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thought he might venture me at the Tem- | to all manner of dangers for her sake and

safety. He desires in his postscript to Within a week after my arrival I began know whether, from a constant success in to shine again, and became enamoured with them, he may not promise himself to suca mighty pretty creature, who had every ceed in her esteem at last. thing but money to recommend her, Hav- Another, who is very prolix in his naring frequent opportunities of uttering all the ratiye, writes me word, that having sent a soft things which a heart formed for love venture beyond sea, he took occasion one could inspire me with, I soon gained her night to fancy himself gone along with it, consent to treat of marriage; but, unfor- and grown on a sudden the richest man in tunately for us all, in the absence of my all the Indies. Having been there about a charmer I usually talked the same language year or two, a gust of wind that forced open to lier eldest sister, who is also very pretty. his casement, blew him over to his native Now I assure you, Mr. Spectator, this did country again, where, awaking at six not proceed from any real affection I had o'clock, and the change of the air not conceived for her: but, being a perfect agreeing with him, he turned to his left side stranger to the conversation of men, and in order to a second voyage; but before he strongly addicted to associate with the could get on ship-board was unfortunately women, I knew no other language but that apprehended for stealing a horse, tried and of love. I should, however, be very much condemned for the fact, and in a fair way obliged to you, if you could free me from of being executed, if somebody stepping the perplexity I am at present in. I have hastily into his chamber had not brought sent word to my old gentleman in the coun- him a reprieve. This fellow too wants try, that I am desperately in love with the Mr. Shadow's advice; who, I dare say, younger sister; and her father, who knew would bid him be content to rise after his no better, poor man, acquainted him by the first nap, and learn to be satisfied as soon same post, that I had for some time made as nature is. my addresses to the elder. Upon this old The next is a public-spirited gentleman, Testy sends me up word, that he has heard who tells me, that on the second of Sepso much of my exploits, that he intends im-tember, at night, the whole city was on fire, mediately to order me to the South-sea. and would certainly have been reduced to Sir, I have occasionally talked so much of ashes again by this time, if he had not flown dying, that I begin to think there is not over it with the New River on his back, and much in it; and if the old 'squire persists in happily extinguished the flames before they his design, I do hereby give him notice that had prevailed too far. He would be inI am providing myself with proper instru- formed whether he has not a right to pements for the destruction of despairing |tition the lord mayor and aldermen for a lovers: let him therefore look to it, and reward. consider that by his obstinacy he may him- A letter, dated September the ninth, acself lose the son of his strength, the world quaints me, that the writer, being resolved a hopeful lawyer, my mistress a passionate to try his fortune, had fasted all that day; lover, and you, Mr. Spectator, your con and, that he might be sure of dreaming stant admirer,

upon something at night, procured a handJEREMIAH LOVEMORE.' some slice of bride-cake, which he placed

very conveniently under his pillow. In the

morning his memory happened to fail him, Nn. 597.] Wednesday, September 22, 1714.

and he could recollect nothing but an odd

fancy that he had eaten his cake; which Mens sine pondere ludit.-Petr.

being found upon search reduced to a few The mind uncumber'd plays.

crumbs, he is resolved to remember more SINCE I received my friend Shadow's of his dreams another time, believing from letter, several of my correspondents have this that there may possibly be somewhat been pleased to send me an account how of truth in them. they have been employed in sleep, and what I have received numerous complaints notable adventures they have been engaged from several delicious dreamers, desiring in during that moonshine in the brain. I me to invent some method of silencing those shall lay before my readers an abridgment noisy slaves, whose occupations lead them of some few of their extravagances, in to take their early rounds about the city in hopes that they will in time accustom a morning, doing a deal of mischief, and themselves to dream a little more to the working strange confusion in the affairs of purpose.

