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not reach his ears. They have news- 1 poor revenge of resenting them. The hisgatherers and intelligencers distributed into stories of Alexander and Cæsar are full of their several walks and quarters, who this kind of instances. Vulgar sculs are of bring in their respective quotas, and make a quite contrary character. Dionysius, the them acquainted with the discourse and tyrant of Sicily, had a dungeon which was conversation of the whole kingdom or com- a very curious piece of architecture; and of monwealth where they are employed. The which, as I am informed, there are still to wisest of kings, alluding to these invisible be seen some remains in that island. It and unsuspected spies, who are planted by was called Dionysius's Ear, and built with kings and rulers over their fellow-citizens, several little windings and labyrinths in the as well as to those voluntary informers that form of a real ear. The structure of it are buzzing about the ears of a great man, made it a kind of whispering place, but such and making their court by such secret a one as gathered the voice of him who methods of intelligence, has given us a very spoke into a funnel, which was placed at prudent caution:* •Curse not the king, no the very top of it. The tyrant used to not in thy thought, and curse not the rich lodge all his state criminals, or those whom in thy bed-chamber; for a bird of the air he supposed to be engaged together in any shall carry the voice, and that which hath evil design upon him, in this dungeon. He wings shall tell the matter.' .

had at the same time an apartment over As it is absolutely necessary for rulers to it, where he used to apply himself to the make use of other people's eyes, they should funnel, and by that means overheard every take particular care to do it in such a man- thing that was whispered in the dungeon. ner that it may not bear too hard on the I believe one may venture to affirm, that a person whose life and conversation are in- | Cæsar or an Alexander would have rather quired into. A man who is capable of so died by the treason than have used such infamous a calling as that of a spy, is not disingenuous means for the detecting of it. very much to be relied upon. He can have A man who in ordinary life is very inquino great ties of honour or checks of con- sitive after every thing which is spoken ill science, to restrain him in those covert evi- of him, passes his time but very indiffedences, where the person accused has no rently. He is wounded by every arrow opportunity of vindicating himself. He will that is shot at him, and puts it in the power be more industrious to carry that which is of every insignificant enemy to disquiet grateful than that which is true. There him. Nay, he will suffer from what has will be no occasion for him if he does not been said of him, when it is forgotten by hear and see things worth discovery; so those who said or heard it. For this reathat he naturally inflames every word and son I could never bear one of those officious circumstance, aggravates what is faulty, friends, that would be telling every malicious perverts what is good, and misrepresents report, every idle censure, that passed upon what is indifferent. Nor is it to be doubted me. The tongue of man is so petulant, and but that such ignominious wretches let their his thoughts so variable, that one should private passions into these their clandestine not lay too great a stress upon any present informations, and often wreak their par- speeches and opinions. Praise and obloquy ticular spite and malice against the person proceed very frequently out of the same whom they are set to watch. It is a plea-mouth upon the same person; and upon the sant scene enough, which an Italian author same occasion. A generous enemy will describes between a spy and a cardinal who sometimes bestow commendations, as the employed him. The cardinal is represented dearest friend cannot sometimes refrain as minuting down every thing that is told from speaking ill. The man who is indifhim. The spy begins with a low voice, ferent in either of these respects, gives his "Such a one, the advocate, whispered to opinion at random, and praises or disapone of his friends, within my hearing, that proves as he finds himself in humour. your eminence was a very great poltroon;' I shall conclude this essay with part of a and after having given his patron time character, which is finely drawn by the enough to take it down, adds, that another earl of Clarendon, in the first book of his called him a mercenary rascal in a public History, which gives us the lively picture conversation. The cardinal replies, Very of a great man teasing himself with an abwell,' and bids him go on. The spy pro- surd curiosity. ceeds and loads him with reports of the I He had not that application and subsame nature, till the cardinal rises in great mission, and reverence for the queen, as wrath, calls him an impudent scoundrel, might have been expected from his wisdom and kicks him out of the room.

and breeding; and often crossed her preIt is observed of great and heroic minds, tences and desires with more rudeness than that they have not only shown a particular was natural to him. Yet he was impertidisregard to those unmerited reproaches nently solicitous to know what her majesty which have been cast upon them, but have said of him in private, and what resentbeen altogether free from that impertinent ments she had towards him. And when curiosity of inquiring after them, or the by some confidants, who had their ends

upon him from those offices, he was in* Eccl. x. 20.

