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derness of my nature to the importunity of|be, after the publication of this our edict, having the same respect to those who are capable of bearing office in these our dos miserable by their fault, and those who are minions. so by their misfortune. Flatterers (con • The person who shall prove the sendcluded the king smiling) repeat to us prin- ing or receiving a challenge, shall receive ces, that we are heaven's vicegerents; let to his own use and property, the whole us be so, and let the only thing out of our personal estate of both parties; and their power be to do ill.”
real estate shall be immediately vested in Soon after the evening wherein Phara- the next heir of the offenders in as ample mond and Eucrate had this conversation, manner as if the said offenders were actuthe following ict was published against ally deceased. duels,
In cases where the laws (which we have Pharamond's Edict against Duels.
already granted to our subjects) admit of
an appeal for blood; when the criminal is • PharAMOND, King of the Gauls, to all his condemned by the said appeal, he shall loving subjects sendeth greeting.
not only suffer death, but his whole estate, Whereas it has come to our royal no- real, mixed, and personal, shall from the tice and observation, that in contempt of hour of his death be vested in the next all laws, divine and human, it is of late be- heir of the person whose blood he spilt. come a custom among the nobility and gen • That it shall not hereafter be in our try of this our kingdom, upon slight and royal power, or that of our successors, to trivial, as well as great and urgent provo- pardon the said offences, or restore the cations, to invite each other into the field, offenders in their estates, honours, or blood, there by their own hands, and of their own for ever. authority, to decide their controversies by “Given at our court at Blois, the 8th of combat; we have thought fit to take the February, 420, in the second year of said custom into our royal consideration, our reign.'
T. and find upon inquiry into the usual causes whereon such fatal decisions have arisen, that by this wicked custom, maugre all the No. 98.] Friday, June 22, 1711. precepts of our holy religion, and the rules of right reason, the greatest act of the hu
-Tanta est quærendi cura decoris.
Juv. Sat. vi. 500. man mind, forgiveness of injuries, is become vile and shameful; that the rules of
So studiously their persons they adorn, good society and virtuous conversation are THERE is not so variable a thing in nahereby inverted; that the loose, the vain, ture as a lady's head-dress. Within my and the impudent, insult the careful, the own memory, I have known it rise and fall discreet, and the modest; that all virtue is above thirty degrees. About ten years ago suppressed, and all vice supported, in the it shot up to a very great height, insomuch one act of being capable to dare to the that the female part of our species were death. We have also further, with great much taller than the men.
* The women sorrow of mind, observed that this dreadful were of such an enormous stature, that action, by long impunity (our royal atten- we appeared as grasshoppers before tion being employed upon matters of more them.'f At present the whole sex is in a general concern) is become honourable, manner dwarfed, and shrunk into a race of and the refusal to engage in it ignominious. beauties that seem almost another speIn these our royal cares and inquiries we cies. I remember several ladies who were are yet further made to understand, that once very near seven feet high, that at the persons of most eminent worth, and present want some inches of five. How most hopeful abilities, accompanied with they came to be thus curtailed I cannot the strongest passion for true glory, are learn; whether the whole sex be at presuch as are most liable to be involved in sent under any penance which we know the dangers arising from this licence. nothing of, or whether they have cast their Now taking the said premises into our se- head-dresses in order to surprise us with rious consideration, and well weighing that something in that kind which shall be enall such emergences (wherein the mind is tirely new, or whether some of the tallest incapable of commanding itself, and where of the sex, being too cunning for the rest, the injury is too sudden or too exquisite to have contrived this method to make thembe borne) are particularly provided for by selves appear sizeable, is still a secret; laws heretofore enacted; and that the though find most are of opinion, they qualities of less injuries, like those of in- are at present like trees new lopped and gratitude, are too nice and delicate to come under general rules; we do resolve to blot * This refers to the commode, a kind of head-dress this fashion, or wantonness of anger, out of worn by the ladies at the beginning of the last century, the minds of our subjects, by our royal re
which by means of wire bore up their hair and fore-part
of the cap, consisting of many folds of fine lace, to a solutions declared in this edict as follow:
prodigious height. The transition from this to the op. No person who either sends or accepts posite extreme was very abrupt and sudden. a challenge, or the posterity of either, been long banished.
its appearance again a few years after, but has now though no death ensues thereupon, shall
† Numb. xiii. 33.