its inhabitants. Several monarchs have .One, who styles himself Gladio, com- done me the honour to acquaint me how plains heavily that his fair one charges him often they have been shook from their rewith inconstancy, and does not use him spective thrones by the rattling of a coach, with half the kindness which the sincerity or the rumbling of a wheelbarrow. And of his passion may demand; the said Gladio many private gentlemen, I find, have been having, by valour and stratagem, put to bawled out of vast estates by fellows not death tyrants, enchanters, monsters, knights, worth three pence. A fair lady was just &c. without number, and exposed himself l on the point of beirg married to a younge handsoine, rich, ingenious nobleman, when / of the audience were enjoying the benefit an impertinent tinker passing by forbid the of an excellent discourse, was losing her bans; and a hopeful youth who had been money and jewels to a gentleman at play, newly advanced to great honrur and pre- until after a strange run of ill-luck she was ferment, was forced by a neighbouring cob reduced to pawn three lovely pretty chilbler to resign all for an old song. It has dren for her last stake. When she had been represented to me, that those inconsi-thrown them away, her companion went derable rascals do nothing but go about dis- off, discovering himself by his usual tokens, solving of marriages, and spoiling of for- a cloven foot and a strong smell of brimtunes, impoverishing rich, and ruining stone, which last proved a bottle of spirits, great people, interrupting beauties in the which a good old lady applied to her nose, midst of their conquests, and generals in to put her in a condition of hearing the the course of their victories. A boisterous preacher's third head concerning time. peripatetic hardly goes through a street If a man has no mind to pass abruptly without waking half a dozen kings and from his imagined to his real circumstances, princes, to open their shops or clean shoes, he may employ himself a while in that new frequently transforming sceptres into par- kind of observation which my oneirocritical ing-shovels, and proclamations into bills. I correspondent has directed him to make of have by me a letter from a young states himself. Pursuing the imagination through man, who in five or six hours came to be all its extravagances, whether in sleeping emperor of Europe, after which he made or waking, is no improper method of corwar upon the Great Turk, routed him recting and bringing it to act in subordinahorse and foot, and was crowned lord of the tion to reason, so as to be delighted only universe in Constantinople: the conclusion with such objects as will affect it with pleaof all his successes is, that on the 12th in- sure when it is never so cool and sedate. stant, about seven in the morning, his Imperial Majesty was deposed by a chimneysweeper.

No. 598.] Friday, September 24, 1714. On the other hand, I have epistolary tes

Jamne igitur laudas, quod de sapientibus alter

Ridebat, quoties a limine moverat unum people, who owe to this clamorous tribe

Protuleratque pedem: flebat contrarius alter ?

Juv. Sat. x. 26. frequent deliverances from great misfor

Will ye not now the pair of sages praise, tunes. A small-coal-man, by waking one

Who the same end pursu'd by several ways? of these distressed gentlemen, saved him One pity'd, one condemnd, the woful times, from ten years'imprisonment. An honest One laugh'd at follies, one lamented crimes. watchman, bidding aloud good-morrow to

Dryden. another, freed him from the malice of MANKIND may be divided into the merry many potent enemies, and brought all their and the serious, who both of them make a designs against him to nothing. A certain very good figure in the species so long as valetudinarian confesses he has often been they keep their respective humours from cured of a sore-throat by the hoarseness of degenerating into the neighbouring exa carman, and relieved from a fit of the treme: there being a natural tendency in gout by the sound of old shoes. A noisy | the one to a melancholy moroseness, and puppy, that plagued a sober gentleman all in the other to a fantastic levity. night long with his impertinence, was si The merry part of the world are very lenced by a cinder-wench with a word amiable, while they diffuse a cheerfulness speaking.

through conversation at proper seasons and Instead, therefore, of suppressing this or-on proper occasions; but, on the contrary, der of mortals, I would propose it to my a great grievance to society when they in readers to make the best advantage of their fect every discourse with insipid mirth, morning salutations. A famous Macedonian and turn into ridicule such subjects as are prince, for fear of forgetting himself in the not suited to it. For though laughter is midst of his good fortune, had a youth to looked upon by the philosophers as the wait on him every morning, and bid him property of reason, the excess of it has been remember that he was a man. A citizen, always considered as the mark of folly. who is waked by one of these criers, may On the other side, seriousness has its regard him as a kind of remembrancer, beauty whilst it is attended with cheerful.. come to admonish him that it is time to re- ness and humanity, and does not come in turn to the circumstances he has over- unseasonably to pall the good humour of looked all the night time, to leave off those with whom we converse. fancying himself what he is not, and pre-l These two sets of men, notwithstanding pare to act suitably to the condition he is they each of them shine in their respective really placed in.

