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the opinion of the whole British nation. I which we must show to old English writers, The deserving man, who can now recom- or if we look into the variety of his subjects, mend himself to the esteem of but half his with those several critical dissertations, countrymen, will then receive the appro- moral reflections, bations and applauses of a whole age.

Among the several persons that flourish The following part of the paragraph is in this glorious reign, there is no question so much to my advantage, and beyond any but such a future historian, as the person thing I can pretend to, that I hope my reaof whom I am speaking, will make mention der will excuse me for not inserting it. of the men of genius and learning, who

L. have now any figure in the British nation. For my own part, I often flatter myself with the honourable mention which will then be No. 102.] Wednesday, June 27, 1711. made of me; and have drawn up a paragraph in my own imagination that I fancy -Lusus animo debent aliquando dari, will not be altogether unlike what will be

Ad cogitandum melior ut redeat sibi.

Phædr. Fab. xiv. 3: found in some page or other of this imagi

The mind ought sometimes to be diverted, that it nary historian

may return the better to thinking. It was under this reign, says he, that the Spectator published those little diurnal es

I do not know whether to call the followsays which are still extant. We know very ing letter a satire upon coquettes, or a relittle of the name or person of this author, presentation of their several fantastical acexcept only that he was a man of very short complishments, or what other title to give face, extremely addicted to silence, and so it; but as it is I shall communicate it to the great a lover of knowledge, that he made a public. It will sufficiently explain its own voyage to Grand Cairo for no other reason, intentions, so that I shall give it my reader but to take the measure of a pyramid. His at length, without either preface or postchief friend was Sir Roger De Coverley, a

script. whimsical country knight, and a Templar “MR. SPECTATOR,-Women are armed whose name he has not transmitted to us. with fans as men with swords, and someHe lived as a lodger at the house of a times do more execution with them. To widow-woman, and was a great humourist the end therefore that ladies may be entire in all parts of his life. This is all we can mistresses of the weapon which they bear, affirm with any certainty of his person and I have erected an academy for the training character. As for his speculations, not- up of young women in the exercise of the withstanding the several obsolete words and fan, according to the most fashionable airs obscure phrases of the age in which he lived, and motions that are now practised at court. we still understand enough of them to see The ladies who carry fans under me are the diversions and characters of the English drawn up twice a-day in my great hall, nation in his time; not but that we are to where they are instructed in the use of their make allowance for the mirth and humour arms, and exercised by the following words of the author, who has doubtless strained of command:-Handle your fans, Unfurl many representations of things beyond the your fans, Discharge your fans, Ground truth. For if we interpret his words in their your fans, Recover your fans, Flutter your literal meaning, we must suppose that wo- fans.—By the right observation of these few men of the first quality used to pass away plain words of command, a woman of a tolewhole mornings at a puppet-show; that rable genius, who will apply herself dilithey attested their principles by their gently to her exercise for the space of but patches; that an audience would sit out an one half-year, shall be able to give her fan evening, to hear a dramatical performance all the graces that can possibly enter into written in a language which they did not that little modish machine. understand; that chairs and flower-pots • But to the end that my readers may were introduced as actors upon the British form to themselves a right notion of this exstage; that a promiscuous assembly of men ercise, I beg leave to explain it to them in and women were allowed to meet at mid- all its parts. When my female regiment night in masks within the verge of the court; is drawn up in array, with every one her with many improbabilities of the like na- weapon in her hand, upon my giving the ture. We must, therefore, in these and the word to Handle their fans, each of them like cases, suppose that these remote hints shakes her fan at me with a smile, then and allusions aimed at some certain follies gives her right-hand woman a tap upon the which were then in vogue, and which at shoulder, then presses her lips with the expresent we have not any notion of. We tremity of the fan, then lets her arms fall may guess by several passages in the specu- in an easy motion, and stands in readiness lations, that there were writers who en- to receive the next word of command. All deavoured to detract from the works of this this is done with a close fan, and is generally author; but as nothing of this nature is come learned in the first week. down to us, we cannot guess at any objec •The next motion is that of unfurling the tions that could be made to his paper. If fan, in which are comprehended several we consider his style with that indulgence) little flirts, and vibrations, as also gradual

and deliberate openings, with many volun- There is the angry flutter, the modish tary fallings asunder in the fan itself, that futter, the timorous flutter, the confused are seldom learned under a month's prac- futter, the merry flutter, and the amorous tice. This part of the exercise pleases the futter. Not to be tedious, there is scarce spectators more than any other, as it dis- any emotion in the mind which does not covers on a sudden an infinite number of produce a suitable agitation in the fan; incupids, garlands, altars, birds, beasts, rain- somuch, that if I only see the fan of a disbows, and the like agreeable figures, that ciplined lady, I know very well whether display themselves to view, whilst every she laughs, frowns, or blushes. I have one in the regiment holds a picture in her seen a fan so very angry, that it would have hand.

