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stanced, that it is difficult to determine No. 565.] Friday, July 9, 1714. whether it ought to be rewarded or pu

-- Deum namque ire per omnes nished. Those who compiled the laws of

Terrasque, tractusque maris, cælumque fzofundum England were so sensible of this, that they

Virg. Georg. iv. 221. have laid it down as one of their first max For God the whole created mass inspires: ims, • It is better suffering a mischief than

Thro' heaven and earth, and ocean's depths he throws

His influence round, and kindles as he goes.--Dryder an inconvenience;' which is as much as to say, in other words, that since no law can I was yesterday, about sun-set, walking take in or provide for all cases, it is better in the open fields, until the night insensibly private men should have some injustice fell upon me. I at first amused myself with done them than that a public grievance all the richness and variety of colours which should not be redressed. This is usually appeared in the western parts of heaven; pleaded in defence of all those hardships in proportion as they faded away and went which fall on particular persons on particu-out, several stars and planets appeared one lar occasions, which could not be foreseen after another, until the whole firmament when a law was made. To remedy this was in a glow. The blueness of the ether however as much as possible, the court of was exceedingly heightened and enlivened chancery was erected, which frequently by the season of the year, and by the rays mitigates and breaks the teeth of the com- of all those luminaries that passed through mon law, in cases of men's properties, while it.' The galaxy appeared in its most beautiin criminal cases there is a power of par-ful white. To complete the scene, the full doning still lodged in the crown.

moon rose at length in that clouded majesty Notwithstanding this, it is perhaps im- which Milton takes notice of, and opened possible in a large government to distribute to the eye a new picture of nature, which rewards and punishments strictly propor- was more finely shaded, and disposed among tioned to the merits of every action. The softer lights than that which the sun had Spartan commonwealth was indeed won-before discovered to us. derfully exact in this particular; and I do As I was surveying the moon walking in not remember in all my reading to have met her brightness, and taking her progress with so nice an example of justice as that among the constellations, a thought rose in recorded by Plutarch, with which I shall me which I believe very often perplexes close my paper of this day.

and disturbs men of serious and contemThe city of Sparta being unexpectedly plative natures. David himself fell into it attacked by a powerful army of Thebans, in that reflection, when I consider the was in very great danger of falling into the heavens the work of thy fingers, the moon hands of their enemies. The citizens sud- and the stars which thou hast ordained; denly gathered themselves into a body, what is man that thou art mindful of him, fought with a resolution equal to the neces- and the son of man that thou regardest sity of their affairs, yet no one so remark- him!' In the same manner, when I conably distinguished himself on this occasion, sidered that infinite host of stars, or, to to the amazement of both armies, as Isidas speak more philosophically, of suns which the son of Phoebidas, who was at that time were then shining upon me, with those inin the bloom of his youth, and very remark-numerable sets of planets or worlds which able for the comeliness of his person. He were moving round their respective suns was coming out of the bath when the alarm when I still enlarged the idea, and supposed was given, so that he had not time to put another heaven of suns and worlds rising on his clothes, much less his armour; how- still above this which we discovered, and ever transported with a desire to serve his these still enlightened by a superior firmacountry in so great an exigency, snatching ment of luminaries, which are planted at so up a spear in one hand and a sword in the great a distance, that they may appear to other, he flung himself into the thickest the inhabitants of the former as the stars do ranks of his enemies. Nothing could with-to us; in short, while I pursued this thought, stand his fury: in what part soever he fought I could not but reflect on that little insignihe put the enemies to fight without receiv- ficant figure which I myself bore amidst ing a single wound.-Whether, says Plu- the immensity of God's works. tarch, he was the particular care of some Were the sun, which enlightens this part god, who rewarded his valour that day with of the creation, with all the host of planetary an extraordinary protection, or that his worlds that move about him, utterly extinenemies, struck with the unusualness of his guished and annihilated, they would not be dress, and beauty of his shape, supposed missed more than a grain of sand upon the him something more than man, I shall not sea-shore. The space they possess is so exdetermine,

ceedingly little in comparison of the whole, The gallantry of this action was judged that it would scarce make a blank in the so great by the Spartans, that the ephori, creation. The chasm would be imperceptior chief magistrates, decreed he should be ble to an eye that could take in the whole presented with a garland; but, as soon as compass of nature, and pass from one end they had done so, fined him a thousands of the creation to the other; as it is possible drachmas for going out to the battle in- there may be such a sense in ourselves armcd.

