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will hardly recede from that, which the two kings shall meditate and determine.

Also, that whereas there doth, as it were, creep upon the ground a disposition in some places to make popular estates and leagues to the disadvantage of monarchies, the conjunction of the two kings will be able to stop and impedite the growth of any such evil.

These discourses you shall do well frequently to treat upon, and therewithal to fill up the spaces of the active part of your negotiation; representing, that it stands well with the greatness and majesty of the two kings to extend their cogitations and the influence of their government, not only to their own subjects but to the state of the whole world besides, specially the Christian portion thereof.

Account of Council Business.

FOR remedy against the infestation of pirates, than which there is not a better work under heaven, and therefore worthy of the great care his majesty hath expressed concerning the same, this is done:

First, Sir Thomas Smith (a) hath certified in writing, on the behalf of the merchants of London, that there will be a contribution of 20,000l. a year, during two years space, towards the charge of repressing the pirates; wherein we do both conceive, that this, being as the first offer, will be increased. And we consider also, that the merchants of the West, who have sustained in proportion far greater damage than those of London, will come into the circle, and follow the ex

(a) Of Biborough in Kent, second son of Thomas Smith, of Ostenhanger, of that county, Esq. He had farmed the customs in the reign of queen Elizabeth, and was sent, by king James I. ambassador to the court of Russia, in March 1604-5; from whence returning, he was made governor of the society of merchants trading to the East-Indies, Muscovy, the French and Summer Islands; and treasurer for the colony and company of Virginia. He built a magnificent house at Deptford, which was burnt on the 30th of January, 1618; and in April 1619, he was removed from his employment of governor and treasurer, upon several complaints of frauds committed by him.

ample: and for that purpose letters are directed unto them.

Secondly, for the consultation de modo of the arming and proceeding against them, in respect that my lord admiral(b) cometh not yet abroad, the table hath referred it to my lord treasurer (c), the lord Carew (d), and Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer (e), who heretofore hath served as treasurer of the navy, to confer with the lord admiral, calling to that conference Sir Robert Mansell, and others expert in sea-service; and so to make report unto the board. At which time some principal merchants shall likewise attend for the lords better information.

So that, when this is done, his majesty shall be advertised from the table: whereupon his majesty may be pleased to take into his royal consideration, both the business in itself, and as it may have relation to Sir John Digby's embassage.

For safety and caution against tumults and disorders in and near the city, in respect of some idle flying papers, that were cast abroad of a May-day, &c. the lords have wisely taken a course neither to nurse it, or nourish it, by too much apprehension, nor much less to neglect due provision to make all sure. And therefore order is given, that as well the trained bands, as the military bands, newly erected, shall be in muster as well weekly, in the mean time, on every Thursday, which is the day upon which May-day falleth, as in the May-week itself, the Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday. Besides, that the strength of the watch shall that day be increased.

For the buildings in and about London, order is given for four selected aldermen, and four selected justices, to have the care and charge thereof laid upon them; and they answerable for the observing of

(b) Charles Howard, earl of Nottingham.

(c) Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk.

(d) George, lord Carew, who had been president of Munster, in Ireland, and was now master of the ordnance. He was created earl of Totness by king Charles I. in 1626.

(e) Sir Fulk Greville.

his majesty's proclamation, and for stop of all farther building; for which purposes the said Eslus are warned to be before the board, where they shall receive a strait charge, and be tied to a continual account.

For the provosts marshals, there is already direction given for the city and the counties adjacent; and it shall be strengthened with farther commission, if there be cause.

For the proclamation, that lieutenants, not being counsellors, deputy-lieutenants, justices of the peace, and gentlemen of quality, should depart the city, and reside in their countries: we find the city so dead of company of that kind for the present, as we account it out of season to command that, which is already done. But after men have attended their business the two next terms, in the end of Trinity-term, according to the custom, when the justices shall attend at the star-chamber, I shall give a charge concerning the same and that shall be corroborated by a proclamation, if cause be.