pruned, that will certainly sprout up and tion of twenty thousand people; the men Hourish with greater heads than before. For placing themselves on the one side of his my own part, as I do not love to be insult- pulpit, and the women on the other, that ed by women who are taller than myself, I appeared (to use the similitude of an ingeadmire the sex much more in their present nious writer) like a forest of cedars with humiliation, which has reduced them to their heads reaching to the clouds. He so their natural dimensions, than when they warmed and animated the people against had extended their persons and lengthened this monstrous ornament, that it lay under themselves out into formidable and gigan- a kind of persecution; and whenever it aptic figures. I am not for adding to the peared in public, was pelted down by the beautiful edifices of nature, nor for raising rabble, who Aung stones at the persons any whimsical superstructure upon her who wore it. But notwithstanding this plans; I must therefore repeat it, that I prodigy vanished while the preacher was am highly pleased with the coiffure now in among them, it began to appear again fashion, and think it shows the good sense some months after his departure, or to tell which at present very much reigns among it in Monsieur Paradin's own words, “The the valuable part of the sex. One may ob- women that, like snails in a fright, had serve that women in all ages have taken drawn in their horns, shot them out again more pains than men to adorn the outside as soon as the danger was over.
This exof their heads; and indeed I very much ad-travagance of the women's head-dresses in mire, that those female architects, who that age, is taken notice of by Monsieur raise such wonderful structures out of d’Argentre in his history of Bretagne, and ribands, lace, and wire, have not been re- by other historians, as well as the person I corded for their respective inventions. It have here quoted. is certain there have been as many or It is usually observed, that a good reign ders in these kinds of building, as in those is the only proper time for making of laws which have been made of marble. Some- against the exorbitance of power; in the times they rise in the shape of a pyramid, same manner an excessive head-dress may sometimes like a tower, and sometimes be attacked the most effectually when the like a steeple. In Juvenal's time the build- fashion is against it. I do therefore recoming grew by several orders and stories, as mend this paper to my female readers by he has very humorously described it: way of prevention.
I would desire the fair sex to consider
head has the most beautiful appearance, as
well as the highest station, in a human
figure. Nature has laid out all her art in But I do not remember in any part of my beautifying the face; she has touched it reading, that the head-dress aspired to so with vermillion, planted in it a double row great an extravagance as in the fourteenth of ivory, made it the seat of smiles and century; when it was built up in a couple blushes, lighted it up and enlivened it of cones or spires, which stood so excess with the brightness of the eyes, hung it on sively high on each side of the head, that each side with curious organs of sense, a woman who was but a pigmy without given it airs and graces that cannot be deher head-dress, appeared like a colossus scribed, and surrounded it with such a upon putting it on. Monsieur Paradin says, Aowing shade of hair as sets all its beau. That these old-fashioned fontanges rose ties in the most agreeable light. In short, an ell above the head; that they were she seems to have designed the head as the pointed like steeples, and had long loose cupola of the most glorious of her works; pieces of crape fastened to the tops of and when we load it with such a pile of suthem, which were curiously fringed, and
pernumerary ornaments, we destroy the hung down their backs like streamers.'
The women might possibly have carried symmetry of the human figure, and foolthis Gothic building much higher, had not and real beauties, to childish gewgaws,
ishly contrive to call off the eye from great a famous monk, Thomas Conecte by name, ribands, and bone-lace.
L. attacked it with great zeal and resolution. This holy man travelled from place to place to preach down this monstrous com- No. 99.] Saturday, June 23, 1711. mode; and succeeded so well in it, that as the magicians sacrificed their books to the
-Turpi secernis honestum. flames upon the preaching of an apostle,
You know to fix the bounds of right and wrong. many of the women threw down their head-dresses in the middle of his sermon, The club, of which I have often declared and made a bonfire of them within sight of myself a member, were last night engaged the pulpit. He was so renowned as well in a discourse upon that which passes for the for the sanctity of his life as his manner of chief point of honour among men and wopreaching, that he had often a congrega-I men: and started a great many hints upon
And mount it with a formidable tow'r:
Hor. Lib. i. Sat. vi. 63.
