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to gratify the senses and imagination: in /it a being capable of receiving so much very many places it intimates to us all the bliss. He would never have made such happiness which the understanding can faculties in vain, and have endowed us with possibly receive in that state, where all | powers that were not to be exerted on such things shall be revealed to us, and we shall objects as are suited to them. It is very know even as we are known; the raptures manifest, by the inward frame and constituof devotion, of divine love, the pleasure of tion of our minds, that he has adapted them conversing with our blessed Saviour, with to an infinite variety of pleasures and gratian innumerable host of angels, and with the fications which are not to be met with in spirits of just men made perfect, are like this life. We should therefore at all times wise revealed to us in several parts of the take care that we do not disappoint this his holy writings. There are also mentioned gracious purpose and intention towards us, those hierarchies or governments in which and make those faculties, which he formed the blessed shall be ranged one above an- | as so many qualifications for happiness and other, and in which we may be sure a great rewards, to be the instruments of pain and part of our happiness will likewise consist: punishment. for it will not be there as in this world, where every one is aiming at power and superiority; but, on the contrary, every one No. 601.7 Friday, October 1, 1714. will find that station the most proper for him in which he is placed, and will proba
"O «v@pWTOS EVE PYETos tspuuws. bly think that he could not have been so
Antonin. Lib. ix. happy in any other station. These, and Man is naturally a beneficent creature. many other particulars, are marked in di- The following essay comes from a' hand vine revelation, as the several ingredients which has entertained my readers once beof our happiness in heaven, which all imply | fore. such a variety of joys, and such a gratification of the soul in all its different faculties, Notwithstanding a narrow contracted as I have been here mentioning
temper be that which obtains most in the Some of the rabbins tell us, that the world, we must not therefore conclude this cherubims are a set of angels who know to be the genuine characteristic of mankind; most, and the seraphims a set of angels who because there are some who delight in nolove most. Whether this distinction be not thing so much as in doing good, and receive altogether imaginary, I shall not here ex- | more of their happiness at second hand, or amine; but it is highly probable that, among by rebound from others, than by direct and the spirits of good men, there may be some immediate sensation. Now, though these who will be more pleased with the employ-heroic souls are but few, and to appearance ment of one faculty than of another; and so far advanced above the grovelling multi this perhaps according to those innocent tude as if they were of another order of and virtuous habits or inclinations which beings, yet in reality their nature is the have here taken the deepest root.
same; moved by the same springs, and enI might here apply this consideration to dowed with all the same essential qualities, the spirits of wicked men, with relation to only cleared, refined, and cultivated. Water "he pain which they shall suffer in every is the same fluid body in winter and in sumone of their faculties, and the respective mer; when it stands stiffened in ice as when miseries which shall be appropriated to it flows along in gentle streams, gladdening each faculty in particular. But, leaving this a thousand fields in its progress. It is a to the reflection of my readers, I shall con- property of the heart of man to be diffusive: clude with observing how we ought to be its kind wishes spread abroad over the face thankful to our great Creator, and rejoice of the creation; and if there be those, as we in the being which he has bestowed upon may observe too many of them, who are all us, for having made the soul susceptible of wrapped up in their own dear selves, withpleasure by so many different ways. We out any visible concern for their species, let see by what a variety of passages joy and us suppose that their good nature is frozen, gladness may enter into the thoughts of and by the prevailing force of some conman; how wonderfully a human spirit is trary quality, restrained in its operation. I framed, to imbibe its proper satisfactions, shall therefore endeavour to assign some of and taste the goodness of its Creator. We the principal checks upon this generous may therefore look into ourselves with rap- propension of the human soul, which will ture and amazement, and cannot sufficiently enable us to judge whether, and by what express our gratitude to Him who has en- method, this most useful principle may be compassed us with such a profusion of bless- unfettered, and restored to its native freeings, and opened in us so many capacities dom of exercise. of enjoying them.