characters, are apt to bear a natural averPeople may dream on as long as they sion and antipathy to one another. please, but I shall take no notice of any l What is more usual than to hear men of imaginary adventures that do not happen serious tempers, and austere morals, enwhile the sun is on this side the horizon. | larging upon the vanities and follies of the For which reason I stifle Fritilla's dream young and gay part of the species, while at church last Sunday, who, while the rest | they look with a kind of horror upon such

pomps and diversions as are innocent in I never took in my youth. Among others is themselves, and only culpable when they that of an afternoon's nap, which I fell into draw the mind too much?

in the fifty-fifth year of my age, and have I could not but smile upon reading a pas- continued for the three last years past. By sage in the account which Mr. Baxter this ineans I enjoy a double morning, and gives of his own life, wherein he represents rise twice a day fresh to my speculations. it as a great blessing that in his youth heIt happens very luckily for me, that some very narrowly escaped getting a place at of my dreams have proved instructive to court.

my countrymen, so that I may be said to It must indeed be confessed that levity sleep, as well as to wake, for the good of of temper takes a man off his guard, and the public. I was yesterday meditating on opens a pass to his soul for any temptation the account with which I have already enthat assaults it. It favours all the ap-tertained my readers concerning the cave proaches of vice, and weakens all the re- of Trophonius. I was no sooner fallen into sistance of virtue: for which reason a my usual slumber, but I dreamed that this renowned statesman in queen Elizabeth's cave was put into my possession, and that I days, after having retired from court and gave public notice of its virtue, inviting public business, in order to give himself everỳ one to it who had a mind to be a up to the duties of religion, when any of his serious man for the remaining part of his old friends used to visit him, had still this life. Great multitudes immediately reword of advice in his mouth, be serious.' sorted to me. The first who made the

An eminent Italian author of this cast of experiment was a Merry-andrew, who mind, speaking of the great advantage of a was put into my hand by a neighbouring serious and composed temper, wishes very justice of peace, in order to reclaim him gravely, that for the benefit of mankind he from that profligate kind of life. Poor had Trophonius's cave in his possession; | Pickle-herring had not taken above one which, says he, would contribute more to turn in it, when he came out of the cave, the reformation of manners than all the like a hermit from his cell, with a peniworkhouses and bridewells in Europe. tential look and a most rueful countenance.

We have a very particular description I then put in a young laughing fop, and, of this cave in Pausanias, who tells us that watching for his return, asked him, with a it was made in the form of a huge oven, smile, how he liked the place? He replied, and had many particular circumstances, Pr'ythee, friend, be not impertinent;' and which disposed the person who was in it to stalked by me as grave as a judge. A be more pensive and thoughtful than or- citizen then desired me to give free ingress dinary; insomuch, that no man was ever and egress to his wife who was dressed in observed to laugh all his life after, who the gayest coloured ribands I had ever had once made his entry into this cave. It seen. She went in with a flirt of her fan was usual in those times, when any one and a smirking countenance, but came out carried a more than ordinary gloominess in with the severity of a vestal; and throwing his features, to tell him that he looked like from her several female gewgaws, told me, one just come out of Trophonius's cave, with a sigh, that she resolved to go into

On the other hand, writers of a more deep mourning, and to wear black all the merry complexion have been no less severe rest of her life. As I had many coquettes on the opposite party; and have had one recommended to me by their parents, their advantage above them, that they have at- husbands, and their lovers, I let them in tacked them with more turns of wit and all at once, desiring them to divert themhumour.

selves together, as well as they could. After all, if a man's temper were at his Upon their emerging again into day-light, own disposal, I think he would not choose you would have fancied my cave to have to be of either of these parties; since the been a nunnery, and that you had seen a most perfect character is that which is solemn procession of religious marching formed out of both of them. A man would out, one behind another, in the most proneither choose to be a hermit nor a buffoon; found silence and the most exemplary dehuman nature is not so miserable, as that cency. As I was very much delighted we should be always melancholy; nor so with so edifying a sight, there came tohappy, as that we should be always merry. wards me a great company of males and In a word, a man should not live as if there females, laughing, singing, and dancing, in was no God in the world, nor, at the same such a manner, that I could hear them a time, as if there were no men in it.

great while before I saw them. Upon my asking their leader what brought them

thither? they told me all at once that they No. 599.] Monday, September 27, 1714. were French Protestants lately arrived in -Ubique

| Great Britain, and that finding themselves Luctus, ubique pavor.-Virg. Æn. ii. 369. of too gay a humour for my country, they All parts resound with tumults, plaints, and fears. applied themselves to me in order to com

Dryden.