Thereafter, or in creatures which are at present more exalted than ourselves. We see supports the whole frame of nature. His many stars by the help of glasses, which creation, and every part of it, is full of him. we do not discover with our naked eyes; There is nothing he has made that is either and the finer our telescopes are, the more so distant, so little, or so inconsiderable still are our discoveries. Huygenius carries which he does not essentially inhabit. His this thought so far, that he does not think substance is within the substance of every it impossible there may be stars whose light being, whether material or immaterial, and is not yet travelled down to us since their as intimately present to it as that being is first creation. There is no question but the to itself. It would be an imperfection in universe has certain bounds set to it; but him, were he able to remove out of one vhen we consider that it is the work of in- place into another, or to withdraw himself finite power, prompted by infinite goodness, from any thing he has created, or from any vith an infinite space to exert itself in, how part of that space which is diffused and can our imagination set any bounds to it? spread abroad to infinity. In short, to speak

To return therefore to my first thought: of him in the language of the old philosoI could not but look upon myself with secret pher, he is a Being whose centre is every horror, as a being that was not worth the where, and his circumference no where. smallest regard of one who had so great a In the second place, he is omniscient as work under his care and superintendency. well as omnipresent. His omniscience inI was afraid of being overlooked amidst the deed necessarily and naturally flows from immensity of nature, and lost among that his omnipresence; he cannot but be coninfinite variety of creatures, which in all scious of every motion that arises in the probability swarm through all these im- whole material world, which he thus esmeasurable regions of matter.

sentially pervades, and of every thought In order to recover myself from this mor- that is stirring in the intellectual world, to tifying thought, I considered that it took its every part of which he is thus intimately rise from those narrow conceptions which united. Several moralists have considered we are apt to entertain of the divine nature. the creation as the temple of God, which We ourselves cannot attend to many differ- he has built with his own hands, and which ent objects at the same time. If we are is filled with his presence. Others have careful to inspect some things, we must of considered infinite space as the receptacle, course neglect others. This imperfection, or rather the habitation, of the Almighty. which we observe in ourselves, is an im- but the noblest and most exalted way of perfection that cleaves in some degree to considering this infinite space is that of Sir creatures of the highest capacities, as they Isaac Newton, who calls it the sensorium are creatures, that is, beings of finite and of the Godhead. Brutes and men have limited natures. The presence of every their sensoriola, cr little sensoriums, by created being is confined to a certain mea- which they apprehend the presence and sure of space, and consequently his observa- perceive the actions of a few objects that tion is stinted to a certain number of objects. lie contiguous to them. Their knowledge The sphere in which we move, and act, and observation turn within a very narrow and understand, is of a wider circumfer- circle. But as God Almighty cannot but ence to one creature than another, accord-perceive and know every thing in which ing as we rise one above another in the he resides, infinite space gives room to inscale of existence. But the widest of these finite knowledge, and is, as it were, an or our spheres has its circumference. When, gan to omniscience. therefore, we reflect on the divine nature, Were the soul separate from the body, we are so used and accustomed to this im- and with one glance of thought should start perfection in ourselves, that we cannot for- beyond the bounds of the creation, should bear in some measure ascribing it to him in it for millions of years continue its progress whom there is no shadow of imperfection. through infinite space with the same acOur reason indeed assures us that his at- tivity, it would still find itself within the tributes are infinite; but the poorness of embrace of its Creator, and encompassed our conceptions is such, that it cannot for- round with the immensity of the Godhead. bear setting bounds to every thing it con- Whilst we are in the body he is not less templates, until our reason comes again to present with us because he is concealed our succour, and throws down all those from us. "O) that I knew where I might little prejudices which rise in us unawares, find him,' says Job. Behold I go forward, and are natural to the mind of man. | but he is not there; and backward, but I

We shall therefore utterly extinguish cannot perceive him; on the left hand, this melancholy thought, of our being over- where he does work, but I cannot behold looked by our Maker in the multiplicity of him: he hideth himself on the right hand nis works, and the infinity of those objects that I cannot see him.' In short, reason, as among which he seems to be incessantly well as revelation assures us, that he canemployed, if we consider, in the first place, not be absent from us, notwithstanding he that he is omnipresent; and, in the second, is undiscovered by us. that he is omniscient.

| In this consideration of God Almighty's If we consider him in his omnipresence, omnipresence and omniscience, every un his being passes through, actuates, and comfortable thought vanishes. He cannot

