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See Spain, in his embraces, die,

His ancient friend, bis firin ally!'-1.-73. If, in 1814, the Catholic allies of England have refuted the foul aspersions on the Catholic faith,'(III.-21,) with what face could lie, in 1816, ask the Liverpool meeting • What have you done for Europe? what have you achieved for man? Have morals been ameliorated? has liberty been strengthened? You have restored to Spain a wretch of even worse than proverbial princely ingratitude; who filled his dungeons, and fed his rack with the heroic remnant that had braved war, and famine, and massacre beneath his banners; who rewarded patriotism with the prison-fidelity with the torture-heroism with the scaffold-and piery with the inquisition ; whose royalty was published by the signature of his death-warrants, and whose religion evaporated in the embroidering of petticoats for the Blessed Virgin?'-V.-11, 12. If, in 1812, Buonaparte and Portugal could be thus described

'See hapless Portugal, who thought
A common creed her safety brought-
A common creed! alas, his life
Has been one bloody, impious strife!
Beneath his torch the aliars burn

And blush on the polluted urn.'-1.-73. what can Mr. Phillips say for the following description, in 1816, of the very prince who fled from the ovce · bloody and impious, ' but now nagnificent and splendid Napoleon !

You have restored to Portugal a prince of whom we know nothing, except that when his doininions were invaded, his people distracted, his crown in danger, and all that could interest the highest energies of man at issue, he left his cause to be combated by foreign bayonets, and fled with a dastard precipitation to the shameful security of a distant hemisphere.'-V.-12.

In 1914 the rocks of Norway are elate with liberty.' (III. -23.) In 1816 Norway is instanced as ' a feeble state partitioned to feed the rapacity of the powerful.' (V.-13.)

In 1812 Mr. Grattan had the misfortune of being the idol of Mr. Phillips's humble adoration-in 1814 Mr. Grattan is still an idol, but an idol, like those of the Tartars, which they chastise; and four pages of one of Mr. Phillips's speeches to the Catholic Board are employed in chastising Mr. Grattan for having given some reasons (if reasons, as Mr. Phillips cautiously observes, they can be called,') against presenting a catholic petition at that particular time: he shews too that repeated discussions have had the effect of reducing the majority against the catholics. All this is very well : but what shall we say when we find Mr. Phillips in 1816, at Liverpool, expressing his ' hope that the Irish catholics will petition w more a parliament so equivocating?' 2


In 1812-Mr. Ponsonby is highly celebrated and told that his country's heart must be cold ere the honour,' the worth,' the 'wisdom,' the 'zeal,'' the hand to act and heart to feel of her Ponsonby be forgotten. But in the Liverpool speech we tind all the merits of the leader of the Whigs forgoiten, and his character treated with high indignity

Shall a borough-mongering faction convert what is misnamed the national representation, into a mere instrument for raising the supplies which are to gorge its own venality? Shall the mock dignitaries of Whiggism and Toryism, lead their hungry retainers to contest the profits of an alternate ascendancy over the prostrate interests of a too generous people? These are questions which I blush to aski'--.V.--15.

In 1812–England and Englishmen were the great objects of Mr. Phillips's horror; he found amongst usó a prejudice against his native laud predominant above every other feeling, inveterate as ignorance could generate, as monstrous as credulily could feed.' -1.-6.— And (for he assails us in prose and verse) he invokes Ireland

“To remember the glory and pride of her name,

Ere the cold blooded Sassanach tainted her fame.' Again—in their mutual communications Mr. Phillips assigns to the Irish the ardour of patriots and pride of freemen,' but to the unlucky English, ' atrocious provocation and perfidious arrogance.'

In the Liverpool speech, however, he has quite changed his note; the cold blooded Sassanach is now the high-minded people of England,' (V:—4,) and even a provincial English town is the emporium of liberality and public spirit--the birth-place of talentthe residence of integrity' ---the asylum of freedom,'' patriotism,' and' genius.'-V.-1.- In 1812, King William was a Draco—'a gloomy murderer,' and Mr. Phillips very magnanimously “tramples on the impious ashes of that Pandal tyrant,'-I.-109--but in 1816, a new light breaks upon him, he applauds the Revolution, vindicates the reformers of 1688,' and calls that period the most glorious of our national annals.'--V.-10.

These changes, monstrous as they are, have taken place in the last two or three years ; but we have Mr. Phillips's own assurance that he began his backsliding earlier than the date of any of his pamphlets, and that young as, he tells us, he is in years, he is old in apostacy. In his first speech, August, 1813, he makes the following candid avowal.

• I am not ashamed to confess to you, that there was a day when I was as bigoted as the blackest ;- but I thank that Being, who gifted mo with a mind not quite impervious to conviction, and I thank you, who abiurded such dawning testimonies of my error. No wonder, then, that

I seized

I seized my prejudices, and with a blush burned them on the altar of my country!- 111.-33.

Our readers will not fail to observe, that all this wavering is not the mere versatility of a young and ardent mind. Mr. Phillips is indeed inconstant, but it is certâ ratione modoque'; his changes may be calculated, like those of the moon, and his bright face will always be found towards the rising sun.

