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and contributing to the pleasure of the grateful but where it is regarded by him whole company. When one considers such who possesses it in the second place. The collections of companions in past times, and best man that I know of, for heightening such as one might name in the present age, the revel gaiety of a company, is Estcourt, with how much spleen must a man needs whose jovial humour diffuses itself from reflect upon the awkward gaiety of those the highest person at an entertainment to who affect the frolic with an ill grace! I the meanest waiter. Merry tales, accomhave a letter from a correspondent of mine, panied with apt gestures and lively reprewho desires me to admonish all loud, mis- sentations of circumstances and persons, chievous, airy, dull companions, that they beguile the gravest mind into a consent to are mistaken in what they call a frolic. be as humourous as himself. Add to this, Irregularity in itself is not what creates that when a man is in his good graces, he pleasure and mirth; but to see a man, who has a mimickry that does not debase the knows what rule and decency are, descend person he represents; but which, taking from them agreeably in our company, is from the gravity of the character, adds to what denoininates him a pleasant compa- the agreeableness of it. This pleasant felnion. Instead of that, you find many whose low gives one some idea of the ancient mirth consists only in doing things which pantomime, who is said to have given the do not become then, with a secret con- audience, in dumb-show, an exact idea of sciousness that all the world knows they any character or passion, or an intelligible know better: to this is always added some- relation of any public occurrence, with no thing mischievous to themselves or others. other expression than that of his looks and I have heard of some very merry fellows gestures. If all who have been obliged to among whom the frolic was started, and these talents in Estcourt will be at Love passed by a great majority, that every man for Love to-morrow night, they will but should immediately draw a tooth: after pay him what they owe him, at so easy a which they have gone in a body and smoked rate as being present at a play which noa cobler. The same company, at another body would omit seeing, that had, or had night, has each man burned his cravat; not, ever seen it before.

T. and one perhaps, whose estate would bear it, has thrown a long wig and hat into the same fire. Thus they have jested them- No. 359.] Tuesday, April 22, 1712. selves stark-naked, and run into the streets

Torva leæna lapum sequitur, lupus ipse capellam; and frighted women very successfully.

Florentem cytisum sequitur lasciva capella. There is no inhabitant of any standing in

Virg. Ecl. vi. 63 Covent Garden, but can tell you a hun- Lions the wolves, and wolves the kids pursue, dred good humours, where people have The kids sweet thyme,-and stili I follow you. come off with a little bloodshed, and yet scoured all the witty hours of the night. I As we were at the club last night, I obknow a gentleman that has several wounds served that my old friend Sir Roger, conin the head by watch-poles, and has been trary to his usual custom, sat very silent, thrice run through the body, to carry on a and, instead of minding what was said by good jest. He is very old for a man of so the company, was whistling to himself in much good humour; but to this day he is a very thoughtful mood, and playing with seldom merry but he has occasion to be a cork. I jogged Sir Andrew Freeport, valiant at the same time. But, by the fa- who sat between us; and, as we were both vour of these gentlemen, I am humbly of observing him we saw the knight shake opinion, that å man may be a very witty his head, and heard him say to himself, man, and never offend one statute of this · A foolish woman! I can't believe it.' Sir kingdom, not excepting that of stabbing. Andrew gave him a gentle pat upon the

The writers of plays have what they call shoulder, and offered to lay him a bottle of unity of time and place, to give a justness wine that he was thinking of the widow. to their representation; and it would not My old friend started, and, recovering out be amiss if all who pretend to be compa- of his brown study, told Sir Andrew, that nions would confine their actions to the once in his life he had been in the right. place of meeting; for a frolic carried far- In short, after some little hesitation, Sir ther may be better performed by other Roger told us in the fulness of his heart, animals than men. It is not to rid much that he had just received a letter from his ground, or do much mischief, that should steward, which acquainted him that his old denominate a pleasant fellow; but that is rival and antagonist in the country, Sir Datruly frolic which is the play of the mind, vid Dundrum, had been making a visit to and consists of various and unforced sallies the widow. • However,' says Sir Roger, of imagination. Festivity of spirit is a very I can never think that she will have a uncommon talent, and must proceed from man that's half a year older than I am, and an assemblage of agrecable qualities in the a noted republican into the bargain.” same person. There are some few whom Will Honeycomb, who looks upon love I think peculiarly happy in it, but it is a as his particular province, interrupting our talent one cannot name in a man, especially friend with a jaunty laugh, I thought, when one considers, that it is never very | knight,' said he, thou hadst lived long