been dangerous for the absent lover who * Upon my giving the word to Discharge provoked it to have come within the wind their fans, they give one general crack that of it; and at other times so very languishmay be heard at a considerable distance ing, that I have been glad for the lady's when the wind sits fair. This is one of the sake the lover was at a sufficient dismost difficult parts of the exercise, but I tance from it. I need not add, that a fan is have several ladies with me, who at their either a prude or coquette, according to the first entrance could not give a pop loud nature of the person who bears it. To conenough to be heard at the farther end of a clude my letter, I must acquaint you that I room, who can now discharge a fan in such have from my own observations compiled a a manner, that it shall make a report like little treatise for the use of my scholars, ena pocket pistol. I have likewise taken care titled, The Passions of the Fan; which I (in order to hinder young women from let- will communicate to you, if you think it ting off their fans in wrong places or on un- may be of use to the public. I shall have a suitable occasions) to show upon what sub- general review on Thursday next; to which ject the crack of a fan may come in properly, you shall be very welcome if you

will hoI have likewise invented a fan, with which nour it with your presence. I am, &c. a girl of sixteen, by the help of a little wind •P.S. I teach young gentlemen the whole which is enclosed about one of the largest art of gallanting a fan. sticks, can make as loud a crack as a •N. B. I have several little plain fans woman of fifty with an ordinary fan. made for this use, to avoid expense.' L.

• When the fans are thus discharged, the word of command in course is to ground their fans. This teaches a lady to quit her No. 103.] Thursday, June 28, 1711. fan gracefully when she throws it aside in order to take up a pack of cards, adjust a

-Sibi quivis curl of hair, replace a falling pin, or apply

Speret idem: sudet multum, frustraque laboret
Ausus idem

Hor. Ars Poct. v. 240. herself to any other matter of importance.

Such all might hope to imitate with ease : This part of the exercise, as it only con Yet while they strive the same success to gain, sists in tossing a fan with an air upon a long

Should find their labour and their hopes are vain, table (which stands by for that purpose,) may be learned in two days' time as well as My friend, the divine, having been used in a twelvemonth.

with words of complaisance (which he • When my female regiment is thus dis- thinks could be properly applied to no one armed, I generally let them walk about the living, and I think could be only spoken of room for some time; when on a sudden him, and that in his absence,) was so ex(like ladies that look upon their watches tremely offended with the excessive way of after a long visit) they all of them hasten speaking civilities among us, that he made to their arms, catch them up in a hurry, a discourse against it at the club, which he and place themselves in their proper sta- concluded with this remark, 'that he had tions upon my calling out, Recover your not heard one compliment made in our sofans. This part of the exercise is not diffi- ciety since its commencement.' Every one cult, provided a woman applies herthoughts was pleased with his conclusion; and as to it.

each knew his good-will to the rest, he was • The fluttering of the fan is the last, and convinced that the many professions of indeed the master-piece of the whole exer- kindness and service, which we ordinarily cise; but if a lady does not mispend her meet with, are not natural where the heart time, she may make herself mistress of it is well inclined; but are a prostitution of in three months. I generally lay aside the speech, seldom intended to mean any part dog-days and the hot time of the summer of what they express, never to mean all for the teaching this part of the exercise; they express. Our reverend friend, upon for as soon as ever I pronounce Flutter this topic, pointed to us two or three parayour fans, the place is filled with so many graphs on this subject in the first sermon zephyrs and gentle breezes as are very re- of the first volume in the late archbishop's freshing in that season of the year, though posthumous works.* I do not know that I they might be dangerous to ladies of a ten- ever read any thing that pleased me more, der constitution in any other. “There is an infinite variety of motions from John, chap. i. ver. 47, being the last discourse he

* See Archbishop Tillotson's Sermon on Sincerity, to be made use of in the flutter of a fan, I preached, July 29, 1694. He died Nov. 24. following.