the subject, which I thought were entirely | is bigger and stronger than himself, seeks new. I shall therefore methodize the seve- all opportunities of being knocked on the ral reflections that arose upon this occasion, head, and after seven years' rambling reand present my reader with them for the turns to his mistress, whose chastity has speculation of this day; after having pre- been attacked in the mean time by giants mised, that if there is any thing in this pa- and tyrants, and undergone as many trials per which seems to differ with any passage as her lover's valour. of last Thursday's, the reader will consider In Spain, where there are still great rethis as the sentiments of the club, and the mains of this romantic humour, it is a other as my own private thoughts, or rather transporting favour for a lady to cast an those of Pharamond.
accidental glance on her lover from a The great point of honour in men is cou- window, though it he two or three stories rage, and in a woman chastity. If a man high: as it is usual for a lover to assert his loses his honour in one rencounter, it is passion for his mistress, in single combat not impossible for him to regain it in an- with a mad bull. other, a slip in a woman's honour is irre The great violation of the point of honour coverable. I can give no reason for fixing from man to man, is giving the lie. One the point of honour to these two qualities, may tell another he whores, drinks, blasunless it be that each sex sets the greatest phémes, and it may pass unresented; but value on the qualification which renders to say he lies, though but in jest, is an afthem the most amiable in the eyes of the front that nothing but blood can expiate. contrary sex. Had men chosen for them- The reason perhaps may be, because no selves, without regard to the opinions of the other vice implies a want of courage so fair sex, I should believe the choice would much as the making of a lie; and therefore have fallen on wisdom or virtue; or had telling a man he lies, is touching him in women determined their own point of ho- the most sensible part of honour, and indinour, it is probable that wit or good-nature rectly calling him a coward.
I cannot would have carried it against chastity. omit under this head what Herodotus tells
Nothing recommends a man more to the us of the ancient Persians, that from the female sex than courage; whether it be age of five years to twenty they instruct that they are pleased to see one who is a their sons only in three things, to manage terror to others fall like a slave at their the horse, to make use of the bow, and to feet, or that this quality supplies their own speak truth. principal defect, in guarding them from in The placing the point of honour in this sults, and avenging their quarrels: or that false kind of courage, has given occasion to courage is a natural indication of a strong the very refuse of mankind, who have and sprightly constitution. On the other neither virtue nor common sense, to set up side, nothing makes women more esteemed for men of honour. An English peer, who by the opposite sex than chastity; whether has not been long_dead, * used to tell a iť be that we always prize those most who pleasant story of a French gentleman, that are hardest to come at, or that nothing be-visited him early one morning at Paris, sides chastity with its collateral attendants, and after great professions of respect, let truth, fidelity, and constancy, gives the him know that he had it in his power to man a property in the person he loves, and oblige him; which, in short, amounted to consequently endears her to him above all this, that he believed he could tell his lordthings.
ship the person's name who jostled him as I am very much pleased with a passage he came out from the opera; but before he in the inscription on a monument erected would proceed, he begged his lordship; in Westminster-Abbey to the late Duke that he would not deny him the honour of and Dutchess of Newcastle. Her name making him his second. The English lord, was Margaret Lucas, youngest sister to the to avoid being drawn into a very foolish aflord Lucas of Colchester; a noble family, fair, told him, he was under engagements for all the brothers were valiant, and all for his two next duels to a couple of partithe sisters virtuous.'
cular friends. Upon which the gentleman In books of chivalry, where the point of immediately withdrew, hoping his lordship honour is strained to madness, the whole would not take it ill if he meddled no farstory runs on chastity and courage. The ther in an affair from whence he himself damsel is mounted on a white palfrey as an was to receive no advantage. emblem of her innocence; and to avoid The beating down this false notion of scandal, must have a dwarf for her page. honour, in so vain and lively a people as She is not to think of a man, until some those of France, is deservedly looked upon misfortune has brought a knight-errant to as one of the most glorious parts of their her relief. The knight falls in love, and present king's reign. It is a pity but the did not gratitude restrain her from murder- punishment of these mischievous notions ing her deliverer, would die at her feet by should have in it some particular circumher disdain. However, he must waste stances of shame and infamy; that those many years in the desert, before her virginheart can think of a surrender. The knight
* It has been said that this was William Cavendish, goes off, attacks every thing he meets that the first Duke of Devonshire, who died August 18, 1707.
