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Nor. My lord, the enemy is past the marsh :

After the battle let George Stanley die.
K. Rich. A thousand hearts are great within my bosom.

Advance our standards, set upon our foes ;
Our ancient word of courage, fair Saint George, 350
Inspire us with the spleen of fiery dragons !
Upon them! Victory sits on our helms.


SCENE IV.-Another part of the field. Alarum : excursions. Enter NORFOLK and forces fighting; to

Cates. Rescue, my lord of Norfolk, rescue, rescue!

The king enacts more wonders than a man,
Daring an opposite to every danger :
His horse is slain, and all on foot he fights,
Seeking for Richmond in the throat of death.

Rescue, fair lord, or else the day is lost! 350. fair] fare Q 2. 352. helms] Qq 1, 2, 4, 8; helpes Qq 3, 5, 6, 7, Ff. Exeunt] Rowe; Drums, and Exeunt. Capell; omitted Qq, Ff.

Scene iv. Scene iv.] Capell; Scene VIII. Pope; scene continued Ff. Another ... field.] Capell, Camb. Enter Norfolk ... ] Capell, Camb.; Enter Catesbie. Qq, Ff. 1. Rescue . . . rescue] one line as Q9; Rescue . . . Norfolke, Rescue, rescue (two lines) Ff.

346. A “great marish” separated neither of the earliest quartos were both armies. Richmond, in his ad- available, it is clear that Q. 4 was not vance, left this on his right; and thus referred to by the editor. 0 3 or Q 5 put the sun at his back, and in the was thus the alternative copy of the faces of his enemies. This statement play which he must have used in seekof the chroniclers seems to imply that ing earlier authority for the readings of the subject of lines 278-88 above is 2 6. due to the invention of the dramatist.

Scene iv. “When king Richard saw the earles companie was passed the marish, he 3. Daring an opposite] Malone did command with all hast to set vpon quotes Marston, Antonio and Mellida : them."

"Myself, myself, will dare all oppo351. spleen of fiery dragons] Compare sites.” An “opposite" is an enemy, King Fohn, 11. 1. 68. Mr. Craig re- adversary, as Twelfth Night, iii. iv. marks that the expression “to fight like 293; King Lear, v. iii. 42. Tyrwhitt, a dragon” seems to have been prover- who proposed to read “ Daring and bial, and refers to Coriolanus, iv. vii. 23. opposite," probably regarded the phrase

352. helms] The variation in Ff is as meaning “daring in his opposition worth noticing. Apart from the fact to every danger.” Wherever Richard that first-hand MS. authority was meets an opposite on the field, he dares evidently wanting, and that copies of him à l'outrance,

Alarums. Enter KING RICHARD.
K. Rich. A horse! a horse ! my kingdom for a horse !
Cates. Withdraw, my lord; I'll help you to a horse.
K. Rich. Slave, I have set my life upon a cast,

And I will stand the hazard of the die!
I think there be six Richmonds in the field ;
Five have I slain to-day instead of him.
A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse !




SCENE V.-Another part of the field.
Alarum. Enter KING RICHARD and RICHMOND; they fight.

KING RICHARD is slain. Retreat and flourish. Re-enter
RICHMOND, DERBY bearing the crown, with divers other

Richm. God and your arms be prais'd, victorious friends!

The day is ours; the bloody dog is dead. Der. Courageous Richmond, well hast thou acquit thee. 7. Alarums.] Ff; omitted Qą. 13. Exeunt.] Theobald; omitted Qq, Ff.

Scene v. Scene v.] Dyce; Ff, Pope, Capell, etc., continue scene. Another ... field.] Dyce, Camb. Retreat and flourish.] Ff; then retrait being sounded Qq. Re-enter Richmond] Camb.; Enter Richmond Qq, Ff. 1. God . . . friends] one line as Qq; God . . . Armes Be . . . Friends (two lines) Ff. 3. Der.] Stan. Pope. 3, 4. Courageous ... royalty] two lines as Qq; Couragious Richmond, Well . .. Loe Heere . . . Royalties (three lines) Ff.

13. The chronicles contain no men- William Brandon and overthrew Sir tion of the loss of Richard's horse. John Cheney. The single combat This famous line was possibly sugwhich followed was stopped by the gested by the statement that “when arrival of Sir William Stanley's reinthe losse of the battell was imminent forcements. These surrounded and and apparant, they brought to him a overpowered Richard, isolating him swift and a light horsse, to conueie from his army; and "he himself, manhim awaie.” The “six Richmonds in fullie fighting in the middle of his the field” are also without authority. enimies, was slaine." Steevens menRichard knew the earl at once “by tions various imitations of Richard's certeine demonstrations and tokens, cry for a horse, and quotes Heywood, which he had learned and knowen of Iron Age :others that were able to giue him full

“ a horse, a horse! information." He put spurs to his Ten kingdoms for a horse to enter horse, and, riding out of his part of the Troy!" host,“ like a hungrie lion ran with The line is reproduced by Marston, speare in rest toward him.” To make What you will, act ii. (quoted by his way to his enemy, he killed Sir Reed).

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Lo, here this long usurped royalty
From the dead temples of this bloody wretch
Have I pluck'd off, to grace thy brows withal :

Wear it, enjoy it, and make much of it.
Richm. Great God of Heaven, say amen to all !

