,) This predecessor of ours you see is you see he sits with one hand on a desk dressed after this manner, and his cheeks writing, and looking as it were another would be no larger than mine, were he in a way, like an easy writer, or a sonnetteer. hat as I am. He was the last man that He was one of those that had too much wit won a prize in the Tilt-yard (which is now to know how to live in the world; he was a common street before Whitehall.) You a man of no justice, but great good mansee the broken lance that lies there by his ners; he ruined every body that had any right foot. He shivered that lance of his thing to do with him, but never said a rude adversary all to pieces: and bearing him- thing in his life; the most indolent person self, look you, sir, in this manner, at the in the world; he would sign a deed that same time he came within the target of passed away half his estate with his gloves the gentleman who rode against him, and on, but would not put on his hat before a taking him with incredible force before lady if it were to save his country. He is