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as insignificants. But I am going to desire, cent. This and the like circumstances, your farther favour of our harmless bro- which carry with them the most valuable therhood, and hope you will show in a true regards of human life, may be mentioned light the unmarried hen-pecked, as well as for our long-suffering; but in the case of you have done justice to us, who submit gallants, they swallow ill usage from one to to the conduct of our wives. I am very par- whom they have no obligation, but from ticularly acquainted with one who is under a base passion, which it is mean to indulge, entire submission to a kind girl, as he calls and which it would be glorious to overher; and though he knows I have been come. witness both to the ill usage he has receiv- * These sort of fellows are very numeed from her, and his inability to resist her rous, and some have been conspicuously tyranny, he still pretends to make a jest such, without shame; nay, they have carof me for a little more than ordinary obse- ried on the jest in the very article of death, quiousness to my spouse. No longer than and, to the diminution of the wealth and hapTuesday last he took me with him to visit piness of their families, in bar of those hohis mistress; and having, it seems, been a nourably near to them, have left immense little in disgrace before, thought by bring-wealth to their paramours. What is this ing me with him she would constrain her- but being a cully in the grave! Sure this self, and insensibly fall into general dis- is being hen-pecked with a vengeance! course with him; and so he might break But, without dwelling upon these less frethe ice, and save himself all the ordinary quent instances of eminent cullyism, what compunctions and mortifications she used is there so common as to hear a fellow to make him suffer before she would be re- curse his fate that he cannot get rid of a conciled, after any act of rebellion on his passion to a jilt, and quote a half line out part. When we came into the room, we of a miscellany poem to prove his weakwere received with the utmost coldness; ness is natural? If they will go on thus, I and when he presented me as Mr. Such-a-s have nothing to say to it; but then let them one, his very good friend, she just had pa- not pretend to be free all this while, and tience to suffer my salutation; but when he laugh at us poor married patients. himself, with a very gay air, offered to • I have known one wench in this town follow me, she gave him a thundering box carry a haughty dominion over her lovers on the ear, called him a pitiful poor-spirited so well, that she has at the same time been wretch-how durst he see her face? His kept by a sea-captain in the Straits, a merwig and hat fell on different parts of the chant in the city, a country gentleman in floor. She seized the wig too soon for him Hampshire, and had all her corresponto recover it, and, kicking it down stairs, dences managed by one whom she kept for threw herself into an opposite room, pull- her own uses. This happy man (as the ing the door after her by force, that you phrase is) used to write very punctually, would have thought the hinges would have every post, letters for the mistress to trangiven way. We went down you must think, scribe. He would sit in his night-gown with no very good countenances; and, as and slippers, and be as grave giving an acwe were driving home together, he con- count, only changing names, that there was fessed to me, that her anger was thus nothing in those idle reports they had heard highly raised, because he did not think fit of such a scoundrel as one of the other to fight a gentleman who had said she was lovers was; and how could he think she what she was: “but,” says he, “a kind could condescend so low, after such a fine letter or two, or fifty pieces, will put her in gentleman as each of them? For the same humour again." I asked him why he did epistle said the same thing to, and of, every not part with her: he answered, he loved one of them. And so Mr. Secretary and her with all the tenderness imaginable, and his lady went to bed with great order. she had too many charms to be abandoned *To be short, Mr. Spectator, we husfor a little quickness of spirit. Thus does bands shall never make the figure we ought this illegitimate hen-pecked overlook the in the imaginations of young men growing hussy's having no regard to his very life up in the world, except you can bring it and fame, in putting him upon an infamous about that a man of the town shall be as indispute about her reputation: yet has he famous a character as a woman of the town. the confidence to laugh at me, because I But, of all that I have met with in my obey my poor dear in keeping out of harm's time, commend me to Betty Duall: she is way, and not staying too late from my own the wife of a sailor, and the kept mistress family, to pass through the hazards of a of a man of quality; she dwells with the town full of ranters and debauchees. You latter during the seafaring of the former. that are a philosopher, should urge in our The husband asks no questions, sees his behalf, that, when we bear with a froward apartments furnished with riches not his, woman, our patience is preserved, in con- when he comes into port, and the lover is sideration that a breach with her might be as joyful as a man arrived at his haven, a dishonour to children who are descended when the other puts to sea. Betty is the from us, and whose concern makes us tole- most eminently victorious of any of her rate a thousand frailties, for fear they sex, and ought to stand recorded the only should redound dishonour upon the inno- I woman of the age in which she lives, who VOL. II.