| pose them for British conversation. I told It has been my custom, as I grow old, to them that, to oblige them, I would soon allow myself some little indulgences, which I spoil their mirth; upon which I admitted a whole shoal of them, who after having patients walking by themselves in a very taken a survey of the place, came out in pensive and musing posture, so that the very good order, and with looks entirely whole space seemed covered with philosoEnglish. I afterwards put in a Dutchman, phers. I was at length resolved to go into who had a great fancy to see the kelder, the cave myself, and see what it was that as he called it; but I could not observe that had produced such wonderful effects upon I had made any alteration in him,

the company; but as I was stooping at the A comedian, who had gained great re-entrance, the door being somewhat low, I putation in parts of humour, told me that gave such a nod in my chair that I awaked. he had a mighty mind to act Alexander the After having recovered myself from my Great, and fancied that he should succeed first startle, I was very well pleased at the very well in it if he could strike two or accident which had befallen me, as not three laughing features out of his face. He knowing but a little stay in the place might tried the experiment, but contracted so have spoiled my Spectators, very solid a look by it, that I am afraid he will be fit for no part hereafter but a Timoni of Athens, or a Mute in The Funeral, I then clapped up an empty fantastic

No. 600.] Wednesday, September 29, 1714. citizen, in order to qualify him for an alder Solemque suum, sua sidera norunt. man. He was succeeded by a young rake

Virg. Æn. vi. 641. of the Middle Temple, who was brought

Stars of their own, and their own suns they know. to me by his grandmother; but, to her

Dryden. great sorrow and surprise, he came out a

I HAVE always taken a particular pleaquaker. Seeing myself surrounded with a sure in examining the opinions which men body of freethinkers and scoffers at reli- of different religions, different ages, and gion, who were making themselves merry different countries, have entertained conat the sober looks and thoughtful brows of cerning the immortality of the soul, and those who had been in the cave, I thrust the state of happiness which they promise them all in, one after another, and locked themselves in another world. For, whatthe door upon them. Upon my opening it, ever prejudices and errors human nature they all looked as if they had been frighten- lies under, we find that ei

- lies under, we find that either reason, or ed out of their wits, and were marching

tradition from our first parents, has discoaway with ropes in their hands to a wood

vered to all people something in these that was within sight of the place. I found

great points which bears analogy to truth, they were not able to bear themselves in and to the doctrines opened to us by divine their first serious thoughts; but, knowing

revelation. I was lately discoursing on this these would quickly bring them to a better subject with a learned person who has been frame of mind. I gave them into the custody very much conversant among the inhabitof their friends until that happy change ts of the more western parts of Africa.* was wrought in them.

Upon his conversing with several in that The last that was brought to me was a country, he tells me that their notion of young woman, who at the first sight of my heaven or of a future state of happiness is short face fell into an immoderate fit of this, that every thing we there wish for laughter, and was forced to hold her sides will immediately present itself to us. We all the while her mother was speaking to

find, say they, our souls are of such a nature me. Upon this, I interrupted the old lady, that they require variety, and are not capaand taking her daughter by the hand, ble of being always delighted with the same • Madam, - said I, "be pleased to retire intó objects. The Supreme Being, therefore, my closet while your mother tells me your in compliance with this taste of happiness case.' I then put her into the mouth of the which he has planted in the soul of man, cave; when the mother, after having beg

will raise up from time to time, say they, ged pardon for the girl's rudeness, told me every gratification which it is in the huthat she had often treated her father and mour to be pleased with. If we wish to the gravest of her relations in the same be in groves or bowers, among running manner; that she would sit giggling and streams, or falls of water, we shall immelaughing with her companions from one diately find ourselves in the midst of such end of a tragedy to the other; nay, that she a scene as we desire. If we would be en would sometimes burst out in the middle of tertained with music and the melody of a sermon, and set the whole congregation a sounds, the concert arises upon our wish, staring at her. The mother was going on,

and the whole region about us is filled with when the young lady came out of the cave

harmony. In short, every desire will be to us with a composed countenance and a followed by fruition; and whatever a man's low courtesy. She was a girl of such exu inclination directs him to will be present berant mirth that her visit to Trophonius

with him. Nor is it material whether the only reduced her to a more than ordinary

Supreme Power creates in conformity to decency of behaviour, and made a very

our wishes, or whether he only produces pretty prude of her, After having per

* Addison's father, dean Launcelot Addison, who

| published an account of West Barbary, &c. . He died in me with great satisfaction, and saw all my 1 1703, aged 71..