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out regard every thing that has being, it is one of the best schools in the world to especially such of his creatures who fear receive a general notion of mankind in, and they are not regarded by him. He is privy a certain freedom of behaviour, which is to all their thoughts, and to that anxiety of not so easily acquired in any other place, heart in particular, which is apt to trouble At the same time I must own, that some them on this occasion: for, as it is impos- military airs are pretty extraordinary, and sible he should overlook any of his crea- that a man who goes into the army a coxtures, so we may be confident that he comb, will come out of it a sort of public regards with an eye of mercy, those who nuisance: but a man of sense, or one who endeavour to recommend themselves to his before had not been sufficiently used to a notice, and in an unfeigned humility of mixed conversation, generally takes the heart think themselves unworthy that he true turn. The court has in all ages been should be mindful of them.

allowed to be the standard of good-breeding; and I believe there is not a juster ob

servation in Monsieur Rochefoucault, than No. 566.] Monday, July 12, 1714. that “a man who has been bred up wholly Militiæ species amor est.- Ovid Ars Am. ii. 233.

to business, can never get the air of a courLove is a kind of warfare.

tier at court, but will immediately catch it

in the camp.” The reason of this most As my correspondents begin to grow certainly is, that the very essence of goodpretty numerous, I think myself obliged to breeding and politeness consists in several take some notice of them, and shall there- Iniceties, which are

niceties, which are so minute that they fore make this paper a miscellany of let

escape his observation, and he falls short ters. I have, since my re-assuming the of the original he would copy after; but office of Spectator, received abundance of when he sees the same things charged and epistles from gentlemen of the blade, who aggravated to a fault, he no sooner endeaI find have been so used to action that they / vours to come up to the pattern which is know not how to lie still. They seem ge-set before him, than, though he stops somenerally to be of opinion that the fair at what short of that, he naturally rests home ought to reward them for their ser- where in reality he ought. I was, two or vices abroad, and that until the cause of three days ago, mightily pleased with the their country calls them again into the observation of a humorous gentleman upon field, they have a sort of right to quạrter one of his friends, who was in other rethemselves upon the ladies. In order to spects every way an accomplished person. favour their approaches, I am desired by that she wanted nothing but a dash of the some to enlarge upon the accomplishments coxcomb in him:" by which he understood of their professions, and by others to give a little of that alertness and unconcern in them my advice in carrying on their at- the common actions of life, which is usually tacks. But let us hear what the gentle- so visible among gentlemen of the army, men say for themselves,

and which a campaign or two would infal6 MR. SPECTATOR,—Though it may look libly have given him. somewhat perverse amidst the arts of. You will easily guess, sir, by this my peace to talk too much of war, it is but gra- panegyric upon a military education, that titude to pay the last office to its manes, I am myself a soldier, and indeed I am so. since even peace itself, is, in some measure, I remember, within three years after I had obliged to it for its being.

been in the army, I was ordered into the You have, in your former papers, al- country a recruiting. I had very particuways recommended the accomplished to lar success in this part of the service, and the favour of the fair; and I hope you will was over and above assured, at my going allow me to represent some part of a mili- away, that I might have taken a young tary life not altogether unnecessary to the lady, who was the most considerable forforming a gentleman, I need not tell you tune in the country, along with me. I prethat in France, whose fashions we have ferred the pursuit of fame at that time to been formerly so fond of, almost every one all other considerations, and though I was derives his pretences to merit from the not absolutely bent on a wooden leg, resword; and that a man has scarce the face solved at least to get a scar or two for the to make his court to a lady, without some good of Europe. I have at present as much credentials from the service to recommend as I desire of this sort of honour, and if you him. As the profession is very ancient, we could recommend me effectually, should be have reason to think some of the greatest well enough contented to pass the remainmen among the old Romanis derived many der of my days in the arms of some dear of their virtues from it, the commanders kind creature, and upon a pretty estate in being frequently in other respects some of the country. This, as I take it, would be the most shining characters of the age. following the example of Lucius Cincinna

"The army not only gives a man oppor- tus, the old Roman dictator, who, at the tunities of exercising those two great vir- end of a war left the camp to follow the tues, patience and courage, but often pro- plough. I am, sir, with all imaginable re duces them in minds where they had spect, your most obedient, humble servant, scarce any footing before. I must add, that!

-WILL WARLEY.'

