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exertion to drive the latter from the soil was made, or at least none was sustained with steadfast courage in the field. Manifestoes, decrees, and lofty boasts, like a cloud of canvas covering a rotten hull, made a gallant appearance, but real strength and firmness were nowhere to be found.

The Spanish insurrection presented indeed a strange spectacle; patriotism was seen supporting a vile system of government; a popular assembly working for the restoration of a despotic monarch; the higher classes seeking a foreign master; the lower armed in the cause of bigotry and misrule. The upstart leaders secretly abhorring freedom, yet governing in her name, trembled at the democratic activity they had themselves excited. They called forth all the bad passions of the multitude, but repressed the patriotism that would regenerate as well as save.

The country suffered the evils, without enjoying the benefits, of a revolution! Tumults and assassinations terrified and disgusted the sensible part of the community; a corrupt administration of the resources extinguished patriotism, and neglect ruined the armies: the peasant-soldier, usually flying at the first onset, threw away his arms and returned to his home, or, attracted by the license of the partidas, joined the banners of men who, for the most part originally robbers, were as oppressive to the people as the enemy. The guerilla chiefs would, in their turn, have been quickly exterminated, but that the French, pressed by lord Wellington's battalions, were obliged to keep in large

This was the secret of Spanish constancy! Copious supplies from England, and the valour of the Anglo-Portuguese troops, these were the supports of the war! and it was the gigantic vigour with which the duke of Wellington resisted the fierceness of France, and sustained the weakness of three inefficient cabinets, that delivered the Peninsula. Faults he committed, and who in war has not ? but his reputation stands upon a sure foundation, a simple majestic structure, that envy cannot undermine, nor the meretricious ornaments of party panegyric deform. The exploits of his army were great in themselves, and great in their consequences: abounding with signal examples of heroic courage and devoted zeal, they should neither be disfigured nor forgotten, being worthy of more fame than the world has yet accorded them-worthy also of a better historian.

masses.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VI.

Operations in Catalonia-General Swartz marches against the town of Manresa,
and general Chabran against Taragona-French defeated at Bruch-Cha-
bran recalled — Burns Arbos--Marches against Bruch-Retreats-Duhesme
assaults Gerona-Is repulsed with loss --Action on the Llobregat-General
insurrection of Catalonia-Figueras blockaded-General Reille relieves it-
First siege of Gerona- The marquis of Palacios arrives in Catalonia with the
Spanish troops from the Balearic isles, declared captain-general under St.
Narcissus, re-establishes the line of the Llobregat-The count of Caldagues
forces the French lines at Gerona–Duhesme raises the siege and returns to
Barcelona-Observations-Moncey marches against Valencia, defeats the
Spaniards at Pajaso, at the Siete Águas, and at Quarte Attacks Valencia,
is repulsed, marches into Murcia, forces the passage of the Xucar, defcats Ser-

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CHAPTER I.

The Asturian deputies received with enthusiasm in England - Ministers preci.

pitate- Imprudent choice of agents—Junot marches to Alcantara, joined by
the Spanish contingent, enters Portugal, arrives at Abrantes, pushes on to
Lisbon-Prince regent emigrates to the Brazils, reflections on that transac-
tion_Dangerous position of the French army-Portuguese council of regency
-Spanish contingent well received_General Taranco dies at Oporto, is suc-
ceeded by the French general Quesnel—Solano's troops retire to Badajos-
Junot takes possession of the Alemtejo and the Algarves ; exacts a forced
loan ; is created duke of Abrantes; suppresses the council of regency; sends
the flower of the Portuguese army to France— Napoleon demands a ransom
from Portugal-People unable to pay it— Police of Lisbon-Junot's military
position; his character; political position_People discontented— Prophetic
eggs-Sebastianists—The capture of Rossily's squadron known at Lisbon-
Pope's nuncio takes refuge on board the English fleet-Alarm of the French

136

CHAPTER II.

Spanish general Belesta seizes general Quesnel and retires to Gallicia-In-

surrection at Oporto-Junot disarms and confines the Spanish soldiers near

Lisbon-General Avril's column returns to Estremos-General Loison

marches from Almeida against Oporto; is attacked at Mezam Frias; crosses

the Douero; attacked at Castro d'Año; recalled to Lisbon-French driven

out of the Algarves-- The fort of Figueras taken— Abrantes and Elvas

threatened_Setuval in commotion—General Spencer appears off the Tagus-

Junot's plan-Insurrection at Villa Viciosa suppressed_Colonel Maransin

takes Beja with great slaughter of the patriots—The insurgents advance from

Leria, fall back- Action at Leria—Loison arrives at Abrantes—Observations

on his march--French army concentrated— The Portuguese general Leite,

aided by a Spanish corps, takes post at Evora-Loison crosses the Tagus ;

defeats Leite's advanced guard at Montemor-Battle of Evora—Town taken

and pillaged—Unfriendly conduct of the Spaniards-Loison reaches Elvas;

collects provisions ; is recalled by Junot_Observations

155

CHAPTER III.