| formed of some bitter expressions falling

from her majesty, he was so exceedingly from the table, and convey him to the inafflicted and tormented with the sense of firmary. There was but one more sent it, that sometimes by passionate complaints away that day; this was a gentleman who and representations to the king, sometimes is reckoned by some persons one of the by more dutiful addresses and expostula- greatest wits, and by others one of the tions with the queen in bewailing his mis- greatest boobies about town. This you will fortuna, he frequently exposed himself, and say is a strange character; but what makes left his condition worse than it was before, it stranger yet, is a very true one, for he is and the eclaircissement commonly ended in perpetually the reverse of himself, being the discovery of the persons from whom he always merry or dull to excess. We brought had received his most secret intelligence.' him hither to divert us, which he did

0. very well upon the road, having lavished

away as much wit and laughter upon the

hackney coachman as might have served No. 440.] Friday, July 25, 1712.

during his whole stay here, had it been

duly managed. He had been lumpish for Vivere si recte nescis, discede peritis.

two or three days, but was so far connived Hor. Ep. ii. Lib. 2. 213.

at, in hopes of recovery, that we despatched Learn to live well, or fairly make your will.

one of the briskest fellows among the bro

Pope. therhood into the infirmary for having told I HAVE already given my reader an ac

him at table he was not merry. But our count of a set of merry fellows who are president observing that he indulged himpassing their summer together in the coun- self in this long fit of stupidity, and contry, being provided with a great house, struing it as a contempt of the college, where there is not only a convenient apart- ordered him to retire into the place prement for every particular person, but a pared for such companions. He was no large infirmary for the reception of such of sooner got into it, but his wit and mirth them as are any way indisposed or out of returned upon him in so violent a manner, humour. Having lately received a letter that he shook the whole infirmary with the from the secretary of the society, by order noise of it, and had so good an effect upon the of the whole fraternity, which acquaints rest of the patients, that he brought them me with their behaviour during the last all out to dinner with him the next day, week, I shall here make a present of it to On Tuesday we were no sooner sat the public.

down, but one of the company complained

that his head ached; upon which, another Mr. SPECTATOR,_We are glad to find asked him in an insolent manner, what he that you approve the establishment which did there then? This insensibly grew into we have here made for the retrieving of some warm words; so that the president, in good manners and agreeable conversation, order to keep the peace, gave directions to and shall use our best endeavours so to im- take them both from the table, and lodge prove ourselves in this our summer retire-them in the infirmary. Not long after, anment, that we may next winter serve as other of the company telling us he knew, patterns to the town. But to the end that by a pain in his shoulder, that we should this our institution may be no less advanta- have some rain, the president ordered him geous to the public than to ourselves, we to be removed, and placed at a weathershall communicate to you one week of our glass in the apartment above-mentioned. proceedings, desiring you at the same time, «On Wednesday a gentleman having reif you see any thing faulty in them, to favourceived a letter written in a woman's hand, us with your admonitions: for you must and changing colour twice or thrice as he know, sir, that it has been proposed amongst read it, desired leave to retire into the inus to choose you for our visitor; to which I firmary, The president consented, but demust farther add, that one of the college nied him the use of pen, ink, and paper, having declared last week he did not like till such time as he had slept upon it. One the Spectator of the day, and not being of the company being seated at the lower able to assign any just reasons for such dis- end of the table, and discovering his secret like, he was sent to the infirmary nemine discontent, by finding fault with every dish contradicente.

that was served up, and refusing to laugh On Monday the assembly was in very at any thing that was said, the president good humour, having received some re- told him, that he found he was in an uncruits of French claret that morning; when, easy seat, and desired him to accommodate unluckily, towards the middle of the din- himself better in the infirmary. After dinner, one of the company swore at his ser- ner, a very honest fellow chanced to let a vant in a very rough manner for having put pun fall from him; his neighbour cried out, too much water in his wine. Upon which, *. To the infirmary;" at the same time prethe president of the day, who is always the tending to be sick at it, as having the same mouth of the company, after having con- natural antipathy to a pun which some vinced him of the impertinence of his pas- have to a cat. This produced a long desion, and the insult he had made upon the bate. Upon the whole, the punster was company, ordered his man to take him | acquitted, and his neighbour sent off, VoL, II.