But, tell me, is young George Stanley living?
Der. He is, my lord, and safe in Leicester town;

Whither, if it please you, we may now withdraw us.
Richm. What men of name are slain on either side ?
Der. John Duke of Norfolk, Walter Lord Ferrers,

Sir Robert Brakenbury, and Sir William Brandon.
Richm. Inter their bodies as become their births:

Proclaim a pardon to the soldiers fled,
That in submission will return to us;
And then, as we have ta’en the sacrament,
We will unite the white rose and the red.
Smile Heaven upon this fair conjunction,
That long have frown'd upon their enmity!
What traitor hears me, and says not amen ?
England hath long been mad, and scarr'd herself;

The brother blindly shed the brother's blood; · The father rashly slaughter'd his own son;

The son, compell’d, been butcher to the sire:

4. royalty] Q 1; roialties Qq 2-8, Ff. 7. enjoy it] Qq 1, 2; omitted Qq 3-8, Ff. II. if it please you] Qq 2-8; it is please you ( 1; (if you please) Ff; if you so please Pope. if ... withdraw us] if you please, we will withdraw us now Keightley conj. 13, 14. Fohn . . . Brandon.] Qq print in italics. 13. Der.] Ff; omitted @a. Lords the Lord Pope. Ferrers] Capell; Ferris Qq, Ff. 14. Brakenbury] Brookenbury Qq 1, 2; Brokenbury Qq 3-8, Ff. and] omitted Pope. 15. become] Qq, Ff; becomes Rowe, Camb. 25. rashly] madly Capell.

4. royalty] So 1 Henry IV. iv. iii. 55. 12. men of name] Compare Much Holinshed has: “When the lord Stan- Ado About Nothing, 1. i. 7." leie saw the good will and gladnesse 13, 14. Og print these lines in italics of the people, he tooke the crowne of and assign them to no speaker. In king Richard (which was found amongst addition to those slain Holinshed gives the spoile in the field), and set it on the the name of “Sir Richard Radcliffe.” earles head; as though he had beene Sir William Brandon was Richmond's elected king by the voice of the people.” standard-bearer. See note on v. iv. 13

10, II. Lord Strange was on the above. field, with the keepers of the king's 15. become] If this is not a misprint tents. “ The same night, in the euen- of the early editions, it is a case of an ing, king Henrie with great pompe impersonal verb being attracted into came to the town of Leicester.”

the number of its object.

All this divided York and Lancaster,
Divided in their dire division,
O, now let Richmond and Elizabeth,
The true succeeders of each royal house,

By God's fair ordinance conjoin together!
And let their heirs, God, if Thy will be so,
Enrich the time to come with smooth-fac'd peace,
With smiling plenty and fair prosperous days!
Abate the edge of traitors, gracious Lord,

That would reduce these bloody days again
And make poor England weep in streams of blood !
Let them not live to taste this land's increase,
That would with treason wound this fair land's peace!
Now civil wounds are stopp'd, peace lives again: 40
That she may live long here, God say amen!

[Exeunt. 32. their] Qq 1, 2, 8; thy Qq 3-7, Ff. 33. smooth-fac'd] Ff; smooth-faste Qq 1-3, 5; smooth fast Q 4; smooth-fac't Qq 6-8. 41. here] heare Qq 1-3, 5-7. Exeunt.] Ff; omitted Qq.

27. this] Johnson wished to change 117, where the metaphor is very comto the relative “that.” But it is the plete. The more usual word is “reobjects divided, and not the causes of bate." See Measure for Measure, 1. iv, division, which can be conjoined to- 60; Lodge and Greene, Looking-Glass gether.

for London (Dyce, 117): “Could not 35. Abate] blunt, depress, lower. rebate the strength that Rasni Aldis Wright quotes 2 Henry IV. 1. i. brought."


1. iv. 257-68. Ff admit six lines which are not in Qq, five of which (or, rather, four and a half) are inserted between Clarence's appeal in line 256, “Relent, and save your souls," and the first murderer's repetition of the word "Relent." (1) It is quite obvious that the force of the repetition, and of Clarence's subsequent comments upon it, is thus destroyed. (2) The reading

Would not intreat for life, as you would begge

Were you in my distresse. is awkward, as it makes Clarence say over again what he already has said. In his extremity, however, he might be excused for repeating himself, as Queen Elizabeth already has been excused for her grammar, 1. iii, 62-9 above. The advantage of Ff reading is that Clarence, attempting to work on the feelings of both murderers, is repulsed by the first, and then turns to the second for compassion, with such effect that, when the fatal blow is about to descend, the second murderer warns the victim. The reading adopted in the text has these drawbacks: (1) it places Clarence's appeal to both murderers after the first murderer's refusal to relent; (2) it pieces together the two appeals; and (3) separates the words " as you would beg ... distress" in a way for which there is no warrant in the original text. On the other hand, (1) the refusal of the first murderer is not absolute, and Clarence might still attempt to soften him ; (2) the appeal, producing no effect upon him, might be broken off, and a special appeal be begun to the second murderer. (3) brings us to the root of the whole matter. We assume that the editor of F I used a copy of Q, probably Q 6; that he checked it by comparison with a MS. of the play; that he noted down in the margin or between the lines of the printed book the variations which he preferred from the MS.; and that, having done so, he sent his corrected copy of Q to the printer. In the present case, he would have crowded his margin with a number of lines which are not in Qq; and it is easy to see that

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