who are slaves to them may see, that in- not think at all, or think himself very instead of advancing their reputations, they significant, when he finds an account of lead them to ignominy and dishonour. his head-ache answered by another's ask
Death is not sufficient to deter men who ing what news in the lasť mail. Mutual make it their glory to despise it; but if good-humour is a dress we ought to appear every one that fought a duel were to stand in whenever we meet, and we should make in the pillory, it would quickly lessen the no mention of what concerns ourselves, number of these imaginary men of honour, without it be of matters wherein our friends and put an end to so absurd a practice. ought to rejoice: but indeed there are
When. honour is a support to virtuous crowds of people who put themselves in no principles, and runs parallel with the laws method of pleasing themselves or others; of God and our country, it cannot be too such are those whom we usually call indomuch cherished and encouraged; but when lent persons. Indolence is, methinks, an the dictates of honour are contrary to intermediate state between pleasure and those of religion and equity, they are the pain, and very much unbecoming any part greatest depravations of human nature, by of cur life after we are out of the nurse's giving wrong ambitions and false ideas of arms; such an aversion to labour creates what is good and laudable; and should a constant weariness, and one would think therefore be exploded by all governments, should make existence itself a burden. and driven out as the bane and plague of The indolent man descends from the dighuman society.
L. nity of his nature, and makes that being
which was rational merely vegetative. His
life consists only in the mere increase and No. 100.] Monday, June 25, 1711.
decay of a body, which, with relation to the
rest of the world, might as well have been Nil ego contulerim jucundo sanus amico.
uninformed, as the habitation of a reasonHor. Lib. 1. Sat. v. 44.
able mind. The greatest blessing is a pleasant friend.
Of this kind is the life of that extraordiA Man advanced in years, that thinks fit nary couple, Harry. Tersett and his lady. to look back upon his former life, and call Harry was in the days of his celibacy one that only life which was passed with satis- of those pert creatures who have much faction and enjoyment, excluding all parts vivacity and little understanding; Mrs. Rewhich were not pleasant to him, will find becca Quickly, whom he married, had all himself very young, if not in his infancy. that the fire of youth and lively manner Sickness, ill-humour, and idleness, will could do towards making an agreeable wohave robbed him of a great share of that man. These two people of seeming merit space we ordinarily call our life. It is fell into each other's arms; and passion therefore the duty of every man that would being sated, and no reason or good sense in be true to himself, to obtain, if possible, a either to succeed it, their life is now at a disposition to be pleased, and place him- stand; their meals are insipid, and their self in a constant aptitude for the satisfac- time tedious; their fortune has placed them tions of his being. Instead of this, you above care, and their loss of taste reduced hardly see a man who is not uneasy in pro- them below diversion. When we talk of portion to his advancement in the arts of these as instances of inexistence, we do not life. An affected delicacy is the common mean, that in order to live it is necessary improvement we meet with in those who we should always be in jovial crews, or pretend to be refined above others. They crowned with chaplets of roses, as the do not aim at true pleasures themselves, merry fellows among the ancients are debut turn their thoughts upon observing the scribed; but it is intended, by considering false pleasures of other men. Such people these contraries to pleasure, indolence and are valetudinarians in society, and they too much delicacy, to show that it is prushould no more come into company than a dence to preserve a disposition in ourselves sick man should come into the air. If a to receive a certain delight in all we hear man is too weak to bear what is a refresh- and see. ment to men in health, he must still keep This portable quality of good-humour his chamber. When any one in Sir Roger's seasons all the parts and occurrences we company complains he is out of order, he meet with in such a manner, that there are immediately calls for some posset-drink for no moments lost; but they all pass with so him; for which reason that sort of people much satisfaction, that the heaviest of loads who are ever bewailing their constitution in (when it is a load,) that of time, is never other places are the cheerfulest imaginable felt by us. Varilas has this quality to when he is present.