23

On Thursday there was but one delin-1 blessings and conveniences of life, and an quent. This was a gentleman ‘of strong habitual trust in him for deliverance out of voice, but weak understanding. He had all such dangers and difficulties as may beunluckily engaged himself in a dispute with fall us. a man of excellent sense, but of a modest The man who always lives in this diselocution. The man of heat replied to every position of mind, has not the same dark and answer of his antagonist with a louder note melancholy views of human nature, as he than ordinary, and only raised his voice who considers himself abstractedly from when he should have enforced his argu-this relation to the Supreme Being. At the ment. Finding himself at length driven to same time that he reflects upon his own an absurdity, he still reasoned in a more weakness and imperfection, he comforts clamorous and confused manner; and to himself with the contemplation of those make the greater impression upon his divine attributes which are employed for hearers, concluded with a loud thump upon his safety and his welfare. He finds his the table. The president immediately or want of foresight made up by the Omnidered him to be carried off, and dieted with science of Him who is his support. He is water-gruel, till such time as he should be not sensible of his own want of strength, sufficiently weakened for conversation. when he knows that his helper is almighty.

On Friday there passed very little re- In short, the person who has a firm trust markable, saving only, that several petitions on the Supreme Being is powerful in His were read of the persons in custody, de- / power, wise by His wisdom, happy by His siring to be released from their confinement, happiness. He reaps the benefit of every and vouching for one another's good beha- divine attribute, and loses his own insufviour for the future.

ficiency in the fulness of infinite perfection. On Saturday we received many excuses To make our lives more easy to us, we from persons who had found themselves in are commanded to put our trust in Him, an unsociable temper, and had voluntarily who is thus able to relieve and succour us; shut themselves up. The infirmary was, the divine goodness having made such reindeed, never so full as on this day, which liance a duty, notwithstanding we should I was at some loss to account for, till, upon have been miserable had it been forbidmy going abroad, I observed that it was an den us. easterly wind. The retirement of most of Among several motives which might be my friends has given me opportunity and made use of to recommend this duty to us, leisure of writing you this letter, which II shall only take notice of those that follow, must not conclude without assuring you, that The first and strongest is, that we are all the members of our college, as well those promised, He will not fail those who put who are under confinement as those who their trust in Him. are at liberty, are your very humble ser- But, without considering the supernatural vants, though none more than,

blessing which accompanies this duty, we &c.' may observe, that it has a natural tendency

to its own reward, or, in other words, that

this firm trust and confidence in the great No. 441.] Saturday, July 26, 1712.

Disposer of all things, contributes very

much to the getting clear of any affliction, Si fractus illabatur orbis,

or to the bearing it manfully. A person who Impavidum ferient ruinæ. Hor. Od. iii. Lib. 3. 7.

believes he has his succour at hand, and Should the whole frame of nature round him break that he acts in the sight of his friend, often In ruin and confusion hurl'd,

exerts himself beyond his abilities, and does He, unconcern'd, would hear the mighty crack, And stand secure amidst a falling world.-Anon.

wonders that are not to be matched by one

who is not animated with such a confidence Man, considered in himself, is a very of success. I could produce instances from helpless and a very wretched being. He history, of generals, who, out of a belief is subject every moment to the greatest that they were under the protection of some calamities and misfortunes. He is beset invisible assistant, did not only encourage with dangers on all sides; and may become their soldiers to do their utmost, but have unhappy by numberless casualties, which acted themselves beyond what they would he could not foresee, nor have prevented have done had they not been inspired by had he foreseen them.

such a belief. I might in the same manner It is our comfort while we are obnoxious show how such a trust in the assistance of to so many accidents, that we are under the an Almighty Being naturally produces care of One who directs contingencies, and patience, hope, cheerfulness, and all other has in his hands the management of every dispositions of mind that alleviate those thing that is capable of annoying or offend- calamities which we are not able to remove. ing us; who knows the assistance we stand The practice of this virtue administers in need of, and is always ready to bestow it great comfort to the mind of man in times on those who ask it of him.

of poverty and affliction, but most of all in The natural homage which such a crea the hour of death. When the soul is hoverture bears to so infinitely wise and good a ing in the last moments of its separation, Being, is a firm reliance on him for the when it is just entering on another state of

C.

existence, to converse with scenes, and ob- whatever might be proper to adapt them jects and companions that are altogether to the character and genius of my paper, new,—what can support her under such with which it was almost impossible these tremblings of thought, such fear, such could exactly correspond, it being certain anxiety, such apprehensions, but the cast-that hardly two men think alike; and, ing of all her cares upon Him who first therefore, so many men so many Spectagave her being, who has conducted her tors. Besides, I must own my weakness for through one stage of it, and will be always glory is such, that, if I consulted that only, with her to guide and comfort her in her I might be so far swayed by it, as almost to progress through eternity?

