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wages, and the manner of living out of a walks in the Temple. A young gentleman domestic way: but I cannot give you my of the house, who (as I heard him say afterthoughts on this subject any way so well, as wards) seeing me half-starved and wellhy a short account of my own life to this the dressed, thought me an equipage ready to forty-fifth year of my age; that is to say, his hand, after a very little inquiry more from my being first á footboy at fourteen, than “Did I want a master?” bid me folto my present station of a nobleman's por- low him; I did so, and in a very little while ter in the year of my age above-mentioned. thought myself the happiest creature in the

Know then, that my father was a poor world. My time was taken up in carrying tenant to the family of Sir Stephen Rack-/ letters to wenches, or messages to young rent. Sir Stephen put me to school, or ladies of my master's acquaintance. We rather made me follow his son Harry to rambled from tavern to tavern, to the playschool, from my ninth year: and there, house, the Mulberry-garden, * and all places though Sir Stephen paid something for my of resort; where my master engaged every learning, I was used like a servant, and was night in some new amour, in which and forced to get what scraps of learning I could drinking, he spent all his time when he had by my own industry, for the school-master money. During these extravagances, I had took very little notice of me. My young the pleasure of lying on the stairs of a master was a lad of very sprightly parts; tavern half a night playing at dice with and my being constantly about hím, and other servants, and the like idleness. When loving him, was no small advantage to me. my master was moneyless, I was generally My master loved me extremely, and has employed in transcribing amorous pieces of often been whipped for not keeping me at poetry, old songs, and new lampoons. This a distance. He used always to say, that life held till my master married, and he when he came to his estate I should have a had then the prudence to turn me off, belease of my father's tenement for nothing. cause I was in the secret of his intrigues. I came up to town with him to Westmin-1 “I was utterly at a loss what course to ster-school; at which time he taught me at take next; when at last I applied myself night all he learnt; and put me to find out to a fellow-sufferer, one of his mistresses, a words in the dictionary when he was about woman of the town. She happening at that his exercise. It was the will of Providence time to be pretty full of money, clothed me that master Harry was taken very ill of a from head to foot; and knowing me to be fever of which he died within ten days after a sharp fellow, employed me accordingly. his first falling sick. Here was the first Sometimes I was to go abroad with her, sorrow I ever knew; and I assure you, Mr. and when she had pitched upon a young Spectator, I remember the beautiful action fellow, she thought for her turn, I was to of the sweet youth in his fever, as fresh as be dropped as one she could not trust. She if it were yesterday. If he wanted any would often cheapen goods at the New Exthing, it must be given him by Tom. When change;t and when she had a mind to be I let any thing fall through the grief I was attacked, she would send me away on an under, he would cry, “Do not beat the poor errand. When an humble servant and she boy: give him some more julep for me, no- were beginning a parley, I came immebody else shall give it me." He would diately, and told her Sir John was come strive to hide his being so bad, when he home; then she would order another coach saw I could not bear his being in so much to prevent being dogged. The lover makes danger, and comforted me, saying, “ Tom, signs to me as I get behind the coach; I Tom, have a good heart.” When I was shake my head, it was impossible: I leave holding a cup at his mouth, he fell into con- my lady at the next turning, and follow the vulsions; and at this very time I hear my cully to know how to fall in his way on andear master's last groan. I was quickly other occasion. Besides good offices of this turned out of the room, and left to sob and nature, I writ all my mistress's love-letters; beat my head against the wall at my leisure. some from a lady that saw such a gentleThe grief I was in was inexpressible; and man at such a place in such a coloured coat, every body thought it would have cost me some showing the terror she was in of a my life. In a few days my old lady, who jealous old husband, others explaining that was one of the housewives of the world, the severity of her parents was such (though thought of turning me out of doors, because her fortune was settled) that she was wilI put her in mind of her son. Sir Stephen ling to run away with such a one, though proposed putting me to prentice; but my she knew he was but a younger brother. lady being an excellent manager would not In a word, my half education and love of let her husband throw away his money in idle books, made me outwrite all that made acts of charity. I had sense enough to be under the utmost indignation, to see her The Mulberry-garden was a place of genteel enter. discard with so little concern, one her son tainment near Buckingham-house, (now the Queen's had loved so much; and went out of the

Palace.)