Oh! why did our

enough in the world not to pin thy happiness, one which I made some years since upon upon one that is a woman and a widow. I an old woman, whom I had certainly borne think that, without vanity, I may pretend away with flying colours, if her relations to know as much of the female world as had not come pouring in to her assistance any man in Great Britain; though the from all parts of England; nay, I believe I chief of my knowledge consists in this, that should have got her at last, had not she they are not to be known.' Will imme- been carried off by a hard frost.' diately, with his usual fluency, rambled As Will's transitions are extremely quick, into an account of his own amours. *I am he turned from Sir Roger, and, applying now,' says he, upon the verge of fifty.' himself to me, told me there was a passage (though by the way we all knew he was in the book I had considered last Saturday, turned of three-score.) • You may easily which deserves to be writ in letters of gold: guess,' continued Will, that I have not and taking out a pocket Milton, read the lived so long in the world without having following lines, which are part of one of had some thoughts of settling in it, as the Adam's speeches to Eve after the fall. phrase is. To tell you truly, I have several times tried my fortune that way, though I Creator wise! that peopled highest heaven cannot much boast of my success.

With spirits masculine, create at last

This novelty on earth, this fair defect • I made my first addresses to a young Of nature, and not fill the world at once lady in the country; but, when I thought With men, as angels, without feminine ?

Or find some other way to generate things were pretty well drawing to a con

Mankind ? This mischief had not then befall'n, clusion, her father happening to hear that

And more that shall befall, innumerable I had formerly boarded with a surgeon, the Disturbances on earth, through female snares, old put forbade me his house, and within a And straight conjunction with this sex: for either

He shall never find out fit mate; but such fortnight after married his daughter to a

As some misfortune brings him, or mistake; fox-hunter in the neighbourhood.

Or whom he wishes most shall seldom gain, • I made my next application to a widow, Through her perverseness; but shall see her gain'd

By a far worse : or, if she love, withheld and attacked' her so briskly, that I thought

By parents; or his happiest choice too late myself within a fortnight of her. As I Shall meet, already link d and wedlock bound waited upon her one morning, she told me,

To a fell adversary, his hate or shame : that she intended to keep her ready-money

Which infinite calamity shall cause

To human life, and household peace confound.' and jointure in her own hand, and desired

Sir Roger listened to this passage with me to call upon her attorney in Lyon's-Inn, who would adjust with me what it was comb to fold down a leaf at the place, and

great attention; and, desiring Mr. Honeyproper

for me to add to it. I was so re; lend him his book, the knight put it up in his buffed by this

overture, that I never inquired pocket, and told us that he would read over either for her or her attorney afterwards. • A few months after, I addressed myself these verses again before he went to bed.

X. to a young lady who was an only daughter, and of a good family. I danced with her at several balls, squeezed her by the hand, No. 360.] Wednesday, April 23, 1712. said soft things to her, and, in short, made no doubt of her heart; and, though my for

-De paupertate tacentes, tune was not equal to hers, I was in hopes Plus poscente ferent. Hor. Ep. xvii. Lib. 1. 43. that her fond father would not deny her the The man who all his wants conceals, man she had fixed her affections upon. But as I went one day to the house, in order to break the matter to him, I found the whole I HAVE nothing to do with the business of family in confusion, and heard to my this day, any further than affixing the piece unspeakable surprise, that Miss Jenny of Latin on the head of my paper; which I was that very morning run away with the think a motto not unsuitable; since, if sibutler.

lence of our poverty is a recommendation, • I then courted a second widow, and am still more commendable is his modesty who at a loss to this day how I came to miss her, conceals it by a decent dress. for she had often commended my person and behaviour. Her maid indeed told me MR. SPECTATOR,—There is an evil one day, that her mistress said she never under the sun, which has not yet come saw a gentleman with such a spindle pair within your speculation, and is the cenof legs as Mr. Honeycomb.

sure, disesteem, and contempt, which some • After this I laid siege to four heiresses young fellows meet with from particular successively, and, being a handsome young persons, for the reasonable methods they dog in those days, quickly made a breach take to avoid them in general. This is by in their hearts, but I don't know how it appearing in a better dress than may seem came to pass, though I seldom failed of to a relation regularly consistent with a getting the daughter's consent, I could small fortune; and therefore may occasion never in my life get the old people on my a judgment of a suitable extravagance in side.

other particulars; but the disadvantage with • I could give you an account of a thousand which the man of narrow circumstances acts other unsuccessful attempts, particularly of I and speaks, is so feelingly set forth in a little

