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Thus Pontus ænds her beaver stones from far; Nature seems to have taken a particular And naked Spaniards temper ster! for war.
care to disseminate her blessings among the Epirus for th' Elean chariot breeds (In hopes of palms) a race of running steeds. different regions of the world, with an eye This is th' original contract; these the laws to this mutual intercourse and traffic among Impos'd by nature, and by nature's cause.--Dryden.
mankind, that the natives of the several There is no place in the town which I parts of the globe might have a kind of deso much love to frequent as the Royal Ex- pendence upon one another, and be united change. It gives me a secret satisfaction, together by their common interest. Almost and in some measure gratifies my vanity, as every degree produces something peculiar I am an Englishman, to see so rich an as- to it. The food often grows in one country, sembly of countrymen and foreigners, con- and the sauce in another. The fruits of sulting together upon the private business Portugal are corrected by the products of of mankind, and making this metropolis a Barbadoes, and the infusion of a China kind of emporium for the whole earth. I plant is sweetened with the pith of an In must confess I look upon high Change to be dian cane. The Philippine islands give a a great council, in which all considerable favour to the European bowls. The single nations have their representatives. Factors dress of a woman of quality is often the proin the trading world are what ambassadors ducts of a hundred climates. The muff and are in the politic world; they negotiate af- the fan come together from the different fairs, conclude treaties, and maintain a good ends of the earth. The scarf is sent from correspondence between those wealthy so- the torrid zone, and the tippet from beneath cieties of men that are divided from one the pole. The brocade petticoat rises out another by seas and oceans, or live on the of the mines of Peru, and the diamond neckdifferent extremities of a continent. I have lace out of the bowels of Indostan. often been pleased to hear disputes adjusted If we consider our own country in its nabetween an inhabitant of Japan and an al- tural prospect, without any of the benefits derman of London, or to see a subject of the and advantages of commerce, what a barGreat Mogul entering into a league with ren uncomfortable spot of earth falls to our one of the Czar of Muscovy. I am infinitely share! Natural historians tell us, that no delighted in mixing with these several mi- fruit grows originally among us, besides nisters of commerce, as they are distin- hips and haws, acorns and pig-nuts, with guished by their different walks and differ- other delicacies of the like nature; that our ent languages. Sometimes I am jostled climate of itself, and without the assistance among a body of Armenians; sometimes I of art, can make no farther advances toam lost in a crowd of Jews; and sometimes wards a plum, than to a sloe, and carries make one in a group of Dutchmen. I am an apple to no greater perfection than a a Dane, Swede, or Frenchman, at different crab; that our melons, our peaches, our times; or rather fancy myself like the old figs, our apricots, and cherries, are stranphilosopher, who upon being asked what gers among us, imported in different ages, countryman he was, replied, that he was a and naturalized in our English gardens; and citizen of the world.
that they would all degenerate and fall away Though I very frequently visit this busy into the trash of our own country, if they multitude of people, I am known to nobody were wholly neglected by the planter, and there but my friend Sir Andrew, who often left to the mercy of our sun and soil. Nor smiles upon me as he sees me bustling in has traffic more enriched our vegetable the crowd, but at the same time connives world, than it has improved the whole face at my presence without taking further no- of nature among us. Our ships are laden tice of me. There is indeed a merchant of with the harvest of every climate. Our Egypt, who just knows me by sight, having tables are stored with spices, and oils, and formerly remitted me some money to Grand wines. Our rooms are filled with pyramids Cairo: but as I am not versed in the modern of China, and adorned with the workmanCoptic, our conferences go no further than ship of Japan. Our morning's draught a bow and a grimace.