Britain's Burse, or the New Exchange, built in 1608, house to ramble wherever my feet would was situated between Durham-yard and York-buildings, carry me.

in the Strand. It had rows of shops (says Pennanı) over The third day after I left Sir Stephen's The

the walk, filled chiefly with milliners, sempetrece la

This was a place of fashionable resort. It was pulled family, I was strolling up and down the down in 1737.

love to her by way of epistle; and as she No. 97.] Thursday, June 21, 1711.
was extremely cunning, she did well enough
in company by a skilful affectation of the

Projecere animas

Virg. n. vi. 436. greatest modesty. In the midst of all this I They prodigally threw their lives away. was surprised with a letter from her and a Among the loose papers which I have ten pound note.

frequently spoken of heretofore, I find a

conversation between Pharamond and Eu“ HONEST TOM,-You will never see me crate upon the subject of duels, and the more, I am married to a very cunning copy of an edict issued in consequence of country gentleman, who might possibly that discourse. guess something if I kept you still; there- Eucrate argued, that nothing but the fore farewell.”

most severe and vindictive punishment,

| such as placing the bodies of the offenders * "When this place was lost also in mar- in chains, and putting them to death by the riage, I was resolved to go among quite an- most exquisite torments, would be sufficient other people, for the future, and got in but- to extirpate a crime which had so long preler to one of those families where there is availed, and was so firmly fixed in the opicoach kept, three or four servants, a clean nion of the world as great and laudable. house, and a good general outside upon a The king answered, 'that indeed instances small estate. Here I lived very comfortably of ignominy were necessary in the cure of for some time, until I unfortunately found this evil; but, considering that it prevailed my master, the very gravest man alive, in only among such as had a nicety in their the gartet with the chamber-maid. I knew sense of honour, and that it often happened the world too well to think of staying there; that a duel was fought to save appearances and the next day pretended to have re- to the world, when both parties were in ceived a letter out of the country that my their hearts in amity and reconciliation to father was dying, and got my discharge, each other, it was evident that turning the with a bounty for my discretion.

mode another way would effectually put a. The next I lived with was a peevish stop to what had being only as a mode; that single man, whom I stayed with for a year to such persons, poverty and shame were and a half. Most part of the time I passed torments sufficient; that he would not go very easily; for when I began to know him, further in punishing in others, crimes which I minded no more than he meant what he he was satisfied he himself was most guilty said; so that one day in a good humour he of, in that he might have prevented them said, “I was the best man he ever had, by by speaking his displeasure sooner,' Bemy want of respect to him.”

sides which the king said, he was in gene*These, sir, are the chief occurrences of ral averse to tortures, which was putting my life, and I will not dwell upon very human nature itself, rather than the crimimany other places I have been in, where Inal, to disgrace; and that he would be sure have been the strangest fellow in the world, not to use this means where the crime was where nobody in the world had such ser- but an ill effect arising from a laudable vants as they, where sure they were the cause, the fear of shame.' The king, at the unluckiest people in the world in servants, same time, spoke with much grace upon and so forth. All I mean by this represen- the subject of mercy; and repented of many tation is, to show you that we poor servants acts of that kind which had a magnificent are not what you called us too generally) aspect in the doing, but dreadful conseall rogues; but that we are what we are, quences in the example. 'Mercy to paraccording to the example of our superiors. ticulars,' he observed, 'was cruelty in the In the family I am now in, I am guilty of general. That though a prince could not no one sin but lying: which I do with a revive a dead man by taking the life of him grave face in my gown and staff every day who killed him, neither could he make I live, and almost all day long, in denying reparation to the next that should die by my lord to impertinent suitors, and my lady the evil example: or answer to himself for to unwelcome visitants. But, sir, I am to the partiality in not pardoning the next as let you know that I am, when I can get well as the former offender,'--' As for abroad, a leader of the servants: I am he me,' says Pharamond, 'I have conquered that keeps time with beating my cudgel France, and yet have given laws to my against the boards in the gallery at an people. The laws are my methods of life; opera; I am he that am touched so pro- they are not a diminution but a direction to perly at a tragedy, when the people of my power. I am still absolute to distinguish quality are staring at one another during the innocent and the virtuous, to give hothe most important incidents. When you nours to the brave and generous; I am abhear in a crowd a cry in the right place, a solute in my good-will; none can oppose my hum where the point is touched in a speech, bounty, or prescribe rules for my favour. or a huzza set up where it is the voice of While I can, as I please, reward the good, the people; you may conclude it is begun I am under no pain that I cannot pardon or joined by, sir, your more than humble the wicked: for which reason,' continued servant, THOMAS TRUSTY.' Pharamond, 'I will effectually put a stop