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has possessed at the same time two abused, genious author gives an account of himself and two contented'

T. in his dreaming and his waking thoughts.

“We are somewhat more than ourselves

in our sleeps, and the slumber of the body No. 487.] Thursday, September 18, 1712.

seems to be but the waking of the soul. It -Cum prostrata sopore

is the ligation of sense, but the liberty of Urget membra quies, et mens sine pondere ludit. reason; and our waking conceptions do not

Petr. match the fancies of our sleeps. At my While sleep oppresses the tir'd limbs, the mind nativity my ascendant was the watery sign Plays without weight, and wantons unconfin'd.

of Scorpius: I was born in the planetary Though there are many authors who hour of Saturn, and I think I have a piece have written on dreams, they have gene- of that leaden planet in me. I am no way rally considered them only as revelations of facetious, nor disposed for the mirth and what has already happened in distant parts galliardise of company; yet in one dream I of the world, or as presages of what is to can compose a whole comedy, behold the happen in future periods of time.

action, apprehend the jests, and laugh myI shall consider this subject in another self awake at the conceits thereof. Were light, as dreams may give us some idea of my memory as faithful as my reason is then the great excellency of a human soul, and fruitful, I would never study but in my some intimations of its independency on dreams; and this time also would I choose matter.

for my devotions; but our grosser memories In the first place, our dreams are great have then so little hold of our abstracted instances of that activity which is natural understandings, that they forget the story, to the human soul, and which is not in the and can only relate to our awaked souls a power of sleep to deaden or abate. When confused and broken tale of that that has the man appears to be tired and worn out passed. Thus it is observed that men somewith the labours of the day, this active part times, upon the hour of their departure, do in his composition is still busied and unwea- speak and reason above themselves; for ried. When the organs of sense want their then the soul, beginning to be freed from due repose and necessary reparations, and the ligaments of the body, begins to reason the body is no longer able to keep pace like herself, and to discourse in a strain with that spiritual substance to which it is above mortality.' united, the soul exerts herself in her seve- We may likewise observe, in the third ral faculties, and continues in action until | place, that the passions affect the mind her partner is again qualified to bear her with greater strength when we are asleep company. In this case dreams look like than when we are awake. Joy and sorrow the relaxations and amusements of the soul, give us more vigorous sensations of pain or when she is disencumbered of her machine, pleasure at this time than any other. Deher sports, and recreations, when she has votion likewise, as the excellent author laid her charge asleep.

above mentioned has hinted, is in a very In the second place, dreams are an in- particular manner heightened and infiamstance of that agility and perfection which ed, when it rises in the soul at a time that is natural to the faculties of the mind, when the body is thus laid at rest. Every man's they are disengaged from the body. The experience will inform him in this matter, soul is clogged and retarded in her opera- though it is very probable that this may tions, when she acts in conjunction with a happen differently in different constitutions companion that is so heavy and unwieldy I shall conclude this head with the two folin its motion. But in dreams it is wonder- lowing problems, which I shall leave to ful to observe with what a sprightliness and the solution of my reader. Supposing a alacrity she exerts herself. The slow of man always happy in his dreams, and mispeech make unpremeditated harangues, serable in his waking thoughts, and that or converse readily in languages that they his life was equally divided between them; are but little acquainted with. The grave whether would he be more happy or miseabound in pleasantries, the dull in repar-rable? Were a man a king in his dreams, tees and points of wit. There is not a more and a beggar awake, and dreamt as consepainful action of the mind than invention; quentially, and in as continued unbroken yet in dreams it works with that ease and schemes, as he thinks when awake; wheactivity that we are not sensible of, when ther would he be in reality a king or a the faculty is employed. For instance, I beggar; or, rather, whether he would not believe every one some time or other, be both? dreams that he is reading papers, books,

There is another circumstance, which or letters; in which case the invention methinks gives us a very high idea of the prompts so readily, that the mind is im- nature of the soul, in regard to what passes posed upon, and mistakes its own sugges- in dreams. I mean that innumerable multions for the compositions of another. titude and variety of ideas which then arise

I shall, under this head, quote a passage in her. Were that active and watchful out of the Religio Medici,* in which the in- being only conscious of her own existence at

*. By Sir T. Brown, M. D. author of the curious book such a time, what a painful solitude would on " Vulgar Errors," which appeared in folio, in 1646. our hours of sleep be! Were the soul

Ire viam

Eheu!

sensible of her being alone in her sleeping strong intimations, not only of the excelmoments, after the same manner that she lency of the human soul, but of its indeis sensible of it while awake, the time pendence on the body; and, if they do not would hang very heavy on her, as it often prove, do at least confirm these two great actually does when she dreams that she is points, which are established by many in such a solitude,

other reasons that are altogether linan -Semperque relinqui swerable,

0, Sola sibi, semper longam incomitata videtur

Virg. En. iv. 466.
She seems alone

No. 488.] Friday, September 19, 1712.
To wander in her sleep through ways unknown,
Guideless and dark.--Dryden.