For the information given against the Witheringtons, that they should countenance and abet the spoils and disorders in the middle shires; we find the informers to falter and fail in their accusation. Nevertheless, upon my motion, the table hath ordered, that the informer shall attend one of the clerks of the council, and set down articulately what he can speak, and how he can prove it, and against whom, either the Witheringtons or others.

For the causes of Ireland, and the late letters from the deputy (f), we have but entered into them, and have appointed Tuesday for a farther consultation of the same; and therefore of that subject I forbear to write more for this present.

Indorsed,

March 30, 1617. An account of council business.

(f) Sir Oliver St. John, afterwards viscount Grandison.

TO THE LORD KEEPER (a).

My honourable Lord,

WHEREAS the late lord chancellor thought it fit to dismiss out of the chancery a cause touching Henry Skipwith to the common law, where he desireth it should be decided: these are to intreat your lordship (b) in the gentleman's favour, that if the adverse party shall attempt to bring it now back again into your lordship's court, you would not retain it there, but let it rest in the place where now it is, that without more vexation unto him in posting him from one to another, he may have a final hearing and determination thereof. And so I rest

Your Lordship's ever at command,

My Lord,

G. BUCKINGHAM.

This is a business, wherein I spake to my lord Chancellor (c); whereupon he dismissed the suit. Lincoln, the 4th of April, 1617.

TO THE REVEREND UNIVERSITY OF OX

FORD (d).

AMONGST the gratulations I have received, none are more welcome and agreeable to me than your letters, wherein the less I acknowledge of those attri(a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006.

(b) This is the first of many letters, which the marquis of Buckingham wrote to lord Bacon in favour of persons, who had causes depending in, or likely to come into, the court of Chancery. And it is not improbable, that such recommendations were considered in that age as less extraordinary and irregular, than they would appear now. The marquis made the same kind of applications to lord Bacon's successor, the lord keeper Williams, in whose Life, by bishop Hacket, Part I. p. 107, we are informed, that " there was not a cause "of moment, but, as soon as it came to publication, one of the parties brought letters from this mighty peer, and the lord keeper's patron."

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(c) Ellesmere.

(d) From the collections of the late Robert Stephens, Esq; historiographer royal, and John Locker, Esq; now in possession of the editor.

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butes you give me, the more I must acknowledge of your affection, which bindeth me no less to you, that are professors of learning, than my own dedication doth to learning itself. And therefore you have no need to doubt, but I will emulate, as much as in me is, towards you the merits of him that is gone, by how much the more I take myself to have more propriety in the principal motive thereof. And for the equality you write of, I shall by the grace of God, far as may concern me, hold the balance as equally between the two universities, as I shall hold the balance of other justice between party and party. And yet in both cases I must meet with some inclinations of affection, which nevertheless shall not carry me aside. And so I commend you to God's goodness.

Your most loving and assured friend,

Gorhambury, April 12, 1617.

TO THE LORD KEEPER (a).

My honourable Lord,

FR. BACON.

I HAVE acquainted his majesty with your letters, who liked all your proceedings well, saving only the point, for which you have since made amends, in obeying his pleasure touching the proclamation. His majesty would have your lordship go thoroughly about the business of Ireland, whereinto you are so well entered, especially at this time, that the chief justice (b) is come over, who hath delivered his opinion thereof to his majesty, and hath understood (a) Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006.

(b) Sir John Denham, one of the lords justices of Ireland ins 1616. He was made one of the barons of the Exchequer in England, May 2, 1617. He died January 6, 1638, in the eightieth year of his age. He was the first who set up customs in Ireland (not but there were laws for the same before ;) of which the first year's revenue amounted but to 5001; but before his death, which was about twenty-two years after, they were let for 54,0001. per annum. Borlase's Reduction of Ireland to the Crown of England, p. 200. Edit. London, 1675.

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