wish that no one could write a Spectator David has very beautifully represented besides myself; nor can I deny but, upon this steady reliance on God Almighty in the first perusal of those papers, I felt some his twenty-third psalm, which is a kind of secret inclinations of ill-will towards the pastoral hymn, and filled with those allu-persons who wrote them. This was the imsions which are usual in that kind of writ-pression I had upon the first reading them; ing. As the poetry is very exquisite, I but upon a late review (more for the sake shall present my reader with the following of entertainment than use,) regarding them translation of it:

with another eye than I had done at first (for by converting them as well as I could

to my own use, I thought I had utterly dis• The Lord my pastore shall prepare, And feed me with a shepherd's care:

abled them from ever offending me again His presence shall my wants supply,

as Spectators,) I found myself moved by a And guard me with a watchful eye;

passion very different from that of envy; My noon-day walks he shall attend, And all my midnight hours defeod.

sensibly touched with pity, the softest and

most generous of all passions, when I reII.

flected what a cruel disappointment the • When in the sultry glebe I faint,

neglect of those papers must needs have Or on the thirsty mountain pant; To fertile vales and dewy meads

been to the writers who impatiently longed My weary, wand'ring steps he leads;

to see them appear in print, and who, no Where peaceful rivers, soft, and slow,

doubt, triumphed to themselves in the Amid the verdant landscape flow.

hopes of having a share with me in the apIII.

plause of the public; a pleasure so great, • Though in the paths of death I tread,

that none but those who have experienced With gloomy horrors overspread,

it can have a sense of it. In this manner of My steadfast heart shall fear no ill, For thou, O Lord, art with me still;

viewing those papers, I really found I had Thy friendly crook shall give me aid,

not done them justice, there being someAnd guide me through the dreadful shade.

thing so extremely natural and peculiarly IV.

good in some of thenı, that I will appeal to • Though in a bare and rugged way,

the world whether it was possible to alter a Through devious, lonely wilds I stray,

word in them without doing them a maniThy bounty shall my paing beguile: The barren wilderness shall smile

fest hurt and violence; and whether they With sudden greens and herbage crown'd,

can ever appear rightly, and as they ought, And streams shall inurmur all around.'

but in their own native dress and colours. And therefore I think I should not only wrong them, but deprive the world of a con

siderable satisfaction, should I any longer No. 442.] Monday, July 28, 1712. delay the making them public. Scribimus indocti doctique

After I have published a few of these Hor. Ep. i. Lib. 2. 117. Spectators, I doubt not but I shall find the Those who cannot write, and those who can, success of them to equal, if not surpass, All rhyme and scrawl, and scribble to a man. that of the best of my own. An author

Pope.

should take all methods to humble himself I do not know whether I enough ex-l in the opinion he has of his own performplained myself to the world, when I invited ances. When these papers appear to the all men to be assistant to me in this my world, I doubt not but they will be followed work of speculation; for I have not yet ac- by many others; and I shall not repine, quainted my readers, that besides the let-though I myself shall have left me but a ters and valuable hints I have from time to very few days to appear in public: but pretime received from my correspondents, I ferring the general weal and advantage to have by me several curious and extraor- any consideration of myself, I am resolved dinary papers sent with a design (as no one for the future to publish any Spectator that will doubt when they are published) that deserves it entire, and without any alterathey may be printed entire, and without tion; assuring the world (if there can be any alteration, by way of Spectator. I must need of it) that it is none of mine, and if the acknowledge also, that I myself being the authors think fit to subscribe their names, first projector of the paper, thought I had I will add them. • a right to make them my own, by dressing I think the best way of promoting this them in my own style, by leaving out what generous and useful design, will be by would not appear like mine, and by adding I giving out subjects or themes of all kinds

whatsoever, on which (with a preamble of Camilla* to the Spectator...
the extraordinary benefit and advantages
that may accrue thereby to the public I

«Venice, July 10, n. S. will invite all manner of persons, whether

• MR. SPECTATOR, I take it extremely scholars, citizens, courtiers, gentlemen of

of ill, that you do not reckon conspicuous the town or country, and all beaus, rakes,

persons of your nation are within your cogsmarts, prudes, coquettes, housewives, and

nizance, though out of the dominions of all sorts of wits, whether male or female,