and as it is the praise of Longinus, that he in justification of this hollow kind of conspeaks of the sublime in a style suitable to versation, that there is no harm, no real it, so one may say of this author upon sin- deceit in compliment, but the matter is cerity, that he abhors any pomp of rhetoric well enough, so long as we understand one on this occasion, and treats it with a more another; et verba valent ut nummi, “words than ordinary simplicity, at once to be a are like money;" and when the current preacher and an example. With what value of them is generally understood, no command of himself does he lay before us, man is cheated by them. This is something, in the language and temper of his profes- if such words were any thing; but being sion, a fault, which, by the least liberty and brought into the account, they are mere warmth of expression, would be the most cyphers. However, it is still a just matter lively wit and satire! But his heart was of complaint, that sincerity and plainness better disposed, and the good man chastised are out of fashion, and that our language is the great wit in such a manner, that he was running into a lie; that men have almost able to speak as follows:

quite perverted the use of speech, and '-Amongst too many other instances of made words to signify nothing; that the the great corruption and degeneracy of the greatest part of the conversation of manage wherein we live, the great and general kind is little else but driving a trade of diswant of sincerity in conversation is none of simulation; insomuch, that it would make the least. The world is grown so full of a man heartily sick and weary of the world dissimulation and compliment, that men's to see the little sincerity that is in use and words are hardly any signification of their practice among men.' thoughts; and if any man measures his When the vice is placed in this conwords by his heart, and speaks as he thinks, temptible light, he argues unanswerably and does not express more kindness to every against it, in words and thoughts so natural, man, than men usually have for any man, that any man who reads them would imahe can hardly escape the censure of want gine he himself could have been the author of breeding. The old English plainness and of them. sincerity, that generous integrity of nature, • If the show of any thing be good for any and honesty of disposition, which always thing, I am sure sincerity is better: for why argues true greatness of mind, and is usu- does any man dissemble, or seem to be that ally accompanied with undaunted courage which he is not, but because he thinks it and resolution, is in a great measure lost good to have such a quality as he pretends amongst us. There has been a long endea- to? For to counterfeit and dissemble, is to vour to transform us into foreign manners put on the appearance of some real exceland fashions, and to bring us to a servile lence. Now the best way in the world to imitation of none of the best of our neigh- seem to be any thing, is really to be what bours, in some of the worst of their qualities. he would seem to be. Besides that, it is The dialect of conversation is now-a-days many times as troublesome to make good so swelled with vanity and compliment, and the pretence of a good quality, as to have so surfeited (as I may say) of expressions it; and if a man have it not, it is ten to one of kindness and respect, that if a man that but he is discovered to want it; and then lived an age or two ago should return into all his pains and labour to seem to have it, the world again, he would really want a are lost.' dictionary to help him to understand his In another part of the same discourse he own language, and to know the true intrinsic goes on to show, that all artifice must natuvalue of the phrase in fashion, and would rally tend to the disappointment of him that hardly at first believe at what a low rate practises it. the highest strains and expressions of kind Whatsoever convenience may be thought ness imaginable do commonly pass in cur- to be in falsehood and dissimulation, it is rent payment: and when he should come soon over; but the inconvenience of it is to understand it, it would be a great while perpetual, because it brings a man under before he could bring himself with a good an everlasting jealousy and suspicion, so countenance and a good conscience to con- that he is not believed when he speaks verse with men upon equal terms, and in truth, nor trusted when perhaps he means their own way:

honestly. When a man hath once forfeited * And in truth it is hard to say, whether the reputation of his integrity, he is set fast, it should more provoke our contempt or our and nothing will then serve his turn, neither pity, to hear what solemn expressions of truth nor falsehood.'

R. respect and kindness will pass between men, almost upon no occasion; how great honour and esteem they will declare for No. 104.] Friday, June 29, 1711. one whom perhaps they never saw before, and how entirely they are all on a sudden

-Qualis equos Threissa fatigat devoted to his service and interest, for no


Virg. Æn. I. 346. reason; how infinitely and eternally obliged

With such array Harpalyce bestrode

Dryden. to him, for no benefit; and how extremely they will be concerned for him, yea and It would be a noble improvement, or afflicted too, for no cause. I know it is said, rather a recovery of what we call good

Her Thracian courser.