Gains more than he who all his wants reveals.


book called the Christian Hero, that the, hat to a person whose air and attire hardly appearing to be otherwise is not only par- entitle him to it! for whom nevertheless the donable, but necessary. Every one knows other has a particular esteem, though he is the hurry of conclusions that are made in ashamed to have it challenged in so public contempt of a person that appears to be a manner. It must be allowed, that any calamitous; which makes it very excusable young fellow that affects to dress and appear to prepare one's self for the company of genteelly,might with artificial management, those that are of a superior quality and for save ten pounds a-year; as instead of fine tune, by appearing to be in a better condi holland he might mourn in sack-cloth, and tion than one is, so far as such appearance in other particulars be proportionably shabshall not make us really of worse.

by: but of what service would this suin be • It is a justice due to the character of tó avert any misfortune, whilst it would one who suffers hard reflections from any leave him deserted by the little good acparticular person upon this account, that quaintance he has, and prevent his gaining such persons would inquire into his manner any other? As the appearance of an easy of spending his time; of which, though no fortune is necessary towards making one, I further information can be had than that don't know but it might be of advantage he remains so many hours in his chamber, sometimes to throw into one's discourse yet if this is cleared, to imagine that a rea- certain exclamations about bank stock, and sonable creature, wrung with a narrow for to show a marvellous surprise upon its fall, tune, does not make the best use of this as well as the most affected triumph upon retirement, would be a conclusion extremely its rise. The veneration and respect which uncharitable. From what has, or will be the practice of all ages has preserved to said, I hope no consequence can be extorted, appearances, without doubt suggested to implying, that I would have any young fel- our tradesmen that wise and politic custom, low spend more time than the common to apply and recommend themselves to the leisure which his studies require, or more public by all those decorations upon their money than his fortune or allowance may sign-posts and houses which the most emiadmit of, in the pursuit of an acquaintance nent hands in the neighbourhood can furnish with his betters: for as to his time, the them with. What can be more attractive gross of that ought to be sacred to more to a man of letters, than that immense erusubstantial acquisitions; for each irrecove- dition of all ages and languages, which a rable moment of which he ought to believe skilful bookseller, in conjunction with a he stands religiously accountable. As to his painter, shall image upon his column, and dress, I shall engage myself no further than the extremities of his shop? The same in the modest defence of two plain suits a spirit of maintaining a handsome appearyear: for being perfectly satisfied in Eu- ance reigns among the grave and solid aptrapelus's contrivance of making a Mohock prentices of the law (here I could be partiof a man, by presenting him with laced and cularly dull in proving the word apprentice embroidered suits, I would by no means be to be significant of a barrister,) and you may thought to controvert the conceit, by insi asily distinguish who has most lately made nuating the advantages of foppery. It is an his pretensions to business, by the whitest assertion which admits of much proof, that and most ornamental frame of his window; a stranger of tolerable sense, dressed like a if indeed the chamber is a ground-room, and gentleman, will be better received by those has rails before it, the finery is of necessity of quality above him, than one of much bet- more extended and the pomp of business ter parts, whose dress is regulated by the better maintained. And what can be a rigid notions of frugality. °A man's ap- greater indication of the dignity of dress, pearance falls within the censure of every than that burdensome finery which is the one that sees him; his parts and learning regular habit of our judges, nobles, and very few are judges of; and even upon these bishops, with which upon certain days we few they cannot at first be well intruded; see them incumbered?" And though it may for policy and good-breeding will counsel be said, this is lawful, and necessary for the him to be reserved among strangers, and to dignity of the state, yet the wisest of them support himself only by the common spirit have been remarkable, before they arrived of conversation. Indeed among the injudi- at their present stations, for being very well cious, the words, "delicacy, idiom, fine dressed persons. As to my own part, I images, structure of periods, genius, fire,” near thirty; and since I left school have not and the rest, made use of with a frugal and been idle, which is a modern phrase for comely gravity, will maintain the figure of having studied hard. I brought off a clean immense reading, and the depth of criti system of moral philosophy, and a tolerable cism.

jargon of metaphysics, from the university; • All gentlemen of fortune, at least the since that I have been engaged in the clearyoung and middle-aged, are apt to pride ing part of the perplexed style and matter themselves a little too much upon their of the law, which so hereditarily descends dress, and consequently to value others in to all its professors. To all which severe some measure upon the same considera- studies I have thrown in, at proper intion. With what confusion is a man of terims, the pretty learning of the classics, figure obliged to return the civilities of the Notwithstanding which, I am what Shak VOL. II.



