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side, and intend to sow all the place about / sion. As we are now in the beginning of with cowslips, which I hope you will like existence, so shall we always appear to as well as that I have heard you talk of by ourselves as if we were for ever entering vour father's house in the country.
upon it. After a million or two of centu “Oh! Zelinda, what a scheme of delight ries, some considerable things, already past, have I drawn up in my imagination! What may slip out of our memory, which if it be day-dreams do I indulge myself in! When not strengthened in a wonderful manner, will the six weeks be at an end, that lie may possibly forget that ever there was a between me and my promised happiness! sun or planets; and yet, notwithstanding the
“How could you break off so abruptly in long race we shall then have run, we shall your last, and tell me you must go and dress still imagine ourselves just starting from for the play? If you loved as I do, you the goal, and find no proportion between would find no more company in a crowd that space which we know had a beginning, than I have in my solitude. I am, &c.” and what we are sure will never have an end On the back of this letter is written, in
•But I shall leave this subject to your the hand of the deceased, the following
management, and question not but you will piece of history:
throw it into such lights as shall at once "Mem. Having waited a whole week
improve and entertain your reader. for an answer to this letter, I hurried to
I have, enclosed, sent you a translation* town, where I found the perfidious crea- 1
of the speech of Cato on this occasion, ture married to my rival. I will bear it as wa
which hath accidentally fallen into my becomes a man, and endeavour to find out hands, and which, for conciseness, purity, happiness for myself in that retirement and elegance of phrase, cannot be suffi which I had prepared in vain for a false, ciently admit ungrateful woman," I am, &c.'
ACT V, SCEN. I.
CATO solus, &c.
Sic, sic se habere rem necesse prorsus est, No. 628.] Friday, December 3, 1714.
Ratione vincis, do lubens manos, Plato.
Quid enim dedisset, quæ dedit frustra nibil,
Æternitatis insitam cupidinem
Natura ? Quorsum hæc dulcis expectatio;
Vitæque non explenda melioris sitis?
Quid vult sibi aliud iste redeundi in nihil
Horror, sub imis quemque agens præcordiis?
Cur territa in se refugit anima, cur tremit your speculations which please me more
Attonita, quoties, morte ne pereat, timet? than those upon infinitude and eternity. Particula nempe est cuique nascenti indita You have already considered that part of
Divinior; quæ corpus incolens agit;
Hominique succinit, tua est æternitas. eternity which is past, and I wish you would
Æternitas! O lubricum nimis aspici, give us your thoughts upon that which is to Mixtumque dulci gaudium formidine! come.
Quæ demigrabitur alia hinc in corpora?
Quæ terra mox incognita ? Quis orbis novus
Manet incolendus? Quanta erit mutatio ? greater pleasure from this view of eternity
Hæc intuenti spatia mihi quaqua patent than the former, since we have every one Immensa: sed caliginosa nox premit; of us a concern in that which is to come: Nec luce clara vult videri singula.
Figendus hic pes; certa sunt hæc hactenus: whereas a speculation on that which is past
Si quod gubernet numen humanum genus, is rather curious than useful.
(At, quod gubernet, esse clamant omnia) • Besides, we can easily conceive it possi Virtute non gaudere certe non potest; ble for successive duration never to have an
Nec esse non beata, quà gaudet, potest.
Sed qua beata sede? Quove in tempore? end; though, as you have justly observed, Hæc quanta terra, tota est Cæsaris. that eternity which never had a beginning Quid dubius hæret animus usque adeo? Brevi is altogether incomprehensible; that is, we
Hic nodum hic omnem expediet. Arma en induor.
Ensi manum admovens. can conceivę an eternal duration which In utramque partem facta ; quæque vim inferant, may be, though we cannot an eternal dura Et quæ propulsent! Dextera intentat necem; tion which hath been; or, if I may use the
Vitam sinistra: vulnus hæc dabit manus;
Altera medelam vulneris: hic ad exitum the philosophical terms, we may appre Deducet, ictu simplici; hæc vetant mori. hend a potential though not an actual eter Secura ridet anima mucronis minas, nity.