The first and leading cause is an unThere cannot be a stronger argument that happy complexion of body. The heathens, God has designed us for a state of future ignorant of the true source of moral evil, nappiness, and for that heaven which he generally charged it on the obliquity of has revealed to us, than that he has thus matter, which, being eternal and indepenJaturally qualified the soul for it, and made | dent, was incapable of change in any of its
properties, even by the Almighty Mind, i duce a change in the body, which the others who, when he came to fashion it into a world not doing, must be maintained the same of beings, must take it as he found it. This way they are acquired, by the mere dint of notion, as most others of theirs, is a com- industry, resolution, and vigilance, position of truth and error. That matter is Another thing which suspends the opeeternal, that, from the first union of a soul rations of benevolence, is the love of the to it, it perverted its inclinations, and that world; proceeding from a false notion mer. the ill influence it hath upon the mind is have taken up, that an abundance of the not to be corrected by God himself, are all world is an essential ingredient in the hapvery great errors, occasioned by a truth as piness of life. Worldly things are of such evident, that the capacities and dispositions a quality as to lessen upon dividing, so that of the soul depend, to a great degree, on the more partners there are the less must the bodily temper. As there are some fools, fall to every man's private share. The others are knaves by constitution; and par- consequence of this is, that they look upon ticularly it may be said of many, that they one another with an evil eye, each imaginare born with an illiberal cast of mind; the ing all the rest to be embarked in an inmatter that composes them is tenacious as terest that cannot take place but to his birdlime; and a kind of cramp draws their prejudice. Hence are those eager compehands and their hearts together, that they titions for wealth or power; hence one man's never care to open them, unless to grasp at success becomes another's disappointment; more. It is a melancholy lot this; but at- and, like pretenders to the same mistress, tended with one advantage above theirs, to they can seldom have common charity for whom it would be as painful to forbear good their rivals. Not that they are naturally uffices as it is to these men to perform them; disposed to quarrel and fall out; but it is that whereas persons naturally beneficent natural for a man to prefer himself to all often mistake instinct for virtue, by reason others, and to secure his own interest first. of the difficulty of distinguishing when one If that which men esteem their happiness rules them and when the other, men of the were, like the light, the same sufficient and opposite character may be more certain of unconfined good, whether ten thousand enthe motive that predominates in every ac-joy the benefit of it or but one, we should tion. If they cannot confer a benefit with see men's good-will and kind endeavours that ease and frankness which are neces- would be as universal. sary to give it a grace in the eye of the world, in requital, the real merit of what
“ Homo qui erranti comiter monstrat viam,
Quasi lumen de suo lumine accendat, facit, they do is enhanced by the opposition they
Nihilominus ipsi luceat, cum illi accenderit.” surmount in doing it. The strength of their virtue is seen in rising against the weight
" To direct a wanderer in the right way, is to light
511 | another man's candle by one's own, which loses none of nature; and every time they have the of its light by what the other gains.“ resolution to discharge their duty, they make a sacrifice of inclination to conscience, “But, unluckily, mankind agree in making which is always too grateful to let its fol-choice of objects which inevitably'engage lowers go without suitable marks of its ap- them in perpetual differences. Learn, thereprobation. Perhaps the entire cure of this fore, like a wise man, the true estimate of ill quality is no more possible than of some things. Desire not more of the world than distempers that descend by inheritance. is necessary to accommodate you in passing However, a great deal may be done by a through it; look upon every thing beyond, course of beneficence obstinately persisted not as useless only, but burdensome. Place in; this, if any thing, being a likely way of not your quiet in things which you cannot establishing a moral habit, which shall be have without putting others beside them, somewhat of a counterpoise to the force of and thereby making them your enemies; mechanism. Only it must be remembered and which, when attained, will give you that we do not intermit, upon any pretence more trouble to keep than satisfaction in whatsoever, the custom of doing good, in the enjoyment. Virtue is a good of a nobler regard, if there be the least cessation, na- kind ; it grows by communication ; and so ture will watch the opportunity to return, | little resembles earthly