Quanti emptæ ? parvo. Quanti ergo? octo assibus. But this observation I only make by the

Hor. Sat. iii. Lib. 2. 156. way. What I would here remark, is that what doth it cost? Not much upon my word, wonderful power in the soul, of producing How much pray? Why, Two pence. Two pence! O

Lord !--Creech. her own company on these occasions. She converses with numberless beings of her I FIND, by several letters which I re own creation, and is transported into ten ceive daily, that many of my readers would thousand scenes of her own raising. She is be better pleased to pay three half-pence herself the theatre, the actor, and the be- for my paper than two pence. The ingeholder. This puts me in mind of a saying nious T. W. tells me that I have deprived which I am infinitely pleased with, and him of the best part of his breakfast; for which Plutarch ascribes to Heraclitus, that, since the rise of my paper, he is that all men whilst they are awake are in forced every morning to drink his dish of one common world; but that each of them, coffee by itself, without the addition of the when he is asleep, is in a world of his own. Spectator, that used to be better than lace The waking man is conversant in the world to it. Eugenius informs me, very obligingof nature: when he sleeps he retires to a ly, that he never thought he should have private world that is particular to himself. disliked any passage in my paper, but that There seems something in this considera- of late there have been two words in every tion that intimates to us natural grandeur one of them which he could heartily wish and perfection in the soul, which is rather left out, viz. •Price Two Pence.' I have a to be admired than explained.

letter from a soap-boiler, who condoles I must not omit that argument for the with me very affectionately upon the neexcellency of the soul which I have seen cessity we both lie under of setting a high quoted out of Tertullian, namely, its power price on our commodities since the late tax of divining in dreams. That several such has been laid upon them, and desiring me, divinations have been made, none can ques. when I write next on that subject, to speak tion, who believes the holy writings, or a word or two upon the present duties on who has but the least degree of a common Castile soap. But there is none of these my historical faith; there being innumerable correspondents, who writes with a greater instances of this nature in several authors turn of good sense, and elegance of expresboth ancient and modern, sacred and pro- sion, than the generous Philomedes, who fane. Whether such dark presages, such advises me to value every Spectator at sixvisions of the night, proceed from any la- pence, and promises that he himself will tent power in the soul, during this her state engage for above a hundred of his acquaintof abstraction, or from any communication ance, who shall take it in at that price. with the Supreme Being, or from any ope- Letters from the female world are likewise ration of subordinate spirits, has been a come to me, in great quantities, upon the great dispute among the learned; the mat- same occasion; and, as I naturally bear a ter of fact is, I think, incontestible, and has great deference to this part of our species, been looked upon as such by the greatest I am very glad to find that those who apwriters, who have been never suspected prove my conduct in this particular are either of superstition or enthusiasm. much more numerous than those who con

I do not suppose that the soul in these demn it. A large family of daughters have instances is entirely loose and unfettered drawn me up a very handsome remonfrom the body; it is sufficient if she is not strance, in which they set forth that their so far sunk and immersed in matter, nor father having refused to take in the Specentangled and perplexed in her operations tator, since the additional price was set upon with such motions of blood and spirits, as it, they offered him unanimously to bate when she actuates the machine in its wak-him the article of bread and butter in the ing hours. The corporeal union is slack-tea-table account, provided the Spectator ened enough to give the mind more play. might be served up to them every morning The soul seems gathered within herself, as usual. Upon this the old gentleman, and recovers that spring which is broke being pleased, it seems, with their desire and weakened, when she operates more in of improving themselves, has granted them concert with the body.

the continuance both of the Spectator and The speculations I have here made, if their bread and butter, having given partithey are not arguments, they are at least cular orders that the tea-table shall be set

BY MR. TATE.