He dedicated to the Prince Regent in expectation, and abused him in disappointment; he Aattered Mr. Grattan and Mr. Ponsonby when they were popular, and sneers at them when he sees a more promising patron. He lent his labours and his lungs to the cause of Catholic emancipation, and preached up the doctrine of eternal petitions, while they afforded any prospect of celebrity or profit; finding that scent grow cold, he is now against petitioving; and reform in Parliament being the cry of the disaffected in England, he imports his parcel of' talent and celebrity into Liverpool, consigned to Mr. Casey-exhibits his wares at the dinner before mentioned—sings a palinode to Napoleon Buonaparte—and hardily enlists himself under the banners of radical reform. We have no doubt that, by the same arts wbich have forced hiin into what he and his colleagues modestly call celehrity, he will make a very acceptable addition to the society of Major Cartwright and Mr. Gale Jones, until some new turn in the wheel of state, or in the popular feeling, shail again convert him; when we may have him once more bespattering Messrs. Grattan and Ponsonby with his praises, and dedicating to H. R. H. the Prince Regent, but, as we anticipate, without the permission of which he was formerly so vain. · We have not noticed the particulars of the political tenets which Mr. Phillips has professed, or now professes ; bad as they may be, they can do no harm till his style shall become more intelligible and bis character less ambiguous.

Art. III. A Treatise on the Records of the Creation, and on the

Moral Attributes of the Creator, with particular Reference to the Jewish History, and to the Consistency of the Principle of Population with the Wisdom and Goodness of the Deity. By John Bird Sumner, M. A. 2 vols. 8vo. London. 1816. JOHN Burnett, Esq. of Dens, in Aberdeenshire, was one of

those among our northern brethren to whom their southern neighbours are apt to impute the habit of sleeping with one eye

c 3


open. We should be glad that they, whose waking eyes glance evil at such a character, would have the goodness to recollect that the important difference between the natives of the several parts of the United Kingdom lies not in the peculiarities of their national characters, but in the degree in which each has taken advantage of the substantial freedom, and pure religion within his reach: in the use, in short, which his conscience and knowledge have led him to make of the talents entrusted to his care.

In these respects Mr. Burnett was eminently worthy of imitation. If the gratuitous payment of a father's debts ;-if extensive charities to the poor ;-punctuality in all his dealings ;-gratuities to those of his correspondents with whom he had driven bargains, when those bargains brought him in more profit than he thought he could conscientiously retain ;--if an ardent thirst for the religious and moral improvement of mankind, and a singular modesty and aversion from all display in the good he was desirous to promote : --if this combination of excellence may be admitted to counterbalance a few striking singularities of conduct and opinion, Mr. Burnett was certainly an honour to his country: nor should it be forgotten that it was his assiduous application and cautious conduct in business that enabled hinn thus effectually to direct his efforts to the best and noblest objects. The contemplation of such a character is exceedingly interesting in a double point of view;

; first, in the proof it exhibits that the heart may be kept upright towards its Maker, and expand itself in unbounded benevolence to men, even amidst close and minute attention to pecuniary interests, --and secondly, in the contrast which the unaffected endeavour to conceal the hand that bestowed the gift, affords to the shewy, advertising, electioneering qualities of some of our modern charities. Among the many charitable bequests of this respectable individual was a sum set apart till it should accumulate to 16001., which was then to be given, in the following proportions, to the authors of the two best Essays on the subject stated below;* viz. 12001. to the first in merit, and 4001. to the second. The Essay before us is that to which the judges appointed by the executors to determine the merits of the contending Essays (and who were, it seems, three Professors of the University of Aberdeen) were pleased unanimously to assign the second prize. The first was awarded with equal unanimity to · Dr. W. L. Brown, Principal of Marischal College and University of Aberdeen,' &c.

* « The evidence that there is a Being all-powerful, wise, and good, by whom every thing exists, and particularly to obviate uitficulties regarding the wisdom and the good. ness of the Deity: and this, in the first place, froni considerations independent of written Revelntion; and in the second place, from the Revelation of the Lord Jesus; and from the whole, to point out the inferences most necessary for, and useful to, mankind.'


Upon the whole, Mr. Burnett appears to have been endowed with a just, and, in many respects, an amiable character, but strongly marked with eccentricity. But we have no inclination to inquire into, and, if possible, still less right to indulge in sarcasms against, singularities which have, perhaps, been instrumental in producing the effects now before us. We may nevertheless be permitted to regret that it never occurred to Mr. Burnett's mind, that by directing the accumulation of his bequest to extend to 20001., instead of 16001., he might have founded a professorship of 1001. per annum in one of the universities of his country, where lectures upon the subjects which he had so much at heart might have been permanently given. The lectures now read in some of the Scottishı Universities, for the edification of youth in the most important branches of instruction, must be contemplated with other minds than ours before a reasonable conviction can be entertained that a provision, properly secured, to the purpose of frequently setting forth · The wisdom and goodness of God as displayed in the Revelation of the Lord Jesus, with the inferences most necessary for, and useful to mankind,' would be by any means a superfluous in

We are far, however, from intending, by the wish just expressed, to undervalue the results of Mr. Burneti’s liberality, as he has been pleased (in the plenitude of his power over his own property) to display it for the benefit of mankind.

Of the general talents and industry exhibited in the Essay immodiately under review, we certainly entertain a favourable opinion: and we are the more disposed to extend our observations upon

it to some length, because where we have the misfortune to differ from the ingenious author, it is upon points wherein discussion can scarcely fail to produce effects highly serviceable to the best interests of mankind. In truth we cannot help anticipating important benefits from the salutary association of religious, moral, and political science, pervading many of the publications which have lately issued from the press.

Mr. Sumner has given in his preface a summary of the process by wbich he proposes, first, to prove the existence of an all-powerful, wise, and good Being by whom every thing exists; and, secondly, to remove the objections to his wisdom and goodness by arguments derived from reason and revelation. He states that the acquaintance which we derive from reason, with the Creator and his attributes, and the conformity of the appearance of the universe, with the conclusions at which reason arrives, have been so fully illustrated by the successive labours of Stillingfleet, Clarke, Butler, Warburton, and Paley, that it is hopeless to look out for a vacant spot in a district so fully occupied. He has, therefore, chosen to


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