riches, that the and in a short time to recover the ground it more hands it is lodged in, the greater is was so long in quitting: for there is this dif- every man's particular stock. So, by proference between mental habits and such as pagating and mingling their fires, not only have their foundation in the body; that all the lights of a branch together cast a these last are in their nature more forcible rnore extensive brightness, but each single and violent; and, to gain upon us, need only light burns with a stronger flame. And not to be opposed; whereas the former must lastly, take this along with you, that if be continually reinforced with fresh supa wealth be an instrument of pleasure, the plies, or they will languish and die away. greatest pleasure it can put into your power And this suggests the reason why good is that of doing good. It is worth considerhabits in general require longer time for ing, that the organs of sense act within a their settlement than bad, and yet are narrow compass, and the appetites will sooner displaced; the reason is, thať vicious soon say they have enough. Which of the habits, as drunkenness for instance, pro l two therefore is the happier man-he who,
confining all his regard to the gratification | talked of, though it be for the particular of his appetites, is capable but of short fits cock of his hat, or for prating aloud in the of pleasure-or the man who, reckoning boxes at a play, is in a fair way of being a himself a sharerin the satisfactions of others, favourite. I have known a young fellow especially those which come to them by his make his fortune by knocking down a conmeans, enlarges the sphere of his happi- stable; and may venture to say, though it ness?
may seem a paradox, that many a fair one The last enemy to benevolence I shall has died by a duel in which both the commention is uneasiness of any kind. A guilty batants have survived. or a discontented mind, a mind ruffled by About three winters ago, I took notice of ill-fortune, disconcerted by its own passions, a young lady at the theatre, who conceived soured by neglect, or fretting at disappoint- a passion for a notorious rake that headed ments, hath not leisure to attend to the ne-a party of catcalls; and am credibly incessity or unreasonableness of a kindness formed that the emperor of the Mohocks desired, nor a taste for those pleasures married a rich widow within three weeks which wait on beneficence, which demand after having rendered himself forinidable in a calm and unpolluted heart to relish them. the cities of London and Westminster. The most miserable of all beings is the Scouring and breaking of windows have most envious; as, on the other hand, the done frequent execution upon the sex. But most communicative is the happiest. And there is no set of these male charmers who if you are in search of the seat of perfect make their way more successfully than love and friendship, you will not find it until those who have gained themselves a name you come to the region of the blessed, for intrigue, and have ruined the greatest where happiness, like a refreshing stream, number of reputations. There is a strange flows from heart to heart in an endless cir curiosity in the female world to be acquaintculation, and is preserved sweet and un-ed with the dear man who has been loved tainted by the motion. It is old advice, if by others, and to know what it is that you have a favour to request of any one, to makes him so agreeable. His reputation observe the softest times of address, when does more than half his business. Every the soul, in a flash of good humour, takes a one that is ambitious of being a woman of pleasure to show itself pleased. Persons fashion, looks out for opportunities of being conscious of their own integrity, satisfied in his company; so that, to use the old with themselves and their condition, and proverb, “When his name is up he may lie full of confidence in a Supreme Being, and a-bed.” the hope of immortality, survey all about I was very sensible of the great advanthem with a flow of good-will; as trees tage of being a man of importance upon which, like their soil, shoot out in expres- these occasions on the day of the king's sions of kindness, and bend beneath their entry, when I was seated in a balcony beown precious load, to the hand of the ga- hind a cluster of very pretty country ladies, therer. Now, if the mind be not thus easy, who had one of these showy gentlemen in it is an infallible sign that it is not in its na- the midst of them. The first trick I caught tural state: place the mind in its right pos- him at was bowing to several persons of ture, it will immediately discover its innate | quality whom he did not know; nay, he propension to beneficence.'
had the impudence to hem at a blue garter who had a finer equipage than ordinary;
and seemed a little concerned at the imperNo. 602.] Monday, October 4, 1714.
tinent huzzas of the mob, that hindered his
friend from taking notice of him. There Facit hoc illos hyacinthos
was indeed one who pulled off his hat to Juv. Sat. vi. ver. 110.