The house astonishid trembles at the sound.


speare calls a fellow of no mark or likeli- | very well, that musical instruments took hood, which makes me understand the their first rise from the notes of birds, and more fully that since the regular methods other melodious animals; and what,' says of making friends and a fortune by the he, was more natural than for the first mere force of a profession is so very slow ages of mankind to imitate the voice of a and uncertain, a man should take all rea-cat, that lived under the same roof with sonable opportunities, by enlarging a good them?” He added, that the cat had conacquaintance, to court that time and chance tributed more to harmony than any other which is said to happen to every man.

animal; as we are not only beholden to her T. for this wind instrument, but for our string

music in general.

Another virtuoso of my acquaintance will No. 361.] Thursday, April 24, 1712. not allow the cat-call to be older than These Tartaream intendit vocem, qua protinus omnis

pis, and is apt to think it appeared in the Contremuit domus

Virg. J£n. vii. 514. world soon after the ancient comedy; for The blast Tartarean spreads its notes around;

which reason it has still a place in our dramatic entertainments. Nor must I here

omit what a very curious gentleman, who is I have lately received the following letter lately returned from his travels, has more from a country gentleman:

than once assured me; namely, that there • Mr. SPECTATOR,—The night before I was lately dug up at Rome the statue of a left London I went to see a play called The Momus, who holds an instrument in his Humourous Lieutenant. Upon the rising right hand, very much resembling our of the curtain I was very much surprised modern cat-call. with the great concert of cat-calls which

There are others who ascribe this invenwas exhibited that evening, and began to tion to Orpheus, and look upon the cat-call think with myself that I had made a mis- to be one of those instruments which that take, and gone to a music-meeting instead famous musician made use of to draw the of the play-house. It appeared indeed a

beasts about him. It is certain that the little odd to me, to see so many persons of roasting of a cat does not call together a quality, of both sexes, assembled together greater audience of that species than this at a kind of caterwauling, for I cannot look instrument, if dexterously played upon in upon that performance to have been any proper time and place. thing better, whatever the musicians them- But, notwithstanding these various and selves might think of it. As I had no ac- learned conjectures, I cannot forbear thinkquaintance in the house to ask questions of, ing that the cat-call is originally a piece and was forced to go out of town early the of English music. Its resemblance to the next morning, I could not learn the secret voice of some of our British songsters, as of this matter. What I would therefore well as the use of it, which is peculiar to desire of you, is, to give me some account our nation, confirms me in this opinion. It of this strange instrument, which I found has at least received great improvements the company called a cat-call; and parti- among us, whether we consider the instrucularly to let me know whether it be a ment itself

, or those several quavers and piece of music lately come from Italy. For graces which are thrown into the playing my own part to be free with you, I would of it. Every one might be sensible of this rather hear an English fiddle; though I who heard that remarkable overgrown catdurst not show my dislike whilst I was in call which was placed in the centre of the the play-house, it being my chance to sit pit, and presided over all the rest at the the very next man to one of the performers. celebrated performance lately exhibited at I am, sir, your most affectionate friend and Drury-lane. servant, JOHN SHALLOW, Esq.'

Having said thus much concerning the

origin of the cat-call, we are in the next In compliance with Squire Shallow's re- place to consider the use of it. The catquest, I design this paper as a dissertation call exerts itself to most advantage in the upon the cat-call. In order to make myself British theatre. It very much improves a master of the subject, I purchased one the the sound of nonsense, and often goes along beginning of last week, though not without with the voice of the actor who pronounces great difficulty, being informed at two or it, as the violin or harpsichord accompathree toy-shops that the players had lately nies the Italian recitativo. bought them all up. I have since consulted It has often supplied the place of the many learned antiquaries in relation to its ancient chorus, in the words of Mr. *** In original, and find them very much divided short, a bad poet has as great an antipathy among themselves upon that particular. A to a cat-call as many people have to a real fellow of the Royal Society who is my good cat. friend, and a great proficient in the mathe- Mr. Collier in his ingenious essay upon matical part of music, concludes, from the music, has the following passage: simplicity of its make, and the uniformity • I believe it is possible to invent an inof its sound, that the cat-call is older than strument that shall have a quite contrary any of the inventions of Jubal. He observes effect to those martial ones now in use; an instrument that shall sink the spirits and of private families, or the clubs of honest shake the nerves, and curdle the blood, fellows. I cannot imagine how a Spectator and inspire despair, and cowardice, and can be supposed to do his duty, without consternation, at a surprising rate. 'Tis frequent resumption of such subjects as probable the roaring of lions, the warbling concern our health, the first thing to be of cats and screech-owls, together with a regarded, if we have a mind to relish any mixture of the howling of dogs, judiciously thing else. It would, therefore, very well imitated and compounded, might go a great become your spectatorial vigilance, to give way in this invention. Whether such anti- it in orders to your officer for inspecting music as this might not be of service in a signs, that in his march he would look into camp, I shall leave to the military men to the itinerants who deal in provisions, and consider.'