I to this evil, by exposing no more the ten

derness of my nature to the importunity of be, after the publication of this our edict, having the same respect to those who are capable of bearing office in these our doo miserable by their fault, and those who are minions. so by their misfortune. Flatterers (con-| The person who shall prove the sendcluded the king smiling) repeat to us prin- ing or receiving a challenge, shall receive ces, that we are heaven's vicegerents; let to his own use and property, the whole us be so, and let the only thing out of our personal estate of both parties; and their power be to do ill.”

real estate shall be immediately vested in Soon after the evening wherein Phara- the next heir of the offenders in as ample mond and Eucrate had this conversation, manner as if the said offenders were actuthe following edict was published against ally deceased. duels.

• In cases where the laws (which we have Pharamond's Edict against Vuels already granted to our subjects) admit of

an appeal for blood; when the criminal is •PHARAMOND, King of the Gauls, to all his condemned by the said appeal, he shall

loving subjects sendeth greeting. not only suffer death, but his whole estate, "Whereas it has come to our royal no- real, mixed, and personal, shall from the tice and observation, that in contempt of hour of his death be vested in the next all laws, divine and human, it is of late be- heir of the person whose blood he spilt. come a custom among the nobility and gen- “That it shall not hereafter be in our try of this our kingdom, upon slight and royal power, or that of our successors, to trivial, as well as great and urgent provo-pardon the said offences, or restore the cations, to invite each other into the field, offenders in their estates, honours, or blood, there by their own hands, and of their own for ever. authority, to decide their controversies by “Given at our court at Blois, the 8th of combat; we have thought fit to take the February, 420, in the second year of said custom into our royal consideration, our reign.' and find upon inquiry into the usual causes whereon such fatal decisions have arisen, that by this wicked custom, maugre all the precepts of our holy religion, and the rules

No. 98.] Friday, June 22, 1711. of right reason, the greatest act of the hu - Tanta est quærendi cura decorig.

Jud. Sat. vi. 500. man mind, forgiveness of injuries, is become vile and shameful; that the rules of

So studiously their persons they adorn. good society and virtuous conversation are There is not so variable a thing in nahereby inverted; that the loose, the vain, ture as a lady's head-dress. Within my and the impudent, insult the careful, the own memory, I have known it rise and fall discreet, and the modest; that all virtue is above thirty degrees. About ten years ago suppressed, and all vice supported, in the it shot up to a very great height, insomuch one act of being capable to dare to the that the remale part of our species were death. We have also further, with great much taller than the men. * The women sorrow of mind, observed that this dreadful were of such an enormous stature, that action, by long impunity (our royal atten- we appeared as grasshoppers before tion being employed upon matters of more them.'fo At present the whole sex is in a general concern) is become honourable, manner dwarfed, and shrunk into a race of and the refusal to engage in it ignominious. beauties that seem almost another speIn these our royal cares and inquiries we cies. I remember several ladies who were are yet further made to understand, that once very near seven feet high, that at the persons of most eminent worth, and present want some inches of five. How most hopeful abilities, accompanied with they came to be thus curtailed I cannot the strongest passion for true glory, are learn; whether the whole sex be at presuch as are most liable to be involved in sent under any penance which we know the dangers arising from this licence. nothing of, or whether they have cast their Now taking the said premises into our se- head-dresses in order to surprise us with rious consideration, and well weighing that something in that kind which shall be enall such emergences (wherein the mind is tirely new, or whether some of the tallest incapable of commanding itself, and where of the sex, being too cunning for the rest, the injury is too sudden or too exquisite to have contrived this method to make thembe borne) are particularly provided for by I selves appear sizeable, is still a secret; laws heretofore enacted; and that the though I find most are of opinion, they qualities of less injuries, like those of in- lare at present like trees new lopped and gratitude, are too nice and delicate to come under general rules; we do resolve to blot This refers to the commode, a kind of head-dress

worn by the ladies at the beginning of the last century, the minds of our subjects, by our royal re which by means of wire bore up their hair and fore-part

of the cap, consisting of many folds of fine lace, to a solutions declared in this edict as follow:

prodigious height. The transition from this to the opposite extreme was very abrupt and sudden. It made its appearance again a few years after, but has now

been long ba pished. though no death ensues thereupon, shall Numb. xiii. 33.