Nasceris

forth every morning with its customary poet laureat should not be over-looked, bill of fare, and without any manner of de- which shows the opinion he entertains of falcation. I thought myself obliged to your paper, whether the notion he promention this particular, as it does honour ceeds upon be true or false. I make bold to this worthy gentleman; and if the young to convey it to you, not knowing if it has lady Lætitia, who sent me this account, yet come to your hands.' will acquaint me with his name, I will in

ON THE SPECTATOR. sert it at length in one of my papers, if he desires it. I should be very glad to find out any ex

-Aliusque et idem

Hor, Carm. Sæc. 10. pedient that might alleviate the expense which this my paper brings to any of my

You rise another and the same. readers; and in order to it, must propose When first the Tatler to a mute was turn'd, two points to their consideration. First,

Great Britain for her censor's silence mourn'd;

Robb'd of his sprightly beams, she wept the night, that if they retrench any of the smallest

Till the Spectator rose and blazd as bright. particular in their ordinary expense, it will So the first man the sun's first setting view'd, easily make up the half-penny a day which

And sigh'd till circling day his joys renew'd.

Yet, doubtful how that second sun to name, we have now under consideration. Let a

Whether a bright successor, or the same. lady sacrifice but a single riband to her So we; but now from this suspense are freed, morning studies, and it will be sufficient: Since all agree, who both with judgment read,

'Tis the same sun, and does himself succeed. 0. let a family burn but a candle a night less than their usual number, and they may take in the Spectator without detriment to No. 489.] Saturday, September 20, 1712. their private affairs,

Βαθυρρειταο μεγα σθενος Ωκεανολο. In the next place, if my readers will not

Homer.) go to the price of buying my papers by re

The mighty force of ocean's troubled flood. tail, let them have patience, and they may “SIR,-Upon reading your essay conbuy them in the lump without the burden cerning the Pleasures of the Imagination, of a tax upon them. My speculations, I find among the three sources of those when they are sold single, like cherries pleasures which you have discovered, that upon the stick, are delights for the rich and greatness is one. This has suggested to me wealthy: after some time they come to the reason why, of all objects that I have market in greater quantities, and are every ever seen, there is none which affects my ordinary man's money. The truth of it is, imagination so much as the sea, or ocean. I they have a certain favour at their first cannot see the heavings of this prodigious appearance, from several accidental cir- bulk of waters, even in a calm, without a cumstances of time, place, and person, very pleasing astonishment; but when it is which they may lose if they are not taken worked up in a tempest, so that the horiearly; but, in this case, every reader is to zon on every side is nothing but foaming consider, whether it is not better for him to billows and Hoating mountains, it is imposbe half a year behind-hand with the fash-sible to describe the agreeable horror that ionable and polite part of the world, than rises from such a prospect. A troubled to strain himself beyond his circumstances. ocean, to a man who sails upon it, is, I My bookseller has now about ten thousand think, the biggest object that he can see in of the third and fourth volumes, which he motion, and consequently gives his imagiis ready to publish, having already dis- nation one of the highest kinds of pleasure posed of as large an edition both of the first that can arise from greatness. I must conand second volumes. As he is a person fess it is impossible for me to survey this whose head is very well turned to his busi- world of Auid matter without thinking on ness, he thinks they would be a very proper the hand that first poured it out, and made present to be made to persons at christen- a proper channel for its reception. Such an ings, marriages, visiting days, and the like object naturally raises in my thoughts the joyful solemnities, as several other books idea of an Almighty Being, and convinces are frequently given at funerals. He has me of his existence as much as a metaprinted them in such a little portable physical demonstration. The imagination volume, that many of them may be ranged prompts the understanding, and, by the together upon a single plate; and is of opi- greatness of the sensible object, produces nion, that a salver of Spectators would be in it the idea of a being who is neither ciras acceptable an entertainment to the la- cumscribed by time nor space. dies as a salver of sweet-meats.

• As I have made several voyages upon I shall conclude this paper with an epi- the sea, I have often been tossed in storms, gram lately sent to the writer of the Spec- and on that occasion have frequently retator, after having returned my thanks to flected on the descriptions of them in anthe ingenious author of it.

cient poets. I remember Longinus highly

recommends one in Homer, because the “Sir,—Having heard the following epi- poet has not amused himself with little gram very much commended, I wonder fancies upon the occasion, as authors of an that it has not yet had a place in any of inferior genius, whom he mentions, had your papers; I think the suffrage of our done, but because he has gathered together

those circumstances which are the most Whilst, in the confidence of prayer

My soul took hold on thee. apt to terrify the imagination, and which really happen in the raging of a tempest.