the highest perfection, and communicates It is a wonderful thing that so many, and it whenever he appears. The sad, the they not reckoned absurd, shall entertain merry, the severe, the melancholy, show those with whom they converse, by giving a new cheerfulness when he comes amongst them the history of their pains and aches; them. At the same time no one can repeat and imagine such narrations their quota of any thing that Varilas has ever said that the conversation. This is of all other the deserves repetition; but the man has that meanest help to discourse, and a man must | innate goodness of temper, that he is wel
come to every body, because every man tions have seldom their true characters thinks he is so to him. He does not drawn till several years after their deaths. seem to contribute any thing to the mirth Their personal friendships and enmities of the company; and yet upon reflection must cease, and the parties they were enyou find it all happened by his being there. I gaged in be at an end, before their faults or I thought it was whimsically said of a gen- | their virtues can have justice done them. tleman, that if Varilas had wit, it would be When writers have the least opportunity the best wit in the world. It is certain, of knowing the truth, they are in the best when a well-corrected lively imagination disposition to tell it. and good-breeding are added to a sweet It is therefore the privilege of posterity disposition, they qualify it to be one of the to adjust the characters of illustrious pergreatest blessings, as well as pleasures of life. sons, and to set matters right between those
Men would come into company with ten antagonists, who by their rivalry for greattimes the pleasure they do, if they were ness divided a whole age into factions. We sure of hearing nothing which would shock can now allow Cæsar to be a great man, them, as well as expected what would without derogating from Pompey, and celeplease them.-When we know every per- brate the virtues of Cato without detracting son that is spoken of is represented by one from those of Cæsar. Every one that has who has no ill-will, and every thing that is been long dead has a due proportion of mentioned described by one that is apt to praise allotted him, in which, whilst he set it in the best light, the entertainment lived, his friends were too profuse, and his must be delicate, because the cook has enemies too sparing. nothing brought to his hand but what is According to Sir Isaac Newton's calcuthe most excellent in its kind. Beautiful lations, the last comet that made its appictures are the entertainments of pure pearance in 1680, imbibed so much heat minds, and deformities of the corrupted. by its approaches to the sun, that it would It is a degree towards the life of angels, have been two thousand times hotter than when we enjoy conversation wherein there red hot iron, had it been a globe of that in nothing presented but in its excellence: metal; and that supposing it as big as the and a degree towards that of demons, earth, and at the same distance from the where nothing is shown but in its degene- sun, it would be fifty thousand years in racy.
cooling, before it recovered its natural temper. In the like manner, if an Englishman
considers the great ferment into which our No. 101.] Tuesday, June 26, 1711. political world is thrown at present, and
how intensely it is heated in all its parts, Romulus, et Liber pater, et cum Castore Pollux, Post ingentia facta, deorum in templa recepti;
he cannot suppose that it will cool again in Dum terras hominumque colunt genus, aspera bella less than three hundred years. In such a Componunt, agros assignant, oppida condunt; tract of time it is possible that the heats of Plora vere suis non respondere favorem Speratum meritis :
Hor. Lib. 2. Ep. i. 5.
the present age may be extinguished, and
our several classes of great men represented Edward and Henry, now the boast of fame,
under their proper characters. Some emiAnd virtuous Alfred, a more sacred name,
nent historian may then probably arise
that will not write recentibus odiis (as TaThe Gaul subdu'd or property secur'd,
citus expresses it,) with the passions and Or laws establish'd, and the world reformid;
prejudices of a contemporary author, but Clos d their long glories with a sigh, to tind
make an impartial distribution of fame Th' unwilling gratitude of base mankind.-Pope.
among the great men of the present age. •CENSURE,' says a late ingenious author, I cannot forbear entertaining myself very is the tax a man pays to the public for often with the idea of such an imaginary being eminent.' It is a folly for an eminent historian describing the reign of Anne the man to think of escaping it, and a weakness first, and introducing it with a preface to to be affected with it. All the illustrious his reader, that he is now entering upon the persons of antiquity, and indeed of every most shining part of the English story. age in the world, have passed through this The great rivals in fame will be then disfiery persecution. There is no defence tinguished according to their respective against reproach but obscurity; it is a kind merits, and shine in their proper points of of concomitant to greatness, as satires and light. Such an one (says the historian) invectives were an essential part of a Ro-though variously represented by the wriman triumph.
ters of his own age, appears to have been a If men of eminence are exposed to cen- man of more than ordinary abilities, great sure on one hand, they are as much liable application, and uncommon integrity: nor to flattery on the other. If they receive was such an one (though of an opposite reproaches which are not due to them, they party and interest) inferior to him in any likewise receive praises which they do not of these respects. The several antagonists deserve. In a word, the man in a high post who now endeavour to depreciate one anis never regarded with an indifferent eye, other, and are celebrated or traduced by but always considered as a friend or an ene- different parties, will then have the same my. For this reason persons in great sta- body of admirers, and appear illustrious in
After a life of gen'rous toils endur'd,
Ambition humbled, mighty cities storm'd,