Ensesque strictos, interire nescia.
Extinguet ætas sidera diuturnoir: This notion of a future eternity, which Ætate languens ipse sol obscurius is natural to the mind of man, is an unan Emittet orbi consenescenti jubar : swerable argument that he is a being de
Natura et ipsa sentiet quondam vices
Ætatis; annis ipsa deficiet gravis: signed for it; especially if we consider that
At tibi juventus, at tibi immortalitas : he is capable of being virtuous or vicious Tibi parta divum est vita. Periment mutus here; that he hath faculties improvable to
Elementa sese et interibunt ictibus.
Tu permanebis sola semper integra, all eternity; and, by a proper or wrong em Tu cuncta rerum quassa, cuncta naufraga, ployment of them, may be happy or mise Jam portu in ipso tuta, contemplabere. rable throughout that infinite duration.
Compage rupta, corruent in se invicem,
Orbesque fractis ingerentur orbibus; Our idea indeed of this eternity is not of an Illæsa tu sedebis extra fragmina.' adequate or fixed nature, but is perpetually
* This translation was by Mr.(afterwards Dr.) Bland, growing and enlarging itself toward the ob
once schoolmaster, then provost of Eton, and deali of ject, which is too big for human comprehen- Durham.
à garde pote
in a fornis in het na dent sunny
· ACT V. SCENE I. | been the case of many great sufferers, they CATO alone, &c.
only serve to recommend them to the chil
dren of violence or folly, Il must be so- Plato, thou reason'st wellElse whence this pleasing hope, this fond desire,
I have by me a bundle of memorials preThis longing after immortality ?
sented by several cavaliers upon the restoOr whence this secret dread, and inward horror, ration of king Charles II, which may serve Of falling into nought? Why shrinks the soul
as so many instances to our present purBack on herself, and startles at destruction ? 'Tis the divinity that stirs within us;
| pose. "Tis Heaven itself that points out an hereafter,
Among several persons and pretensions And intimates an eternity to man.
recorded by my author, he mentions one Eternity! thou pleasing, dreadful thought!
of a very great estate, who, for having "Through what variety of untry'd being, Through what new scenes and changes must we pass!
roasted an ox whole, and distributed a The wide, th' unbounded prospect lies before me; hogshead upon king Charles's birth-day, But shadows, clouds, and darkness, rest upon it. desired to be provided for as his majesty in Here will I hold. If there's a Power above us, (And that there is all Nature cries aloud
| his great wisdom should think fit. Through all her works,) he must delight in virtue; 1. Another put in to be prince Henry's goAnd that which he delights in must be happy. vernor, for having dared to drink his health But when, or where? This world was made for Cæsar,
| in the worst of times. I'm weary of conjectures-This must end them.
(Laying his hand on his sword. A third petitioned for a colonel's commisThus am I doubly arm'd; my death and life,
sion, for having cursed Oliver Cromwell, My bane and antidote, are both before me.
the day before his death, on a public bowlThis in a moment brings me to an end; But this informs me I shall never die.
ing-green. The soul, secur'd in her existence, smiles
But the most whimsical petition I have At the drawn dagger, and defies its point.
met with is that of B, B., esq. who desired The stars shall fade away, the sun himself Grow dim with age, and nature sink in years; the honour of knighthood, for having cuck But thou shalt flourish in immortal youth,
oled Sir T. W. a notorious roundhead Unhurt amidst the war of elements,
There is likewise the petition of one who, The wrecks of matter and the crush of worlds.'
having let his beard grow from the martyrdom of king Charles the first, until the res
toration of king Charles the second, de No. 629.] Monday, December 6, 1714.