breeding, if nothing were to pass amongst I were suddenly called from these inanimate us for agreeable which was the least trans- objects by a little party of horsemen I saw gression against the rule of life called de- passing the road. The greater part of them corum, or a regard to decency. This would escaped my particular observation, by reacommand the respect of mankind, because son that my whole attention was fixed on a it carries in it deference to their good opi- very fair youth who rode in the midst of nion, as humility lodged in a worthy mind them, and seemed to have been dressed by is always attended with a certain homage, some description in a romance. His feawhich no haughty soul, with all the arts tures, complexion, and habit, had a reimaginable, will ever be able to purchase. markable effeminacy, and a certain lanTully says, Virtue and decency are so nearly guishing vanity appeared in his air. His related, that it is difficult to separate them hair, well curled and powdered, hung to a from each other but in our imagination. considerable length on his shoulders, and As the beauty of the body always accom- was wantonly tied, as if by the hands of his panies the health of it, só certainly is de- mistress, in a scarlet riband, which played cency concomitant to virtue. As beauty of like a streamer behind him; he had a coat body, with an agreeable carriage, pleases and waistcoat of blue camblet

, trimmed the eye, and that pleasure consists in that and embroidered with silver; a cravat of we observe all the parts with a certain ele- the finest lace; and wore, in a smart cock, gance are proportioned to each other; so a little beaver hat edged with silver, and does decency of behaviour which appears made more sprightly by a feather. His in our lives obtain the approbation of all horse, too, which was a pacer, was adorned with whom we converse, from the order, after the same airy manner, and seemed to 'consistency, and moderation of our words share in the vanity of the rider. As I was and actions. This flows from the reverence pitying the luxury of this young person, we bear towards every good man, and to who appeared to me to have been educated 'the world in general; for to be negligent of only as an object of sight, I perceived on what any one thinks of you, does not only my nearer approach, and as I turned my show you arrogant but abandoned. In all eyes downward, a part of the equipage I these considerations we are to distinguish had not observed before, which was a pethow one virtue differs from another. As it ticoat of the same with the coat and waistis the part of justice never to do violence, it coat. After this discovery, I looked again is of modesty never to commit offence. In on the face of the fair Amazon who had this last particular lies the whole force of thus deceived me, and thought those feawhat is called decency; to this purpose that tures which had before offended me by excellent moralist above-mentioned talks their softness, were now strengthened into of decency; but this quality is more easily as improper a boldness; and though her comprehended by an ordinary capacity, eyes, nose, and mouth seemed to be formed than expressed with all his eloquence. This with perfect symmetry, I am not certain decency of behaviour is generally trans- whether she, who in appearance was a gressed among all orders of men; nay, the very handsome youth, may not be in reality very women, though themselves created as a very indifferent woman. it were for an ornament, are often very “There is an objection which naturally much mistaken in this ornamental part of presents itself against these occasional perlife. It would methinks be a short rule for plexities and mixtures of dress, which is behaviour, if every young lady, in her dress, that they seem to break in upon that prowords, and actions, were only to recom- priety and distinction of appearance in mend herself as a sister, daughter, or wife, which the beauty of different characters is and make herself the more esteemed in preserved; and if they should be more freone of those characters. The care of them- quent than they are at present, would look selves, with regard to the families in which like turning our public assemblies into a women are born, is the best motive for general masquerade. The model of this their being courted to come into the alli- Amazonian hunting-habit for ladies, was, ance of other houses. Nothing can pro- as I take it, first imported from France, mote this end more than a strict preserva- and well enough expresses the gayety of a tion of decency. I should be glad if a certain people who are taught to do any thing, so it equestrian order of ladies, some of whom be with an assurance: but I cannot help one meets in an evening at every outlet of thinking it sits awkwardly yet on our Enthe town, would take this subject into their glish modesty. The petticoat is a kind of serious consideration. In order thereunto, incumbrance upon it, and if the Amazons the following letter may not be wholly un- should think fit to go on in this plunder of worthy their perusal.

our sex's ornaments, they ought to add to

their spoils, and complete their triumph •MR. SPECTATOR,-Going lately to take over us, by wearing the breeches. * the air in one of the most beautiful evenings this season has produced; as I was admiring * On this passage Mr. Drake observes, ' At a period the serenity of the sky, the lively colours when the riding-habit has become as familiar as any of the fields, and the variety of the land- bly smile at the reproof and apprehensions of the Spec.

other mode of female dress, my fair readers will proba. scape every where around me, my eyes tator; time has ascertained its utility as a travelling