him; and, upon the ladies asking who it This makes them hyacinths.
was, he told them it was a foreign minister
that he had been very merry with the night THE following letter comes from a gen-before; whereas in' truth' it was the city tleman who I find is very diligent in making I common hunt. his observations, which I think too mate- "He was never at a loss when he was rial not to be communicated to the public. asked any person's name, though he sel
SIR,In order to execute the office of dom knew any one under a peer. He found the love casuist of Great Britain, with dukes and earls among the aldermen, very which I take myself to be invested by your good-natured fellows among the privypaper of September 8, I shall make some counsellors, with two or three agreeable old farther observations upon the two sexes in rakes among the bishops and judges. general, beginning with that which always “In short, I collected from his whole disought to have the upper hand. After hav- course, that he was acquainted with every ing observed, with much curiosity, the ac- body, and knew nobody. At the same time, complishments which are apt to captivate I am mistaken if he did not that day make female hearts, I find that there is no per- more advances in the affections of his misson so irresistible as one who is a man of tress, who sat near him, than he could have importance, provided it be in matters of no done in half a year's courtship. consequence. One who makes himself ! 'Ovid has finely touched this method of
begin dis permiting sit:
making love, which I shall here give my | My fair one is gone, and my joys are all drown'd, reader in Mr. Dryden's translation.
And my heart-I am sure it weighs more than a pound.
III. • Page the eleventh.
"The fountain that wont to run swiftly along,
And dance to soft murmurs the pebbles among; • Thus love in theatres did first improve,
Thou know'st little Cupid, if Phæbe was there, And theatres are still the scene of love;
'Twas pleasure to look at, 'twas music to hear: Nor shun the chariots, and the courser's race;
But now she is absent, I walk by its side, The Circus is no inconvenient place.
And still as it murmurs do nothing but chide. Nor need is there of talking on the hand,
Must you be so cheerful, when I go in pain? Nor nods, nor signs, which lovers understand;
Peace there with your bubbling, and hear me complain. But boldly next the fair your seat provide, Close as you can to hers, and side by side,
IV. Pleas'd or unpleas'd, no matter, crowding sit;
•When my lambkins around me would oftentimee For so the laws of public shows permit.
play, Then find occasion to begin discourse,
And when Phæbe and I were as joyful as they, Inquire whose chariot this, and whose that horse;
How pleasant their sporting, how happy their time, To whatsoever side she is inclin'd,
When spring, love, and beauty, were all in their prime Suit all your inclinations to her mind.
But now in their frolics when by me they pass, Like what she likes, from thence your court begin,
I fling at their fleeces a handful of grass; And, whom she favours, wish that he may win.”
Be still, then I cry, for it makes me quite mad
To see you so merry while I am so sad. . Again, page the sixteenth,
V. "O when will come the day by heaven design'd
My dog I was ever well pleased to see When thou, the best and fairest of mankind,
Come wagging his tail to my fair-one and me; Drawn by white horses, shall in triumph ride,
And Phæbe was pleas'd too, and to my dog said, With conquer'd slaves attending on thy side;
Come hither, poor fellow; and patted his head. Slaves that no longer can be safe in flight,
But now, when he's fawning, I with a sour look O glorious object! O surprising sight!
Cry, Sirrah!'and give him a blow with my crook. o day of public joy, too good to end in night!
And I'll give him another; for why should not Tray On such a day, if thou, and next to thee
Be as dull as his master, when Phæbe's away? Some beauty sits, the spectacle to see;
VI. If she inquires the names of conquerid kings,
When walking with Phæbe, what sights have I seen! Of mountains, rivers, and their hidden springs; How fair was the flower, how fresh was the green! Answer to all thou know'st; and if need be,
What a lovely appearance the trees and the shade. Of things unknown seem to speak knowingly: . The corn-fields and hedges, and every thing made! This is Euphrates, crown'd with reeds; and there But now she has left me, though all are still there, Flows the swift Tigris, with his sea-green hair. They none of them now so delightful appear: Invent new names of things unknown before;
'Twas nought but the magic, I find, of her eyes, Call this Armenia, that the Caspian shore;
Made so many beautiful prospects arise. Call this a Mede, and that the Parthian youth;