comes to us from the remotest corners of This grand scene of business gives me an the earth. We repair our bodies by the infinite variety of solid and substantial en- drugs of America, and repose ourselves untertainments. As I am a great lover of der Indian canopies. My friend Sir Anmankind, my heart naturally overflows with drew, calls the vineyards of France our pleasure at the sight of a prosperous and gardens; the spice-islands, our hot-beds; happy multitude, insomuch that at many the Persians, our silk-weavers, and the public solemnities I cannot forbear express- Chinese, our potters. Nature indeed furing my joy with tears that have stolen down nishes us with the bare necessaries of life, my cheeks. For this reason I am wonder- but traffic gives us a great variety of what fully delighted to see such a body of men is useful, and at the same time supplies us thriving in their own private fortunes, and with every thing that is convenient and orat the same time promoting the public namental. Nor is it the least part of this stock; or, in other words, raising, estates our happiness, that whilst we enjoy the refor their own families, by bringing into motest products of the north and south, we their country whatever is wanting, and are free from those extremities of weather carrying out of it whatever is superfluous. I which give them birth; that our eyes are
refreshed with the green fields of Britain, plicity of thought, above that which I call at the same time that our palates are feasted the Gothic manner of writing, than this, with fruits that rise between the tropics. that the first pleases all kinds of palates,
For these reasons there are not more use- and the latter only such as have formed to ful members in a commonwealth than mer- themselves a wrong artificial taste upon litchants. They knit mankind together in a tle fanciful authors and writers of epigrams. mutual intercourse of good offices, distri- Homer, Virgil, or Milton, so far as the lanbute the gifts of nature, find work for the guage of their poems is understood, will poor, add wealth to the rich, and magni- please a reader of plain common sense, who ficence to the great. Our English mer- would neither relish nor comprehend an chant converts the tin of his own country epigram of Martial, or a poem of Cowley; into gold, and exchanges its wool for rubies. so, on the contrary, an ordinary song or The Mahometans are clothed in our Bri- ballad, that is the delight of the common tish manufacture, and the inhabitants of the people, cannot fail to please all such reafrozen zone warmed with the fleeces of our ders as are not unqualified for the entertainsheep.
ment by their affectation or ignorance; and When I have been upon the Change, I the reason is plain, because the same painthave often fancied one of our old kings ings of nature, which recommend it to the standing in person, where is represented in most ordinary reader, will appear beautieffigy, and looking down upon the wealthy ful to the most refined. concourse of people with which that place The old song of Chevy-Chase is the fais every day filled. In this case, how would vourite ballad of the common people of he be surprised to hear all the languages of England, and Ben Jonson used to say, he Europe spoken in this little spot of his former had rather have been the author of it than dominions, and to see so many private men, of all his works. Sir Philip Sidney, in his who in bis time would have been the vas- discourse of poetry, speaks of it in the folsals of some powerful baron, negotiating lowing words: "I never heard the old song like princes for greater sums of money than of Percy and Douglas, that I found not my were formerly to be met with in the royal heart more moved than with a trumpet; treasury! Trade, without enlarging the and yet it is sung by some blind crowder British territories, has given us a kind of with no rougher voice than rude style, additional empire. It has multiplied the which being so evil apparelled in the dust number of the rich, made our landed estates and cobweb of that uncivil age, what would infinitely more valuable than they were for- it work trimmed in the gorgeous eloquence merly, and added to them an accession of of Pindar?' For my own part, I am so proother estates as valuable as the lands them- fessed an admirer of this antiquated song, selves.
C. that I shall give my reader a critique
upon it, without any further apology for so
doing. * Na 70.] Monday, May 21, 1711.
The greatest modern critics have laid it
down as a rule, that an heroic poem should Interdum vulgus rectum videt
be founded upon some important precept
Hor. Lib. ji. Ep. i. 63. Sometimes the vulgar see and judge aright.
of morality, adapted to the constitution of
the country in which the poet writes. When I travelled, I took a particular Homer and Virgil have formed their plans delight in hearing the songs and fables that in this view. As Greece was a collection are come from father to son, and are most of many governments, who suffered very in vogue among the common people of the much among themselves, and gave the countries through which I passed; for it is Persian emperor, who was their common impossible that any thing should be univer- enemy, many advantages over them by sally tasted and approved by a multitude, their mutual jealousies and animosities, though they are only the rabble of a nation, Homer, in order to establish among them which hath not in it some peculiar aptness a union which was so necessary for their to please and gratify the mind of man. safety, grounds his poem upon the discords Human nature is the same in all reasona- of the several Grecian princes who were ble creatures; and whatever falls in with engaged in a confederacy against an Asiatic it, will meet with admirers amongst rea- prince, and the several advantages which ders of all qualities and conditions. Mo- the enemy gained by such discords. At the liere, as we are told by Monsieur Boileau, time the poem we are now treating of was used to read all his comedies to an old wo- written, the dissensions of the barons, man who was his house-keeper, as she sat who were then so many petty princes, ran with him at her work by the chimney-cor- very high, whether they quarrelled among ner; and could foretel the success of his themselves, or with their neighbours, and play in the theatre, from the reception it met with at his fire-side: for he tells us the much admired by Sir Philip Sidney and Ben Jonson,
* Mr. Addison was not aware that the old song so audience always followed the old woman, was not the same as that which he here so elegantly and never failed to laugh in the same place. criticises, and which, in Dr. Percy's opinion, cannot be
I know nothing which more shows the written after the oulogiom of Sir Philip Sidney, or in essential and inherent perfection of sim-l consequence of it.