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pruned, that will certainly sprout up and tion of twenty thousand people; the men fourish with greater heads than before. For placing themselves on the one side of his my own part, as I do not love to be insult- pulpit, and the women on the other, that ed by women who are taller than myself, I appeared to use the similitude of an ingeadmire the sex much more in their present nious writer) like a forest of cedars with humiliation, which has reduced them to their heads reaching to the clouds. He so their natural dimensions, than when they warmed and animated the people against had extended their persons and lengthened this monstrous ornament, that it lay under themselves out into formidable and gigan- a kind of persecution; and whenever it aptic figures. I am not for adding to the peared in public, was pelted down by the beautiful edifices of nature, nor for raising rabble, who flung stones at the persons any whimsical superstructure upon her who wore it. But notwithstanding this plans; I must therefore repeat it, that I prodigy vanished while the preacher was am highly pleased with the coiffure now in among them, it began to appear again fashion, and think it shows the good sense some months after his departure, or to tell which at present very much reigns among it in Monsieur Paradin's own words, “The the valuable part of the sex. One may ob- women that, like snails in a fright, had serve that women in all ages have taken drawn in their horns, shot them out again more pains than men to adorn the outside as soon as the danger was over.' This exof their heads; and indeed I very much ad-travagance of the women's head-dresses in mire, that those female architects, who that age, is taken notice of by Monsieur raise such wonderful structures out of | d’Argentre in his history of Bretagne, and ribands, lace, and wire, have not been re- by other historians, as well as the person I corded for their respective inventions. It have here quoted. is certain there have been as many or- It is usually observed, that a good reign ders in these kinds of building, as in those is the only proper time for making of laws which have been made of marble. Some- against the exorbitance of power; in the times they rise in the shape of a pyramid, same manner an excessive head-dress may sometimes like a tower, and sometimes be attacked the most effectually when the like a steeple. In Juvenal's time the build-fashion is against it. I do therefore recoming grew by several orders and stories, as mend this paper to my female readers by he has very humorously described it: way of prevention. Tot premit ordonibus, tot adhuc compagibus altum

I would desire the fair sex to consider dincat caput; Andromachen a fronte videbis; | how impossible it is for them to add any Post minor est: aliam credas.- Juv. Sat. vi. 501. thing that can be ornamental to what is alWith curls on curls they build her head before, ready the master-piece of nature. The And mount it with a formidable tow'r:

head has the most beautiful appearance, as A giantess she seems; but look bebind. And then she dwindles to the pigmy kind.-Dryden. | well as the highest station, in a human But I do not remember in any part of my

figure. Nature has laid out all her art in

my beautifying the face; she has touched it reading, that the head-dress aspired to so with us

| with vermillion, planted in it a double row great an extravagance as in the fourteenth

th of ivory, made it the seat of smiles and

of century; when it was built up in a couple blush

in a couple blushes, lighted it up and enlivened it of cones or spires, which stood so exces- with the hmo

with the brightness of the eyes, hung it on sively high on each side of the head, that

at each side with curious organs of sense, a woman who was but a pigmy without

given it airs and graces that cannot be deher head-dress, appeared like a colossus

sus scribed, and surrounded it with such a upon putting it on. Monsieur Paradin says, Aowing shade of hair as sets all its beau"That these old-fashioned fontanges rose tie

ose ties in the most agreeable light. In short, an ell above the head; that they were

she seems to have designed the head as the pointed like steeples, and had long loose

cupola of the most glorious of her works; pieces of crape fastened to the tops of land when we load it with such a pile of suthem, which were curiously fringed, and

pernumerary ornaments, we destroy the hang down their backs like streamers.'

symmetry of the human figure, and foolThe women might possibly have carried

ishly contrive to call off the eye from great this Gothic building much higher, had not

and real beauties, to childish gewgaws, a famous monk, Thomas Conecte by name, ribar

, ribands, and bone-lace. attacked it with great zeal and resolution. This holy man i avelled from place to place to preach down this monstrous com- No. 99.1 Saturday, June 23, 1711. mode; and succeeded so well in it, that as the magicians sacrificed their books to the - Turpi secernis honestum. flames upon the preaching of an apostle,

Hor. Lib. i. Sat. vi. 63. many of the women threw down their l You know to fix the bounds of right and wrong. head-dresses in the middle of his sermon, The club, of which I have often declared and made a bonfire of them within sight of myself a member, were last night engaged the pulpit. He was so renowned as well in a discourse upon that which passes for the for the sanctity of his life as his manner of chief point of honour among men and wopreaching, that he had often a congrega-men: and started a great many hints upon