VII. Talk probably: no matter for the truth."
Sweet music went with us both all the wood through, 1. The lark, linnet, throstle, and nightingale too; Winds over us whisper'd, flocks by us did bleat,
And chirp went the grasshopper under our feet. No. 603.] Wednesday, October 6, 1714. But now she is absent, though still they sing on,
The woods are but lonely, the melody's gone: Ducite ab urbe domum, mea carmina, ducite Daphnim.
Her voice in the concert, as now I have found,
Virg. Ecl. viii. 68. Gave every thing else its agreeable sound.
And where is the violet's beautiful blue ?
Does aught of its sweetness the blossom beguile? one of my correspondents, * and has some That meadow, those daisies, why do they not smile? thing in it so original, that I do not much
Ah! rivals, I see what it was that you dress'd
And made yourselves fine for; a place in her breast: doubt but it will divert my readers. +
You put on your colours to pleasure her eye,
To be pluck'd by her hand, on her bosom to die. *My time, Oye Muses, was happily spent,
IX. When Phæbe went with me wherever I went;f .
How slowly time creeps, till my Phæbe return! Ten thousand sweet pleasures I felt in my breast. While amidst the soft zephyr's cool breezes I barn! Sure never fond shepherd like Colin was blest!
Methinks if I knew whereabout he would tread, But now she has gone, and has left me behind,
I could breathe on his wings, and 'twould melt down the What a marvellous change on a sudden I find !
lead. When things were as fine as could possibly be,
Fly swifter ye minutes, bring hither my dear, I thought 'twas the spring; but, alas! it was she.
And rest so much longer for't when she is here.
Ah, Colin! old Time is full of delay,
Nor will budge one foot faster for all thou canst say . With such a companion to tend a few sheep, To rise up and play, or to lie down and sleep:
. X. . I was so good-humour'd, so cheerful and gay,
Will no pitying power that hears me complain, My heart was as light as a feather all day.
Or cure my disquiet, or soften my pain? But now I so cross and so peevish am grown;
To be cur'd, thou must, Colin, thy passion remove: So strangely uneasy as never was known.
But what swain is so silly to live without love.
For ne'er was poor shepherd so sadly forlorn,
Take heed all ye swains, how ye love one so fair.' † “ It has been said, on good authority, that the Phæbe of this pastoral was Joanna, the daughter of Dr. Bent. ley, and that it was written, not so much from affection to the daughter, as with the aim of securing the inter- | No. 604.] Friday, October 8, 1714. est of the doctor, in promoting the author's views with regard to the fellowship for which, at the period of its Tu ne quæsieris (scire nefas) quem mihi, quem tibi, composition, he was a candidate."
Finem Dii dederint, Luconoe; nec Babylonios . Drake's Essays, vol. iii. p. 216. Tentaris numeros
Hor. Od. xi. Lib. 1. | Ansty made a most happy parody of these two lines
Ah do not strive too much to know, m his Bath Guide.
My dear Leuconoe, "My time, my dear mother's, been wretchedly spent,
What the kind gods design to do With a gripe or a hickup wherever I went."
With me and thee.Creeche
mo, deity, bid the so silly to'liu
The desire of knowing future events, is / along, and I found in myself a strong inclione of the strongest inclinations in the mind nation to mingle in the train. My eyes of man. Indeed, an ability of foreseeing quickly singled out some of the most probable accidents is what, in the language splendid figures. Several in rich caftans of men, is called wisdom and prudence: but, and glittering turbans bustled through the not satisfied with the light that reason holds throng, and trampled over the bodies of out, mankind hath endeavoured to penetrate those they threw down; until, to my great more compendiously into futurity. Magic, surprise, I found that the great pace they oracles, omens, lucky hours, and the various went only hastened them to a scaffold or arts of superstition, owe their rise to this a bow-string. Many beautiful damsels on powerful cause. As this principle is founded the other side moved forward with great in self-love, every man is sure to be solici- gayety; some danced until they fell all tous in the first place about his own fortune, along; and others painted their faces until the course of his life, and the time and man- they lost their noses. A tribe of creatures ner of his death.