produced unspeakable calamities to the * Earl Douglas on a milk-white steed,
Most like a baron bold, country. The poet, to deter men from such
Rode foremost of the company, unnatural contentions, describes a bloody Whose armour shone like gold.' battle and dreadful scene of death, occa. His sentiments and actions are every way sioned by the mutual feuds which reigned suitable to an hero. One of us two, says in the families of an English and Scotch he, must die. I am an earl as well as nobleman. That he designed this for the yourself, so that you can have no pretence instruction of his poem, we may learn for refusing the combat: however, says he, from his four last lines, in which, after the it is pity, and indeed would be a sin, that example of the modern tragedians, he draws from it a precept for the benefit of sakes; rather let you and I end our quarrel
so many innocent men should perish for our his readers:
in single fight: "God save the king, and bless the land
• Ere thus I will out-braved be,
One of us two shall die;
I know thee well, an earl thou art,
Lord Percy, so am I. The next point observed by the greatest But trust me, Percy, pity it were, heroic poets, hath been to celebrate per And great offence, to kill sons and actions which do honour to their
Any of these our harmless men,
For they have done no ill. country: thus Virgil's hero was the founder
• Let thou and I the battle try, of Rome, Homer's a prince of Greece; and
And set our men aside; for this reason Valerius Flaccus and Sta
Accursed be he, Lord Percy said, tius, who were both Romans, might be By whom it is deny'd.' justly derided for having chosen the expen When these brave men had distinguishdition of the Golden Fleece, and the wars ed themselves in the battle, and in single of Thebes, for the subjects of their epic combat with each other, in the midst of a writings. The poet before us has not only found the Scotch earl falls; and with his dying
generous parley, full of heroic sentiments, out an hero in his own country, but raises words encourages his men to revenge his the reputation of it by several beautiful in- death, representing to them, as the most cidents. The English are the first who bitter circumstance of it, that his rival saw take the field, and the last who quit it. him fall: The English bring only fifteen hundred to the battle, the Scotch two thousand. The
With that there came an arrow keen
Out of an English bow, English keep the field with fifty-three; the Which struck Earl Douglas to the heart Scotch retire with fifty-five: all the rest on A deep and deadly blow. each side being slain in battle. But the Who never spoke more words thau these, most remarkable circumstance of this kind
Fight on my merry-men all,
For why, my life is at an end, is the different manner in which the Scotch
Lord Percy sees my fall.' and English kings receive the news of this Merry-men in the language of those times, fight, and of the great men’s deaths who is no more than a cheerful word for comcommanded in it:
panions and fellow-soldiers. A passage in *This news was brought to Edinburgh, the eleventh book of Virgil's Æneid is very
Where Scotland's king did reign,
much to be admired, where Camilla, in Was with an arrow slain.
her last agonies, instead of weeping over
the wound she had received, as one might "O heavy news, king James did say, Scotland can witness be,
have expected from a warrior of her sex, I have not ar captain more
considers only (like the hero of whom we Of such account as he.
are now speaking) how the battle should * Like tidings to King Henry came
be continued after her death:
Tum sic expirans Accam ex æqualibus unam
Alloquitur; fida ante alias quæ sola Cammillæ.
Quicum partiri curas; atque hæc ita fatur:
Hactenus, Acca soror, potui: nunc vulnus acerbum
Conficit, et tenebris nigrescunt omnia circum:
Effuge, et hæc Turno mandata novissima perfer;
Succedat pugnæ; Trojanosque arceat urbe : • Yet shall not Scot nor Scotland say,
Æn. xi. 820.
A gathering mist o'erclouds her cheerful eyes;
And from her cheeks the rosy colour flies,
Then turns to her, whom of her female train,
She trusted most, and thus she speaks with pain:
Acca, 'tis past ! he swims before my sight,
Inexorable death; and claims his right.
Bear my last words to Turnus; fly with speed,
And bid him timely to my charge succeed,
Repel the Trojans, and the town relieve
Dryden. At the same time that our poet shows a Turnus did not die in so heroic a manlaudable partiality to his countrymen, he ner ; though our poet seems to have had represents the Scots after a manner not un- his eye upon Turnus's speech in the last becoming so bold and brave a people. verse:
*Lord Percy sees my fall.'