sired in consideration thereupon to be made Experiar quid consedatur in illos,
a privy-counsellor. Quorum Flaminia tegitur cinis, atque Latina,
I must not omit a memorial setting forth Juv. Sat. i. 170.
that the memorialist had, with great des---Since none the living dare implead
patch, carried a letter from a certain lord Arraign them in the persons of the dead.--Dryden.
to a certain lord, wherein, as it afterwards Next to the people who want a place, appeared, measures were concerted for the there are none to be pitied more than those restoration, and without which he verily who are solicited for one. A plain answer believes that happy revolution had never with a denial in it is looked upon as pride, been effected; who thereupon humbly prays and a civil answer as a promise.
to be made postmaster-general. Nothing is more ridiculous than the pre- A certain gentleman, who seems to write tensions of people upon these occasions. with a great deal of spirit, and uses the Every thing a man hath suffered, whilst words gallantry and gentleman-like very his enemies were in play, was certainly often in his petition, begs that (in considerbrought about by the malice of the opposite ation of his having worn his hat for ten party. A bad cause would not have been years past in the royal cavalier-cock, to his Tost, if such a one had not been upon the great danger and detriment) he may be bench; nor a profligate youth disinherited, made a captain of the guards. if he had not got drunk every night by I shall close my account of this collection toasting an outed ministry. I remember a of memorials with the copy of one petition tory, who, having been fined in a court of at length, which I recommend to my reader justice for a prank that deserved the pillo- | as a very valuable piece. ry, desired upon the merit of it to be made a justice of the peace when his friends came
The Petition of E. H. Esq. into power; and shall never forget a whig | "HUMBLY. SHOWETH, criminal, who, upon being indicted for a That your petitioner's father's brother's rape, told his friends • You see what a man uncle, colonel W. H. lost the third finger suffers for sticking to his principles.' of his left hand at Edgehill fight.
The truth of it is, the sufferings of a man "That your petitioner, notwithstanding in a party are of a very doubtful nature. the smallness of his fortune (he being a When they are such as have promoted a younger brother,) always kept hospitality, good cause, and fallen upon a man unde- and drank confusion to the roundheads in servedly, they have a right to be heard and half a score bumpers every Sunday in the recompensed beyond any other pretensions. year, as several honest gentlemen (whose But when they rise out of rashness or indis- names are underwritten) are ready to tescretion, and the pursuit of such measures tify. as have rather ruined than promoted the That your petitioner is remarkable in interest they aim at, which hath alwaye his country, for having dared to “reat Sir
VOL. II. , 54
P. P. a cursed sequestrator, and three "You have, I pesume, already preventmembers of the assembly of divines, with, ed me in an argument upon this occasion, brawn and minced pies upon new-year's which some divines have successfully ad
vanced upon a much greater, that musical That your said humble petitioner hath sacrifice and adoration has claimed a place been five times imprisoned in five several in the laws and customs of the most differ county-gaols, for having been a ringleader ent nations; as the Grecians and Romans of in five different riots; into which his zeal the profane, the Jews and Christians of the for the royal cause hurried him, when men sacred world, did as unanimously agree in of greater estates had not the courage to this as they disagreed in all other parts of rise.
their economy, •That he, the said E, H, hath had six 'I know there are not wanting some who duels and four-and-twenty boxing matches are of opinion that the pompous kind of in defence of his majesty's title; and that music which is in use in foreign churches, he received such a blow upon the head at is the most excellent, as it most affects our a bonfire in Stratford-upon-Avon, as he senses, But I am swayed by my judgment hath been never the better for from that to the modesty which is observed in the day to this.