with busy looks falling into a fit of laughter If we consider that we are free agents, at the misfortunes of the unhappy ladies, I we shall discover the absurdity of such in- turned my eyes upon them. They were quiries. One of our actions, which we might each of them filling his pockets with gold have performed or neglected, is the cause and jewels, and when there was no room of another that succeeds it, and so the whole left for more, these wretches, looking round chain of life is linked together. Pain, po- with fear and horror, pined away before verty, or infamy, are the natural product my face with famine and discontent. of vicious and imprudent acts; as the con- The prospect of human misery struck trary blessings are of good ones; so that we me dumb for some miles. Then it was, cannot suppose our lot to be determined that to disburden my mind, I took pen and without impiety. A great enhancement of ink, and did every thing that has since happleasure arises from its being unexpected; pened under my office as Spectator. While and pain is doubled by being foreseen. Upon I was employing myself for the good of all these, and several other accounts, we mankind, I was surprised to meet with ought to rest satisfied in this portion be- very unsuitable returns from my fellowstowed on us; to adore the hand that hath creatures. Never was poor author so beset fitted every thing to our nature, and hath by pamphleteers, who sometimes marched not more displayed his goodness in our directly against me, but oftener shot at me knowledge than in our ignorance.
from strong bulwarks, or rose up suddenly It is not unworthy observation, that super- in ambush. They were of all characters stitious inquiries into future events prevail and capacities, some with ensigns of dige more or less, in proportion to the improve- nity, and others in liveries;* but what most ment of liberal arts and useful knowledge surprised me was to see two or three in in the several parts of the world. Accord-black gowns among my enemies. It was no ingly, we find that magical incantations re- small trouble to me, sometimes to have a main in Lapland; in the more remote parts man come up to me with an angry face, of Scotland they have their second sight; and reproach me for having lampooned and several of our own countrymen have him, when I had never seen or heard of seen abundance of fairies. In Asia this cre- him in my life. With the ladies it was dulity is strong; and the greatest part of otherwise: many became my enemies for refined learning there consists in the know- not being particularly pointed out; as there ledge of amulets, talismans, occult numbers, were others who resented the satire which and the like,
they imagined I had directed against them. When I was at Grand Cairo, I fell into My great comfort was in the company of the acquaintance of a good-natured mus- | half a dozen friends, who, I found since, sulman, who promised me many good offices were the club which I have so often menwhich he designed to do me when he be- tioned in my papers. I laughed often at came the prime minister, which was a Sir Roger in my sleep, and was the more difortune bestowed on his imagination by averted with Will Honeycomb's gallantries, doctor very deep in the curious sciences. (when we afterwards became acquainted,) At his repeated solicitations I went to learn because I had foreseen his marriage with a my destiny of this wonderful sage. For a farmer's daughter. The regret which arose small sum I had his promise, but was de- in my mind upon the death of my comsired to wait in a dark apartment until he panions, my anxieties for the public, and had run through the preparatory ceremo- the many calamities still fleeting before my nies. Having a strong propensity, even eyes, made me repent my curiosity; when then, to dreaming, I took a nap upon the the magician entered the room, and awakensofa where I was placed, and had the fol-ed me, by telling me (when it was too late,) lowing vision, the particulars whereof Ithat he was just going to begin. picked up the other day among my papers.
I found myself in an unbounded plain, where methought the whole world, in se * This is pointed at the hirelings employed by the veral habits and with different tongues, was
ministry in the last years of the queen's reign; Dr.
Swift, Prior, Atterbury, Dr. Friend, Dr. King, Mr. Olde assembled. The multitude glided swiftly I worth, Mrs. Manley, &c