He trudg'd along, unknowing what he sought,
And whistled as he went for want of thought.
* By chance conducted, or by thirst constrain'd, Ausonii videre
Æn. xii. 936.
The deep recesses of the grove he gain'd;
Dryden. Crept through the matted grass a chrystal flood,
By which an alabaster fountain stood: Earl Percy's lamentation over his enemy And on the margin of the fount was laid is generous, beautiful, and passionate: I (Attended by her slaves) a sleeping maid,
Like Dian and her nymphs, when tir'd with sport, must only caution the reader not to let the
To rest by cool Eurotas they resort; simplicity of the style, which one may well The dame herself the goddess well express'd, pardon in so old a poet, prejudice him Not more distinguish'd by her purple vest, against the greatness of the thought:
Than by the charming features of her face,
And e'en in slumber a superior grace:
Her comely limbs compos'd with decent care,
Her body shaded with a slight cymar;
Her bosom to the view was only bare:
The fanning wind upon her bosom blows;
To meet the fanning wind her bosom rose; "O Christ, my very heart doth bleed
The fanning wind and purling streams continue her With sorrow for thy sake:
The fool of nature stood with stupid eyes,
And gaping mouth that testify'd surprise ;
Fix'd on her face, nor could remove his sight, The beautiful line, “Taking the dead man New as he was to love, and novice in delight: by the hand, will put the reader in mind Long mute he stood, and leaning on his staff,
His wonder witness'd with an idiot laugh; of Æneas's behaviour toward Lausus, whom
Then would have spoke, but by his glimm'ring sense he himself had slain as he came to the res First found his want of words, and fear'd offence: cue of his aged father:
Doubted for what he was he should be known,
By his clown-accent and his country-tone.'
But lest this fine description should be Ingemuit, miserans graviter, dextramque tetendit.
Æn. x. 822. excepted against, as the creation of that
great master Mr. Dryden, and not an acThe pious prince beheld young Lausus dead; He griev'd, he wept, then grasp'd his hand, and said, count of what has really ever happened in &c.
Dryden. the world, I shall give you, verbatim, the I shall take another opportunity to con
epistle of an enamoured footman in the sider the other parts of this old song. C.
country to his mistress. Their surnames shall not be inserted, because their passions demand a greater respect than is due to
their quality. James is servant in a great No. 71.] Tuesday, May 22, 1711. family, and Elizabeth waits upon the Scribere jussit amor. Ovid. Ep. iv. 10.
daughter of one as numerous, some miles
off her lover. James, before he beheld Love bade me write.
Betty, was vain of his strength, a rough The entire conquest of our passions is wrestler, and quarrelsome cudgel-player; so difficult a work, that they who despair Betty a public dancer at May-poles, a romp of it should think of a less difficult task, at stool-ball: he always following idle woand only attempt to regulate them. ., But men, she playing among the peasants: he a there is a third thing which may contribute country bully, she a country coquette. But not only to the ease, but also to the plea- love has made her constantly in her missure of our life; and that is refining our pas- tress's chamber, where the young lady sions to a greater elegance than we receive gratifies a secret passion of her own, by them from nature. When the passion is making Betty talk of James; and James is love, this work is performed in innocent, become a constant waiter near his master's though rude and uncultivated minds, by apartment, in reading, as well as he can, the mere force and dignity of the object. romances. I cannot learn who Molly is, There are forms which naturally create who it seems walked ten miles to carry the respect in the beholders, and at once in- angry message, which gave occasion to flame and chastise the imagination. Such what follows: an impression as this gives an immediate
•May 14, 1711. ambition to deserve, in order to please. MY DEAR BETTY,-Remember your This cause and effect are beautifully de- bleeding lover, who lies bleeding at the cribed by Mr. Dryden in the fable of Cy- wounds Cupid made with the arrows he mon and Iphigenia. After he has repre- borrowed at the eyes of Venus, which is sented Cymon so stupid, that
your sweet person. * He whistled as he went for want of thought;' • Nay more, with the token you sent me he makes him fall into the following scene, sweet person; which was your base re,
for my love and service offered to your and shows its influence upon him so excellently, that it appears as natural as won there is no ill conditions in me, but quite
spects to my ill conditions; when, alas! derful:
contrary; all love, and purity, especially It happen'd on a summer's holiday,
to your sweet person; but all this I take as That to the greenwood-shade he took his way; His quarter-staff, which he could ne'er forsake,
a jest. Hung half before, and half behind his back,
* But the sad and dismal news which
Molly brought me struck me to the heart, that I cannot think you are in earnest. which was, it seems, and is, your ill con- But the certainty given me in your mesditions for my love and respects to you. sage by Molly, that you do not love me, is
• For she told me, if I came forty times what robs me of all comfort. She says you to you, you would not speak with me, will not see me: if you can have so much which words I am sure is a great grief cruelty, at least write to me, that I may to me.