inquire where they buy their several wares. What this learned gentleman supposes in Ever since the decease of Colly-Molly-Puff, speculation, I have known actually verified of agreeable and noisy memory, I cannot in practice. The cat-call has struck a damp say I have observed any thing sold in carts, into generals, and frighted heroes off the or carried by horse, or ass, or, in fine, in stage. At the first sound of it I have seen any moving market, which is not perished a crowned head tremble, and a princess or putrefied; witness the wheel-barrows of fall into fits. The humourous lieutenant rotten raisins, almonds, figs, and currants, himself could not stand it; nay, I am told which you see vended by a merchant that even Almanzor looked like a mouse, dressed in a second-hand suit of a foot and trembled at the voice of this terrifying soldier. You should consider that a child instrument.

may be poisoned for the worth of a farthing; As it is of a dramatic nature, and pecu- but except his poor parents send him to one liarly appropriated to the stage, I can by certain doctor in town, they can have no no means approve the thought of that angry advice for him under a guinea. When poilover, who, after an unsuccessful pursuit of sons are thus cheap, and medicines thus some years, took leave of his mistress in a dear, how can you be negligent in inspectserenade of cat-calls.

ing what we eat and drink, or take no I must conclude this paper with the ac- notice of such as the above-mentioned citicount I have lately received of an ingenious zens, who have been so serviceable to us artist, who has long studied this instrument, of late in that particular? It was a custom and is very well versed in all the rules of among the old Romans, to do him particuthe drama. He teaches to play on it by lar honours who had saved the life of a book, and to express by it the whole art of citizen. How much more does the world criticism. He has his bass and his treble owe to those who prevent the death of mulcat-call; the former for tragedy, the latter titudes! As these men deserve well of your for comedy; only in tragi-comedies they office, so such as act to the detriment of may both play together in concert. He has our health, you ought to represent to thema particular squeak, to denote the violation selves and their fellow-subjects in the colours of each of the unities, and has different which they deserve to wear. I think it sounds to show whether he aims at the poet would be for the public good, that all who or the player. In short, he teaches the vend wines should be under oath in that smut-note, the fustian-note, the stupid-note, behalf. The chairman at the quarter-sesand has composed a kind of air that may sions should inform the country, that the serve as an act-tune to an incorrigible play, vintner who mixes wine to his customers, and which takes in the whole compass of shall (upon proof that the drinker thereof the cat-call.


died within a year and a day after taking it,) be deemed guilty of wilful murder, and

the jury shall be instructed to inquire and No. 352.] Friday, April 25, 1712. present such delinquents accordingly. It

is no mitigation of the crime, nor will it be Laudibus arguitur vini vinosus

conceived that it can be brought in chanceHor. Ep. xix. Lib. 1. 6.

medley, or man-slaughter, upon proof that He praises wine; and we conclude from thence,

it shall appear wine joined to wine, or right He lik'd his glass, on his own evidence.

Herefordshire poured into Port O Port: but •Temple, April 24. his selling it for one thing, knowing it to be MR. SPECTATOR,--Several of my friends another, must justly bear the foresaid guilt were this morning got over a dish of tea in of wilful murder : for that he, the said very good health, though we had celebrated vintner, did an unlawful act willingly in the yesterday with more glasses that we could false mixture, and is therefore with equity have dispensed with, had we not been be- liable to all the pains to which a man would holden to Brooke and Hellier. In gratitude, be, if it were proved that he designed only therefore, to those citizens, I am, in the to run a man through the arm wliom he name of the company, to accuse you of great whipped through the lungs. This is my negligence in overlooking their merit, who third year at the Temple, and this is, or have imported true and generous wine, and should be, law. An ill intention, well proved, taken care that it should not be adulterated should meet with no alleviation, because it by the retailers before it comes to the tables outran itself. There cannot be too great

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