VII. It is for the same reason that I prefer the

“For though in dreadful whirls we hung

High on the broken wave, following description of a ship in a storm, I knew thou wert not slow to hear, which the psalmist has made, before any Nor impotent to save. other I have ever met with. “They that go

VIII. down to the sea in ships, that do business “The storm was laid, the winds retir'd, in great waters; these see the works of the Obedient to thy will;

The sea that roar'd at thy command, Lord, and his wonders in the deep. For he

At thy command was still. commandeth and raiseth the stormy wind,

IX. which lifteth up the waters thereof. They

" In midst of dangers, fears, and death, mount up to the heaven, they go down

Thy goodness I'll adore, again to the depths, their soul is melted And praise thee for thy mercies past, because of trouble. They reel to and fro,

And humbly hope for more. and stagger like a drunken man, and are at

X. their wit's end. Then they cry unto the

“My life, if thou preserv'st my life,

Thy sacrifice shall be; Lord in their trouble, and he bringeth them And death, if death must be my doom, out of their distresses. He maketh the Shall join my soul to thee.” storm a calm, so that the waves thereof are still. Then they are glad, because they be quiet, so he bringeth them unto their No. 490.] Monday, September 22, 1712. desired haven."'*

Domus et placens uxor.-Hor. Od. xiv. Lib. 2. 21. . By the way; how much more comfortable, as well as rational, is this system of

Thy house and pleasing wife.-Creech. the psalmist, than the pagan scheme in I HAVE very long entertained an ambiVirgil and other poets, where one deity is tion to make the word wife the most agreerepresented as raising a storm, and another able and delightful name in nature. If it be as laying it! Were we only to consider the not so in itself all the wiser part of mansublime in this piece of poetry, what can kind, from the beginning of the world to be nobler than the idea it gives us of the this day, has consented in an error,

But Supreme Being thus raising a tumult among our unhappiness in Englard has been, that the elements, and recovering them out of a few loose men of genius for pleasure, their confusion; thus troubling and becalm- have turned it all to the gratification of uning nature?

governed desires, in despite of good sense, Great painters do not only give us land- form, and order; when in truth, any satisscapes of gardens, groves, and meadows, faction beyond the boundaries of reason is but very often employ their pencils upon but a step towards madness and folly. But sea-pieces. I could wish you would follow is the sense of joy and accomplishment of their example. If this small sketch may desire no way to be indulged or attained ? deserve a place among your works, I shall And have we appetites given us not to be accompany it with a divine ode made by a at all gratified? Yes, certainly. Marriage gentleman upon the conclusion of his travels. is an institution calculated for a constant

scene of delight, as much as our being is " How are thy servants blest, O Lord!

capable of. Two persons, who have chosen How sure is their defence!

each other out of all the species, with deEternal wisdom is their guide,

sign to be each other's mutual comfort and Their help Omnipotence.

entertainment, have in that action bound II.

themselves to be good-humoured, affable, " In foreign realms and lands remote, Supported by thy care,

discreet, forgiving, patient, and joyful, with Through burning climes I pass'd unhurt, respect to each other's frailties and perfecAnd breath'd in'tainted air.

tions, to the end of their lives. The wiser

of the two (and it always happens one of “ Thy mercy sweeten'd every soil,

them is such) will, for her or his own sake, Made ev'ry region please :

keep things from outrage with the utmost The hoary Alpine hills it warm’d, And smooth'd the Tyrrhene seas.

sanctity. When this union is thus preserv

ed, (as I have often said) the most indifIV.

ferent circumstance administers delight: "Think, O my soul, devoutly think, How, with affrighted eyes,

their condition is an endless source of new Thou saw'st the wide extended deep

gratifications. The married man can say, In all its horrors rise !

If I am unacceptable to all the world be

side, there is one whom I entirely love, “Confusion dwelt in ev'ry face,

that will receive me with joy and transport,
And fear in ev'ry heart;
Whep waves on waves, and gulfs in gulfs and think herself obliged to double her
O'ercame the pilot's art.

kindness and caresses of me from the gloom

with which she sees me overcast. I need “ Yet then from all my griefs, O Lord,

not dissemble the sorrow of my heart to be Thy mercy set me free,

agreeable there; that very sorrow quickens * Ps. cvii. 23, et seq.

her affection.'

I.

1

III.

V.

VI.

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