kiss the impression made by your fair • Now, my dear, if I may not be permit- hand. I love you above all things, and, in ted to your sweet company, and to have my condition, what you look upon with inthe happiness of speaking with your sweet difference is to me the most exquisite pleaperson, I beg the favour of you to accept sure or pain. Our young lady and a fine of this my secret mind and thoughts, which gentleman from London, who are to marry hath so long lodged in my breast, the which for mercenary ends, walk about our garif you do not accept, I believe will go nigh dens, and hear the voice of evening nightto break my heart.
ingales, as if for fashion sake they courted • For, indeed, my dear, I love you above those solitudes, because they have heard all the beauties I ever saw in my life. lovers do so. Oh, Betty! could I hear those
“The young gentleman, and my master's rivulets murmur, and birds sing, while you daughter, the Londoner that is come down stood near me, how little sensible should I to marry her, sat in the arbour most part be that we are both servants, that there is of last night. Oh, dear Betty, must the any thing on earth above us! Oh! I could nightingales sing to those who marry for write to you as long as I love you, till money, and not to us true lovers! Oh, my death itself.
JAMES.' dear Betty, that we could meet this night
N. B. By the words ill conditions, James where we used to do in the wood!
means, in a woman coquetry, in a man in• Now, my dear, if I may not have the
R. blessing of kissing your sweet lips, I beg I constancy. may have the happiness of kissing your fair hand, with a few lines from your dear No. 72.] Wednesday, May 22, 1711. self, presented by whom you please or think fit. I believe, if time would permit
-Genus immortale manet, multosque per annos me, I could write all day; but the time be
Stat fortuna domus, et avi numerantur avorum.
Virg. Georg. iv. 208. ing short, and paper little, no more from
Th’immortal line in sure succession reigns, your never failing lover till death,
The fortune of the family remains,
Dryden. Poor James! since his time and paper were so short, I that have more than I can
Having already given my reader an acuse well of both, will put the sentiments of count of several extraordinary clubs both this kind letter (the style of which seems ancient and modern, I did not design to to be confused with scraps he had got in have troubled him with any more narrahearing and reading what he did not un- tives of this nature; but I have lately rederstand) into what he meant to express.
ceived information of a club which I can
call neither ancient nor modern, that I • Dear CREATURE,—Can you then ne dare say will be no less surprising to my glect him who has forgot all his recrea- reader than it was to myself; for which tions and enjoyments to pine away his life reason I shall communicate it to the pubin thinking of you? When I do so, you ap- lic as one of the greatest curiosities of its pear more amiable to me than Venus does kind. in the most beautiful description that ever A friend of mine complaining of a tradeswas made of her. All this kindness you man who is related to him, after having rereturn with an accusation, that I do not presented him as a very idle, worthless love you: but the contrary is so manifest, fellow, who neglected his family, and spent
most of his time over a bottle, told me, to *'The writer of this loving epistle was James Hirst, conclude his character, that he was a a servant to the Hon. Edward Wortley, esq. In de member of the Everlasting. Club. So very by mistake, this which he had juet written to his odd a title raised my curiosity to inquire sweetheart, and in its stead kept one of his master's into the nature of a club that had such a James soon discovered the error he had committed, and sounding name; upon which my friend Betty was the first which met Mr. Wortley's eye, and gave me the the following account. he had indulged his curiosity in reading the pathetic The Everlasting Club consists of a huneffusion of his love-lorn footman. James begged to dred members, who divide the whole have it returned: “No, James," said his master, shall be a great man; and this letter must appear in twenty-four hours among them in such a the Spectator."
manner, that the club sits day and night James at length succeeded in convincing Betty from one end of the year to another; no cor.sent to marry him: the marriage, however, was un. party, presuming to rise till they are refortunately prevented by her sudden death; and James, lieved by those who are in course to sucwho seems to have been a good sort of soul, soon ceed them. By this means a member of after inarried her sister. This sister was most proba: the Everlasting Club never wants compably, the Molly who trudged so many miles to carry the
ny; for though he is not upon duty himself,