Id arbitror

: If it be natural to contract insensibly the | and regards all other kinds of science as the manners of those we imitate, the ladies who accomplishments of one whom he calls a are pleased with assuming our dresses will scholar, a bookish-man, or a philosopher. do us more honour than we deserve, but For these reasons Will shines in mixed they will do it at their own expence. Why company, where he has the discretion not should the lovely Camilla deceive us in to go out of his depth, and has often a cermore shapes than her own, and affect to be tain way of making his real ignorance aprepresented in her picture with a gun and a pear a seeming one. Our club however has spaniel; while her elder brother, the heir frequently caught him tripping, at which of a worthy family, is drawn in silks like times they never spare him. For as Will his sister? The dress and air of a man are often insults us with his knowledge of the not well to be divided; and those who would town, we sometimes take our revenge upon not be content with the latter ought never him by our knowledge of books. to think of assuming the former. There is He was last week producing two or three so large a portion of natural agreeableness letters which he writ in his youth to a among the fair sex of our island, that they coquette lady. The raillery of them was seem betrayed into these romantic habits natural, and well enough for a mere man without having the same occasion for them of the town; but, very unluckily, several of with their inventors: all that needs to be the words were wrong spelt. Will laughed desired of them is, that they would be this off at first as well as he could; but findthemselves, that is, what nature designed ing himself pushed on all sides, and espethem. And to see their mistake when they cially by the Templar, he told us with a depart from this, let them look upon a man little passion, that he never liked pedantry who affects the softness and effeminacy of a in spelling, and that he spelt like a gentlewoman, to learn how their sex must appear man, and not like a scholar: upon this Will to us, when approaching to the resemblance had recourse to his old topic of showing the of a man.

I am, sir, your most humble narrow-spiritedness, the pride and ignorservant.'

T. ance of pedants; which he carried so far,

that upon my retiring to my lodgings, I

could not forbear throwing together such No. 105.] Saturday, June 30, 1711. reflections as occurred to me upon that

subject. Adprime in vita esse utile, ne quid nimis.

A man who has been brought up among Ter. Andr. Act 1. Sc. 1. books, and is able to talk of nothing else, is I take it to be a principal rule of life, not to be too a very indifferent companion, and what we much addicted to any one thing.

call a pedant. But, methinks, we should Too much of any thing is good for nothing.

enlarge the title, and give it to every one

Eng. Proo. that does not know how to think out of his My friend Will Honeycomb values him- profession and particular way of life. self very much upon what he calls the What is a greater pedant than a mere knowledge of mankind, which has cost him man of the town? Bar him the play-houses, many disasters in his youth: for Will rec- a catalogue of the reigning beauties, and an kons every misfortune that he has met with account of a few fashionable distempers among the women, and every rencounter that have befallen him, and you strike him among the men, as parts of his education; dumb. How many a pretty gentleman's and fancies he should never have been the knowledge lies all within the verge of the man he is, had he not broke windows, court! He will tell you the names of the knocked down constables, disturbed honest principal favourites, repeat the shrewd saypeople with his midnight serenades, and ings cf a man of quality, whisper an intrigue beat up a lewd woman's quarters, when he that is not yet blown upon by common fame: was a young fellow. The engaging in ad- or, if the sphere of his observations is a ventures of this nature Will calls the study- little larger than ordinary, will perhaps ing of mankind; and terms this knowledge enter into all the incidents, turns and revoof the town, the knowledge of the world. lutions in a game of ombre. When he has Will ingenuously confesses that for half his gone thus far he has shown you the whole life his head ached every morning with circle of his accomplishments, his parts are reading of men overnight; and at present drained, and he is disabled from any farther comforts himself under certain pains which conversation. What are these but rank he endures from time to time, that without pedants? and yet these are the men who them he could not have been acquainted value themselves most on their exemption with the gallantries of the age. This will from the pedantry of colleges. looks upon as the learning of a gentleman,

I might here mention the military pedant

who always talks in a camp, and is stormdress, and, I believe, neither the chastity nor the mo: battles from one end of the year to the

ing towns, making lodgments, and fighting desty of the sex has suffered by the experiment. Could our amiable moralist revisit the light of day, he would other. Every thing he speaks smells of Gallic fashion of going nearly naked, than at the warm from him, he has not a word to say for have infinitely more reason to be shocked at the present gunpowder; if you take away his artillery covering of broadcloth usurped by the beauties of his day.'

Drake's Essays, voi. iii. p. 42. | himself. I might likewise mention the law

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