musical part of our devotions. Methinks 1. That your petitioner hath been so far there is something very laudable in the cus from improving his fortune, in the late tom of a voluntary before the first lesson; damnable times, that he verily believes, by this we are supposed to be prepared for and hath good reason to imagine, that if he the admission of those divine truths which had been master of an estate, he had infal- we are shortly to receive. We are then to libly been plundered and sequestered. cast all worldly regards from off our hearts,
Your petitioner, in consideration of his all tumults within are then' becalmed, and said merits and sufferings, humbly requests there should be nothing near the soul but that he may have the place of receiver of peace and tranquillity. So that in this short the taxes, collector of the customs, clerk office of praise the man is raised above of the peace, deputy lieutenant, or what-himself, and is almost lost already amidst soever else he shall be thought qualified for the joys of futurity, . And your petitioner shall ever pray, &c.' I have heard some nice observers fre
quently commend the policy of our church
in this particular, that it leads us on by No. 630.] Wednesday, December 8, 1714.
such easy and regular methods that we are
perfectly deceived into piety. When the • Favete linguis—
Hor. Od. i. Lib. 3. 2. spirits begin to languish, (as they too often
do with a constant series of petitions,) she With mute attention wait.
takes care to allow them a pious respįte, Having no spare time to write any thing and relieves them with the raptures of an of my own, or to correct what is sent me by anthen, Nor can we doubt that the subothers, I have thought fit to publish the fol- limest poetry, softened in the most moving lowing letters:
strains of music, can never fail of humbling Oxford, Nov, 22. or exalting the soul to any pitch of 'devoSIR, -If you would be so kind to me, tion. Who can hear the terrors of the Lord as to suspend that satisfaction which the of Hosts described in the most expressive learned world must receive in reading one melody, without being awed into a veneraof your speculations, by publishing this en- tion? Or who can hear the kind and endeavour, you will very much oblige and dearing attributes of a merciful father, and improve one, who has the boldness to hope not be softened into love towards him? that he may be admitted into the number! As the rising and sinking of the passions, of your correspondents.
the casting soft or noble hints into the soul, : I have often wondered to hear men of is the natural privilege of music in general, good sense and good nature profess a dis- so more particularly of that kind which is like to music, when at the same time they employed at the altar. Those impressions do not scruple to own that it has the most which it leaves upon the spirits are more agreeable and improving influences over deep and lasting, as the grounds from which their minds: it seems to me an unhappy it receives its authority are founded more contradiction, that those persons should upon reason. It diffuses a calmness all have an indifference for an art which raises around us, it makes us drop all those vain in them such a variety of sublime pleasures. or immodest thoughts which would be a
However, though some few, by their hinderance to us in the performance of that own or the unreasonable prejudices of great duty of thanksgiving, which, as we others, may be led into a distaste for those are informed by our Almighty Benefactor, musical societies which are erected merely is the most acceptable return which can for entertainment, yet sure I may venture be made for those infinite stores of blessings to say, that no one can have the least reason which he daily condescends to .pour down for disaffection to that solemn kind of me- upon his creatures. When we make use lody which consists of the praises of our of this pathetical method of addressing ourCreator.
| selves to him, we can scarce contain from
raptures! The heart is warmed with a lothers designed for this fraternity are somesublimity of goodness! We are all piety times placed upon trial to receive them. and all love!
| “The folly as well as rudeness of this How do the blessed spirits rejoice and practice is in nothing more conspicuous wonder to behold unthinking man pros-than this, that all that follows in the ser , trating luis soul to his dread Sovereign in mon is lost; for, whenever our sparks take such a warmth of piety as they themselves alarm, they blaze out and grow so tumulmight not be ashamed of,
tuous that no after-explanation can avail, it I shall close these reflections with a pas-being impossible for themselves or any near sage taken out of the third book of Milton's them to give an account thereof. If any Paradise Lost, where those harmonious be-thing really novel is advanced, how averse ings are thus nobly described:
soever it may be to their way of thinking,
to say nothing of duty, men of less levity “Then crown'd again, their golden harps they took,
than these would be led by a natural cu Harps ever tun'd, that, glittring by their side, Like quivers hung, and with preamble sweet
riosity to hear the whole. Of charming symphony they introduce
} .Laughter, where things sacred are transThe sacred song, and waken raptures high:
acted, is far less pardonable than whining No one exempt, no voice but well could join Melodious part-such concord is in heaven!"
