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trinsic Merit; for being such as they are ; for before they were created, it was impossible, that either of them could i deserve; and at their creation, their shapes; perfections, or defects were invariably fixed, and their bounds set which they cannot pass. And being such, neither more nor less than GOD made them, there is no more demerit in a beast's being a beast, than there is merit in a man's being a'man; that is, there is neither merit nor demerit in either of them. :
A Brute is an animal no less sensible of pain than a Man. He has similar nerves and organs of sensation; and his cries and groans, in case of violent impressions upon
his body, though he cannot utter his complaints by speech or human voice, are as strong indications to us of his fenfibility of pain, as the cries and groans of a human being, whose language we do not understand. Now as pain is what we are all averse to, our own fenfibility of pain should teach us to commiserate it in others, to alleviate it if possible, but never wantonly or unmeritedly to inflict jt. As the differences amongst men in the above particulars are no barts to their feelings, fo neither does the difference of the Shape of a brute from that of a man exempt the brute from feeling; at least, we have no ground to suppose it. But shape or figure is as much the appointment of
GOD, as complexion or ftature. And if the difference of complexion or ftature does not convey to one man a right to defpife and abuse another man, the differencë of shape between a man anda brute, cannot give to a man any right to abuse and torment a brute. For he that made man and man to differ in complexion or ftature, made man and brute to differ in shape or figure. And in this case likewise there is neither merio nor demerit ; every creature, whether man or brute, bearing that shape which the supreme Wisdom judged most expedient to answer the end for which the creature was ordained.
• With regard to the Modification of the mass of matter of which an animal is formed, it is tccidental as to the creature itself; I mean, it was not in the power or will of the creature to choose, whether it should sustain the shape of a brute, or of a man : and yet, whether it be of one shape, or of the other; or, whether it be inhabited or animated by the * foul of a brute or the * soul of a man; the substance or matter, of which, the creature is composed, would be equally susceptible of feeling. It is solely owing to the good
* It is of no consequence, as to the case now before us, whether the SOUL is, as some think, only a Power, which cannot exist without the Body; or, as is generally supposed, a Spiritual Substance, that can exist, distinct and separate from the body,
Pleasure of GOD, that we are created Men; or animals in the Mape of men. For, He that* formed Man of the duft of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life that he might become a living foul and endued with the sense of feeling, could, if he had so pleased, by the fame plastic power, have cast the very same duft into the mould of a Beast; which, being animated by the life-giving breath of its Maker, would have become of a living foul in that form; and, in that form, would have been as susceptible of pain, as in the form of a Man, And if, in brutal shape, We had been endued with the same degree of reason * Gen, ii. 7. + Gen. i. 39. in the margin.