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the subject, which I thought were entirely is bigger and stronger than himself, seeks
new. I shall therefore methodize the seve- all opportunities of being knocked on the
ral reflections that arose upon this occasion, head, and after seven years' rambling re-
and present my reader with them for the turns to his mistress, whose chastity has
speculation of this day; after having pre- been attacked in the mean time by giants
mised, that if there is any thing in this pa- and tyrants, and undergone as many trials
per which seems to differ with any passage as her lover's valour,
of last Thursday's, the reader will consider In Spain, where there are still great re-
this as the sentiments of the club, and the mains of this romantic humour, it is a
other as my own private thoughts, or rather transporting favour for a lady to cast an
those of Pharamond.

accidental glance on her lover from a
The great point of honour in men is cou-window, though it be two or three stories
rage, and in a woman chastity. If a man high: as it is usual for a lover to assert his
loses his honour in one rencounter, it is passion for his mistress, in single combat
not impossible for him to regain it in an- with a mad bull.
other, a slip in a woman's honour is irre-! The great violation of the point of honour
coverable." I can give no reason for fixing from man to man, is giving the lie. One
the point of honour to these two qualities, may tell another he whores, drinks, blas-
unless it be that each sex sets the greatest phemes, and it may pass unresented; but
value on the qualification which renders to say he lies, though but in jest, is an af-
them the most amiable in the eyes of the front that nothing but blood can expiate.
contrary sex. Had men chosen for them- The reason perhaps may be, because no
selves, without regard to the opinions of the other vice implies a want of courage so
fair sex, I should believe the choice would much as the making of a lie; and therefore
have fallen on wisdom or virtue; or had telling a man he lies, is touching him in
women determined their own point of ho- the most sensible part of honour, and indi-
nour, it is probable that wit or good-nature | rectly calling him a coward. I cannot
would have carried it against chastity. Somit under this head what Herodotus tells

Nothing recommends a man more to the us of the ancient Persians, that from the female sex than courage; whether it be age of five years to twenty they instruct that they are pleased to see one who is a their sons only in three things, to manage terror to others fall like a slave at their the horse, to make use of the bow, and to feet, or that this quality supplies their own speak truth. principal defect, in guarding them from in- The placing the point of honour in this sults, and avenging their quarrels: or that false kind of courage, has given occasion to courage is a natural indication of a strong the very refuse of mankind, who have and sprightly constitution. On the other neither virtue nor common sense, to set up side, nothing makes women more esteemed for men of honour. An English peer, who by the opposite sex than chastity; whether has not been long dead, * used to tell a it be that we always prize those most who pleasant story of a French gentleman, that are hardest to come at, or that nothing be- visited him early one morning at Paris, sides chastity with its collateral attendants, and after great professions of respect, let truth, fidelity, and constancy, gives the him know that he had it in his power to man a property in the person he loves, and oblige him; which, in short, amounted to consequently endears her to him above all this, that he believed he could tell his lord

ship the person's name who jostled him as I am very much pleased with a passage he came out from the opera; but before he in the inscription on a monument erected would proceed, he begged his lordship: in Westminster-Abbey to the late Duke that he would not deny him the honour of and Dutchess of Newcastle. “Her name making him his second. The English lord, was Margaret Lucas, youngest sister to the to avoid being drawn into a very foolish aflord Lucas of Colchester; a noble family, fair, told him, he was under engagements for all the brothers were valiant, and all for his two next duels to a couple of partithe sisters virtuous.'

cular friends. Upon which the gentleman In books of chivalry, where the point of immediately withdrew, hoping his lordship honour is strained to madness, the whole would not take it ill if he meddled no far: story runs on chastity and courage, Thether in an affair from whence he himself damsel is mounted on a white palfrey as an was to receive no advantage. emblem of her innocence; and to avoid | The beating down this false notion of scandal, must have a dwarf for her page. honour, in so vain and lively a people as She is not to think of a man, until some those of France, is deservedly looked upon misfortune has brought a knight-errant to as one of the most glorious parts of their her relief. The knight falls in love, and present king's reign. It is a pity but the did not gratitude restrain her from murder- punishment of these mischievous notions ing her deliverer, would die at her feet by should have in it some particular circumher disdain. However, he must waste stances of shame and infamy; that those many years in the desert, before her virginheart can think of a surrender. The knight * It has been said that this was William Cavendish gocs off, attacks every thing he meets that I the first Duke of Devonshire, who died August 18, 1707.

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