at a conventicle; the last has at least a sem
blance of grace, and where the affectatior Mr. SPECTATOR,_The town cannot be
is unseen, may possibly imprint wholesome unacquainted that in divers parts of it there
lessons on the sincere; but the first has no are vociferous sets of men who are called
excuse, breaking through all the rules of Rattling Clubs; but what shocks me most
order and decency, and manifesting a re is, they have now the front to invade the
missness of mind in those important matters Church and institute these societies, there, which require the strictest composure ang as a clan of them have in late times done, steadiness of thought: a proof of the greatest to such a degree of insolence as has given folly in the world the partition where they reside, in a church
I shall not here enter upon the veneranear one of the city gates, the denomination
tion due to the sanctity of the place, the of the rattling pew. These gay fellows,
Sy reverence owing the minister, or the refrom humble lay professions, set up for
spect that so great an assembly as a whole critics, without any tincture of letters or
parish may justly claim. I shall only tell reading, and have the vanity to think they
them, that, as the Spanish cobbler, to recan lay hold of something from the parson claimi a profligate son. bid him have some which may be formed into ridicule.
regard to the dignity of his family, so they It is needless to observe that the gen
to observe that the gen, as gentlemen (for we who are citizens astlemen, who every Sunday have the hard
sume to be such one day in a week) are province of instructing these wretches in a bound for the future to repent of, and abway they are in no present disposition to stain from the gross abuses here mentioned. take, have a fixed character for learning whereof they have been guilty in contempt and eloquence, not to be tainted by the l of heaven and earth, and contrary to the weak efforts of this contemptible part of laws in this case made and provided. I am. their audiences. Whether the pulpit is
sir, your very humble servant, R. M.' taken by these gentlemen, or any strangers their friends, the way of the club is this: if any sentiments are delivered too sublime for their conception; if any uncommon topic No. 631.] Friday, December 10, 1714. is entered on, or one in use new modified with the finest judgment and dexterity;
Hor. Od. v. Lib. 1.5. or, any controverted point be never so elegantly handled; in short, whatever sur
Elegant by cleanliness. passes the narrow limits of their theology, I HAD occasion to go a few miles out of or is not suited to their taste, they are all town, some days since, in a stage-coach, immediately upon the watch, fixing their where I had for my fellow travellers a dirty eyes upon each other with as much warmth beau, and a pretty young quaker woman. as our gladiators of Hockley-in-the-Hole, Having no inclination to talk much at that and waiting like them for a hit: if one time, I placed myself backward, with a touches, all take fire, and their noddles in- design to survey them, and pick a speculastantly meet in the centre of the pew: then, tion out of my two companions. Their difas by beat of drum, with exact discipline, ferent figures were sufficient of themselves they rear up into a full length of stature, to draw my attention. The gentleman was and with odd looks and gesticulations con- dressed in a suit, the ground whereof had fer together in so loud and clamorous a been black, as I perceived from some few manner, continued to the close of the dis-spaces that had escaped the powder, which course, and during the after-psalm, as is was incorporated with the greatest part of not to be silenced bit by the bells. Nor does his coat: his periwig, which cost no small this suffice them, without aiming to propa- sum, was after so slovenly a manner cast gate their noise through all the church, by over his shoulders, that it seemed not to signals given to the adjoining seats, where have been combed since the year 1712; his linen, which was not much concealed, was live in the neighbourhood of good examdaubed with plain Spanish from the chin to ples, fly from the first appearances of what the lowest button; and the diamond upon is shocking. It fares with us much after his finger (which naturally dreaded the the same manner as our ideas. Our senses, water) put me in mind how it sparkled which are the inlets to all the images conamidst the rubbish of the mine where it veyed to the mind, can only transmit the was first discovered. On the other hand, i impression of such things as usually sur the pretty quaker appeared in all the ele- round them. So that pure and unsullied gance of cleanliness, Not a speck was to