Great Britain. I little thought, in the and however distinguished, whether they gry

green years of my life, that I should ever be true wits, whole or half wits, or whether

her call it a happiness to be out of dear Engarch, dry, natural, acquired, genuine, or

land; but as I grew to woman, I found depraved wits; and persons of all sorts of myself

fmyself less acceptable in proportion to the tempers and complexions, whether the in

the increase of my merit. Their ears in Italy severe, the delightful, the impertinent, the are

the are so differently formed from the make of agreeable, the thoughtful, the busy or care

yours in England, that I never come upon less, the serene or cloudy, jovial or melan

the stage, but a general satisfaction apcholy, untowardly or easy, the cold, tem

pears in every countenance of the whole perate, or sanguine; and of what manners

people. When I dwell upon a note, I be

hold all the men accompanying me with or dispositions soever, whether the ambitious or humble-minded, the proud or

heads inclining, and falling of their persons pitiful, ingenuous or base-minded, good or

on one side, as dying away with me. The ill-natured, public-spirited or selfish; and

women too do justice to my merit, and no under what fortune or circumstance soever,

ill-natured, worthless creature cries, “The whether the contented or miserable, happy

vain thing," when I am rapt in the peror unfortunate, high or low, rich or poor

formance of my part, and sensibly touched (whether so through want of money, or de

with the effect my voice has upon all who sire of more,) healthy or sickly, married or

hear me. I live here distinguished as one single: nay, whether tall or short, fat or

whom nature has been liberal to in a gracelean; and of what trade, occupation, pro

ful person, and exalted mien, and heavenly fession, station, country, faction, party, per

voice. These particularities in this strange suasion, quality, age, or condition soever;

country are arguments for respect and who have ever made thinking a part of generosity to her who is possessed of them. their business or diversion, and have any

| The Italians see a thousand beauties I am thing worthy to impart on these subjects to

sensible I have no pretence to, and abunthe world, according to their several and

dantly make up to me the injustice I rerespective talents or geniuses: and, as the ceived in my own country, of disallowing subjects given out hit their tempers, hu

me what I really had. The humour of mours, or circumstances, or may be made

hissing which you have among you, I do profitable to the public by their particular

not know any thing of; and their applauses knowledge or experience in the matter pro

are uttered in sighs, and bearing a part at posed, to do their utmost on them by such

the cadences of voice with the persons who a time to the end they may receive the are performing. Tam often put in mind of inexpressible and irresistible pleasure of

those complaisant lines of my own countryseeing their essays allowed of and relished

pelished man, † when he is calling all his faculties by the rest of mankind.

together to hear Arabella. I will not prepossess the reader with too " Let all be hush'd, each softest motion cease, great expectation of the extraordinary ad

Be ev'ry loud tumultuous thought at peace;

And ev'ry ruder gasp of breath vantages which must redound to the public

Be calm, as in the arms of death: by these essays, when the different thoughts And thou, most fickle, most uneasy part, and observations of all sorts of persons, ac

Thou restless wanderer, my heart,

Be still; gently, ahl gently leave, cording to their quality, age, sex, educa

Thou busy, idle thing, to heave: tion, professions, humours, manners, and Stir not a pulse; and let my blood, conditions, &c. shall be set out by them

That turbulent, unruly flood,

Be softly staid : selves in the clearest and most genuine

Let me be all, but my attention dead." light, and as they themselves would wish to have them appear to the world.

The whole city of Venice is as still when I The thesis proposed for the present ex

am singing as this polite hearer was to ercise of the adventurers to write Specta

Mrs. Hunt. But when they break that tors, is Money; on which subject all persons

silence, did you know the pleasure I am are desired to send in their thoughts within

in, when every man utters his applauses, ten days after the date hereof. T.

by calling me aloud, “ The dear Creature! The Angel! The Venus! What attitudes she moves with! Hush, she sings again!”

We have no boisterous wits who dare disNo. 443.] Tuesday, July 29, 1712. turb an audience, and break the public

peace merely to show they dare. Mr. Sublatum ex oculis quærimus invidi, Hor. Od. xxiv. Lib. 3. 33.

* Mrs. Tofts, who played the part of Camilla in the Snatch'd from our sight, we eagerly pursue,

opera of that name. And fondly would recall her to our view.

Mr. Congreve 11

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