MR. SPECTATOR, I am a half-pay of- | Frenchman, papist, plunderer," and the ficer, and am at present with a friend in like significant terms, in an italic character, the country. Here is a rich widow in the have also a very good effect upon the neighbourhood, who has made fools of all eye of the purchaser, not to mention the fox-hunters within fifty miles of her. She "scribbler, liar, rogue, rascal, knave, and declares she intends to marry, but has not villain,” without which it is impossible to yet been asked by the man she could like, carry on a modern controversy, She usually admits her humble admirers to Our party writers are so sensible of the an audience or two; but, after she has once secret virtue of an innuendo to recommend given them denial, will never see them their productions, that of late they never more. I am assured by a female relation mention the Q- n or P t at length, that I shall have fair play at her; but as though they speak of them with honour, my whole success depends on my first ap- and with the deference which is due to proaches, I desire your advice, whether I them from every private person. It gives had best storm, or proceed by way of sap. a secret satisfaction to a pursuer of these I am, sir, yours, &c.

mysterious works, that he is able to decyP.S. I had forgot to tell you, that I

pher them without help, and by the have already carried one of her outworks,

strength of his own natural parts, to fill up

a blank space, or make out a word that has that is, secured her maid.'

only the first and last letter to it. MR.SPECTATOR, I have assisted in se- 1 Some of our authors indeed, when they veral sieges in the Low Countries, and being would be more satirical than ordinary, omit still willing to employ my talents as a soldier only the vowels of a great man's name, and and engineer, lay down this morning at seven fall most unmercifully upon all the consoo'clock before the door of an obstinate fe- nants. This way of writing was first of all male, who had for some time refused me introduced by T-m B-wn,t of facetious admittance. I made a lodgement in an memory, who, after having gutted a proper outer parlour about twelve: the enemy re- name of all its intermediate vowels, used to tired to her bed-chamber, yet. I still pur- plant it in his works, and make as free with sued, and about two o'clock this afternoon it as he pleased, without any danger of the she thought fit to capitulate. Her demands statute. are indeed somewhat high, in relation to ! That I may imitate these celebrated authe settlement of her fortune. But, being thors, and publish a paper which shall be in possession of the house, I intend to insist more taking than ordinary, I have here upon carte blanche, and am in hopes, by drawn up a very curious libel, in which a keeping off all other pretenders for the reader of penetration will find a great deal space of twenty-four hours, to starve her of concealed satire, and, if he be acquaintinto a compliance. I beg your speedy ad-ed with the present posture of affairs, will vice, and am, sir, yours,

easily discover the meaning of it. PETER PUSH. 1 . If there are four persons in the nation

who endeavour to bring all things into conFrom my camp in Red-lion square,

fusion, and ruin their native country, I think Saturday, four in the afternoon.'

every honest Englishman ought to be upon his guard. That there are such, every one

will agree with me who hears me name ***, No. 567.] Wednesday, July 14, 1714. with his first friend and favourite ***, not to

mention *** nor ***. These people may cry ------- Inceptus clamor frustratur hiantes.

ch-rch, ch-rch as long as they please; but, Virg. Æn. vi. 493.

to make use of a homely proverb, “The The weak voice deceives their gasping throats. proof of the p-dd-ng is in the eating.” This

Dryden.

I am sure of, that if a certain prince should I HAVE received private advice from concur with a certain prelate, (and we have some of my correspondents, that if I would Monsieur Z-n's word for it) our poste. give my paper a general run, I should take rity would be in a sweet p-ckle. Must care to season it with scandal. I have in- | the British nation suffer, forsooth, because deed observed of late that few writings sell my lady Q-p-t-s has been disobliged? Or is which are not filled with great names and it reasonable that our English fleet, which illustrious titles. The reader generally casts used to be the terror of the ocean, should his eye upon a new book, and, if he finds lie wind-bound for the sake of a ? I several letters separated from one another love to speak out, and declare my mind by a dash, he buys it up, and pursues it with clearly, when I am talking for the good of great satisfaction. An M and an h, a T my country. I will not make my court to and an r,* with a short line between them, an ill man, though he were a B y or a has sold many insipid pamphlets. Nay, T- t. Nay, I would not stick to call so I have known a whole edition go off by wretched a politician a traitor, an enemy virtue of two or three well-written &C-S. to his country: and a bl-nd-rd-ss, &c. &c.'