such a change in our imagination as makes infinite multitude of objects, especially when us believe ourselves conversant among the soul shall have passed through the space those scenes which delight us. Our hap- of many millions of years, and shall reflect piness will be the same, whether it pro- with pleasure on the days of eternity. Every ceed from external objects, or from the other faculty may be considered in the same impressions of the Deity upon our own pri-extent. vate fancies. This is the account which I We cannot question but that the happihave received from my learned friend. ness of a soul will be adequate to its nature; Notwithstanding this system of belief be and that it is not endowed with any faculties in general very chimerical and visionary, which are to lie useless and unemployed. there is something sublime in its manner of The happiness is to be the happiness of the considering the influence of a Divine Be- whole man; and we may easily conceive to ing on a human soul. It has also, like most ourselves the happiness of the soul, while other opinions of the heathen world upon any one of its faculties is in the fruition of these important points; it has, I say, its its chief good. The happiness may be of a foundation in truth, as it supposes the souls more exalted nature in proportion as the of good men after this life to be in a state faculty employed is so: but, as the whole of perfect happiness; that in this state soul acts in the exertion of any of its parthere will be no barren hopes, nor fruitless ticular powers, the whole squl is happy in wishes, and that we shall enjoy every thing the pleasure which arises from any of its we can desire. But the particular circum particular acts. For, notwithstanding, as stance which I am most pleased with in has been before hinted, and as it has been this scheme, and which arises from a just taken notice of by one of the greatest moreflection upon human nature, is that va- dern philosophers, * we divide the soul into riety of pleasures which it supposes the several powers and faculties, there is no souls of good men will be possessed of in such division in the soul itself, since it is the another world. This I think highly pro-whole soul that remembers, understands, bable, from the dictates both of reason and wills, or imagines, Our manner of conrevelation. The soul consists of many fa- sidering the memory, understanding, will, culties, as the understanding, and the will, imagination, and the like faculties, is for

ward; or, to speak more philosophically, in such abstracted subjects of speculation, the soul can exert herself in many different not that there is any such division in the ways of action. She can understand, will, soul itself. imagine, see, and hear; love, and discourse, Seeing then that the soul has many difand apply herself to many other the like ferent faculties, or, in other words, many exercises of different kinds and natures; different ways of acting; that it can be inbut, what is more to be considered, the soul tensely pleased or made happy by all these is capable of receiving a most exquisite different faculties, or ways of acting; that it pleasure and satisfaction from the exercise may be endowed with several latent faculof any of these its powers, when they are ties, which it is not at present in a condition gratified with their proper objects; she can to exert; that we cannot believe the soul is be entirely happy by the satisfaction of the endowed with any faculty which is of no memory, the sight, the hearing, or any use to it; that, whenever any one of these other mode of perception. Every faculty faculties is transcendently pleased, the soul is a distinct taste in the mind, and hath ob- is in a state of happiness: and, in the last jects accommodated to its proper relish. place, considering that the happiness of Doctor Tillotson somewhere says, that he another world is to be the happiness of the will not presume to determine in what con- whole man, who can question but that there sists the happiness of the blessed, because is an infinite variety in those pleasures we God Almighty is capable of making the are speaking of? and that this fulness of soul happy by ten thousand different ways. joy will be made up of all those pleasures Besides those several avenues to pleasure, which the nature of the soul is capable of which the soul is endowed with in this receiving? life, it is not impossible, according to the We shall be the more confirmed in this opinions of many eminent divines, but there doctrine, if we observe the nature of variety may be new faculties in the souls of good with regard to the mind of man. The soul men made perfect, as well as new senses, does not care to be always in the same bente in their glorified bodies. This we are sure The faculties relieve one another by turns, of, that there will be new objects offered and receive an additional pleasure from the to all those faculties which are essential novelty of those objects about which they to us.

are conversant. We are likewise to take notice that every Revelation likewise very much confirms particular faculty is capable of being em- this notion, under the different views which ployed on a very great variety of objects. it gives us of our future happiness. In the The understanding, for example, may be description of the throne of God, it reprehappy in the contemplation of inoral, natu- sents to us all those objects which are able ral, mathematical, and other kinds of truth. The memory ikewise may turn itself to an

the Locke. VOL. II.

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