Political and military retrospect—Mr. Fox's conduct contrasted with that of

his successors General Spencer sent to the Mediterranean—Sir John Moore
withdrawn from thence; arrives in England ; sent to Sweden-Spencer arrives
at Gibraltar-Ceuta, the object of his expedition—Spanish insurrection diverts
his attention to Cadiz; wishes to occupy that city-Spaniards averse to it-

Prudent conduct of sir Hew Dalrymple and lord Collingwood-Spencer sails to

Ayamonte ; returns to Cadiz; sails to the mouth of the Tagus ; returns to

Cadiz— Prince Leopold of Sicily and the duke of Orleans arrive at Gibraltar

-Curious intrigue-Army assembled at Cork by the whig administration, with

a view to permanent conquest in South America, the only disposable British

force-Sir A. Wellesley takes the command—Contradictory instructions of

the ministers—Sir John Moore returns from Sweden ; ordered to Portugal-

Sir Hew Dalrymple appointed commander of the forces_Confused arrange-

ments made by the ministers

Page 169

CHAPTER IV.

Sir A. Wellesley quits his troops and proceeds to Coruña–Junta refuse assist-

ance in men, but ask for and obtain money-Sir Arthur goes to Oporto ;

arranges a plan with the bishop; proceeds to the Tagus; rejoins his troops ;

joined by Spencer; disembarks at the Mondego; has an interview with general

Freire d'Andrada; marches to Leria Portuguese insurrection weak—Junot's

position and dispositions Laborde marches to Alcobaça, Loison to Abrantes

-General Freire separates from the British-Junot quits Lisbon with the

reserve-Laborde takes post at Rorica-Action of Roriça-Laborde retreats to

Montachique-Sir A. Wellesley marches to Vimiero-Junot concentrates

his army at Torres Vedras

187

CHAPTER V.

Portuguese take Abrantes—Generals Ackland and Anstruther land and join

the British army at Vimiero - Sir Harry Burrard arrives—Battle of Vimiero

- Junot defeated_Sir Hew Dalrymple arrives-Armistice — Terms of it-

Junot returns to Lisbon-Negotiates for a convention—Sir John Moore's

troops land-State of the public mind in Lisbon—The Russian admiral

negotiates separately-Convention concluded—the Russian fleet surrenders

upon terms—Conduct of the people at Lisbon—The Monteiro Mor requires

sir Charles Cotton to interrupt the execution of the convention—Sir John

Hope appointed commandant of Lisbon; represses all disorders-Disputes

between the French and English commissioners-Reflections thereupon 207

CHAPTER VI.

The bishop and junta of Oporto aim at the supreme power ; wish to establish the

seat of government at Oporto; their intrigues ; strange proceedings of general

Decken; reflections thereupon-Clamour raised against the convention in

England and in Portugal; soon ceases in Portugal—The Spanish general

Galluzzo refuses to acknowledge the convention ; invests fort Lalippe; his

proceedings absurd and unjustifiable—Sir John Hope marches against him;

he alters his conduct-Garrison of Lalippe-March to Lisbon-Embarked

-Garrison of Almeida ; march to Oporto; attacked and plundered by the

Portuguese—Sir Hew Dalrymple and sir Harry Burrard recalled to England

-Vile conduct of the daily press_Violence of public feeling-Convention,

improperly called, of Cintra-Observations--On the action of Roriça-On

the battle of Vimiero__ On the convention .

236

BOOK III.

CHAPTER I.

Comparison between the Portuguese and Spanish people—The general opinion

of French weakness and Spanish strength and energy, fallacious_Contracted
policy of the English cabinet-Account of the civil and military agents em-
ployed_Many of them act without judgment-Mischievouis effects thereof,
Operations of the Spanish armies after the battle of Baylen–Murcian army
arrives at Madrid_Valencian army marches to the relief of Zaragoza—Gene-
ral Verdier raises the siege-Castaños enters Madrid_Contumacious conduct
of Galluzzo-Disputes between Blake and Cuesta–Dilatory conduct of the
Spaniards—Sagacious observation of Napoleon---Insurrection at Bilbao;
quelled by general Merlin, French corps approaches Zaragoza--Palafox
alarmed, threatens the council of Castille-- Council of war held at Madrid-
Plan of operations-Castaños unable to march from want of money_Bad

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