A sprinkling of the words “ faction, The remaining part of this political tredtise, which is written after the manner of , Then pray do but mind the two or three the most celebrated authors, in Great Bri-next lines: Ch-rch and p-dd-ng in the tain, I may communicate to the public at a same sentence! Our clergy are very much more convenient season. In the mean while beholden to him!' Upon this the third genI shall leave this with my curious reader, tleman, who was of a mild disposition, and, as some ingenious writers do their enigmas; as I found, a whig in his heart, desired and, if any sagacious person can fairly him not to be too severe upon the Spectator unriddle it, I will print his explanation, neither; “for,' says he, 'you find he is very and, if he pleases, acquaint the world with cautious of giving offence, and has therehis name.

* Marlborough. Treasurer

† Tom Brown

fore put two dashes into his pudding.' .A I hope this short essay will convince my fig for his dash,' says the angry politician, readers it is not for want of abilities that in his next sentence he gives a plain innuI avoid state tracts, and that, if I would endo that our posterity will be in a sweet apply my mind to it, I might in a little p-ckle. What does the fool mean by his time be as great a master of the political pickle? Why does he not write it at length, scratch as any the most eminent writer of if he means honestly?' I have read over the age. I shall only add, that in order to the whole sentence,' saysI; “but I look outshine all the modern race of syncopists, upon the parenthesis in the belly of it to be and thoroughly content my English reader, the most dangerous part, and as full of inI intend shortly to publish a Spectator that sinuations as it can hold.' But who,' says shall not have a single vowel in it.

I, is my lady Q-p-t-s?' 'Ay, answer that if you can, sir,' says the furious statesman to the poor whig that sat over against him.

But, without giving him time to reply, I No. 568.] Friday, July 16, 1714.'

do assure you,' says he, were I my lady Duim recitas, incipit esse tuus.

Q-p-t-s, I would sue him for scandalun Mart. Epig. xxxix. 1. magnatum. What is the world come to? Reciting makes it thine.

Must every body, be allowed to---! He

had by this time filled a new pipe, and, apI was yesterday in a coffee-house not far plying it to his lips, when we expected the from the Royal Exchange, where I ob- last word of his sentence, put us off with a served three persons in close conference whiff of tobacco; which he redoubled, with over a pipe of tobacco; upon which, having so much rage and trepidation, that he alfilled one for my own use, I lighted it at most stifled the whole company. After a the little wax candle that stood before short pause, I owned that I thought the them: and, after having thrown in two or Spectator had gone too far in writing so three whiffs amongst them, sat down and many letters of my lady Q-p-t-s's name: made one of the company, I need not tell but, however,' says I, he has made a my reader that lighting a man's pipe at the little amends for it in his next sentence, same candle is looked upon among brother where he leaves a blank space without so smoakers as an overture to conversation much as a consonant to direct us. I mean,' and friendship. As we here laid our heads says I, after those words, “the fleet that together in a very amicable manner, being used to be the terror of the ocean, should entrenched under a cloud of our own rais- be wind-bound for the sake of a “;" after ing, I took up the last Spectator, and cast- which ensues a chasm, that in my opinion ing my eye over it, “The Spectator,' says looks modest enough.' 'Sir,' says my anI, is very witty to-day:' upon which a tagonist, you may easily know his meaning lusty lethargic old gentleman, who sat at by his gaping; I suppose he designs his the upper end of the table, having gradu- chasm, as you call it, for a hole to creep out ally blown out of his mouth a great deal of at, but I believe it will hardly serve his smoke which he had been collecting for turn. Who can endure to see the great some time before, “Ay,' says he, 'more officers of state, the B---y's and T-.-t's witty than wise, I am afraid. His neigh- treated after so scurrilous a manner?' 1 bour, who sat at his right hand, immediate-can't for my life,' says I, 'imagine who they ly coloured, and, being an angry politician, are the Spectator means.' No!' says he:-laid down his pipe with so much wrath that Your humble servant, sir!' Upon which he broke it in the middle, and by that he flung himself back in his chair after a means furnished me with a tobacco stopper. contemptuous manner, and smiled upon I took it up very sedately, and, looking him the old léthargic gentleman on his left hand, full in the face, made use of it from time to who I found was his great admirer. The time all the while he was speaking: “This whig however had begun to conceive a fellow,' says he, 'cannot for his life keep out good-will towards me, and, seeing my of politics. Do you see how he abuses four pipe out, very generously offered me the great, men here? I fixed my eye very use of his box; but I declined it with great attentively on the paper, and asked him civility, being obliged to meet a friend if he meant those who were represented by about that time in another quarter of the asterisks. Asterisks,' says, he, do you city. call them? they are all of them stars-hel Åt my leaving the coffee-house, I could might as well have put garters to them. I not forbear reflecting with myself upon that

VOL. II.

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