thoughts are naturally suggested to the be found upon her. A clear, clean, oval mind, by those objects that perpetually enface, just edged about with little thin plaits compass us when they are beautiful and of the purest cambric, received great ad elegant in their kind. vantages from the shade of her black hood; In the east, where the warmth of the as did the whiteness of her arms from that climate makes cleanliness more immesober-coloured stuff in which she had cloth- diately necessary than in colder countries, ed herself. The plainness of her dress was it is made one part of their religion; the very well suited to the simplicity of her Jewish law, and the Mahometan, which in phrases; all which, put together, though some things copies after it, is filled with they could not give me a great opinion of bathings, purifications, and other rites of her religion, they did of her innocence. the like nature. Though there is the above
This adventure occasioned my throwing named convenient reason to be assigned for together a few hints upon cleanliness, which these ceremonies, the chief intention unI shall consider as one of the half-virtues, doubtedly was to typify inward purity and as Aristotle calls them, and shall recom-cleanliness of heart by those outward washmend it under the three following heads: as ings. We read several injunctions of this it is a mark of politeness; as it produces kind in the book of Deuteronomy, which love; and as it bears analogy to purity of confirm this truth; and which are but ill mind.
accounted for by saying, as some do, that First, It is a mark of politeness. It is they were only instituted for convenience universally agreed upon, that no one un- in the desert, which otherwise could not adorned with this virtue can go into com- have been habitable for so many years. pany without giving a manifest offence. I shall conclude this essay with a story The easier or higher any one's fortune is, which I have somewhere read in an acthis duty arises proportionably. The dif- count of Mahometan superstitions. ferent nations of the world are as much dis- A dervise of great sanctity one morning tinguished by their cleanliness as by their had the misfortune, as he took up a crystal arts and sciences. The more any country cup which was consecrated to the prois civilized, the more they consult this part phet, to let it fall upon the ground and of politeness. We need but compare our dash it in pieces. His son coming in some ideas of a female Hottentot and an English time after, he stretched out his hand to beauty, to be satisfied of the truth of what bless him, as his manner was every morna nath been advanced.
ing: but the youth going out stumbled over In the next place, cleanliness may be said the threshold and broke his arm. As the in be the foster-mother of love. Beauty in- old man wondered at these events, a caradeed most commonly produces the passion van passed by in its way from Mecca; the in the mind, but cleanliness preserves it. dervise approached it to beg a blessing; An indifferent face and person, kept in per- but as he stroked one of the holy camels, petual neatness, hath won many a heart he received a kick from the beast that from a pretty slattern. Age itself is not sorely bruised him. His sorrow and amazeunamiable, while it is preserved clean and ment increased upon him, until he recolunsullied: like a piece of metal constantly lected that, through hurry and inadverkept smooth and bright, we look on it with tency, he had that morning come abroad more pleasure than on a new vessel that is without washing his hands. cankered with rust.
I might observe farther, that as cleanliness renders us agreeable to others, so it
No. 632.] Monday, December 13, 1714. inakes us easy to ourselves: that it is an excellent preservative of health; and that --Explebo numerum, reddarque tenebris. several vices, destructive both to mind and
Virg. Æn. vi. 145 body, are inconsistent with the habit of it.
-the number I'll complete,
Then to obscurity well pleas'd retreat. But these reflections I shall leave to the leisure of my readers, and shall observe, in The love of symmetry and order, which the third place, that it bears a great analogy is natural to the mind of man, betrays him with purity of mind, and naturally inspires sometimes into very whimsical fancies. refined sentiments and passions.
This noble principle,' says a French auWe find from experience that, through thor, a loves to amuse itself on the most the prevalence of custom, the most vicious trifling occasions. You may see a profound actions lose their horror by being made philosopher,' says he, 'walk for an hour familiar to us. On the contrary, those who together in his chamber, and industriously