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ture of your person, to be valiant as a private SIR FRANCIS BACON IN RECOMMENDATION OF soldier, rather than as a general ; it may make
HIS SERVICE TO THE EARL OF NORTHUMBER
LAND, A FEW DAYS BEFORE QUEEN ELIZA. you in your commandments rather to be gracious
BETH'S DEATH. than disciplinary; it may make you press action, in the respect of the great expectation conceived, May it PLEASE Your Good LORDSHIP. rather hastily than seasonably and safely; it may
As the time of sowing of seed is known, but make you seek rather to achieve the war by force, the time of coming up and disclosing is casual, than by mixture of practice; it may make you or according to the season; so I am a witness to (if God shall send you prosperous beginnings) myself, that there hath been covered in my mind rather seek the fruition of the honour, than the a long time a seed of affection and zeal towards perfection of the work in hand. And for your your lordship, sown by the estimation of your proceeding like a good Protestant, (upon warrant, virtues, and your particular honours and favours, and not upon good intention,) your lordship to my brother deceased, and to myself; which knoweth, in your wisdom, that as it is most fit seed still springing, now bursieth forth into this for you to desire convenient liberty of instruction, profession. And, to be plain with your lordship, so it is no less fit for you to observe the due it is very true, and no winds or noises of civil limits of them, remembering that the exceeding matters can blow this out of my head or heart, of them may not only procure (in case of adverse that your great capacity and love towards studies accident) a dangerous disavow, but also (in case and contemplations, of a higher and worthier of prosperous success) be subject to interpreta- nature than popular, a nature rare in the world, tion, as if all was not referred to the right end.
and in a person of your lordship's quality almost Thus I have presumed to write these few lines singular, is to me a great and chief motive to to your lordship, “ in methodo ignorantiæ,” which draw my affection and admiration towards you: is, when a man speaketh of any subject not and, therefore, good my lord, if I may be of any according to the parts of the matter, but accord- use to your lordship by my head, tongue, pen, ing to the model of his own knowledge: and means, or friends, I humbly pray you to hold me most humbly desire your lordship, that the weak- your own: and herewithal, not to do so much dis-. ness thereof may be supplied in your lordship, by advantage to my good mind, nor partly, to your a benign acceptation, as it is in me by my best own worth, as to conceive, that this commendawishing.
tion of my humble service produceth out of any
straits of my occasions, but merely out of an
continue. SIR FRANCIS BACON, TO THE EARL OF ESSEX
AFTER HIS ENLARGEMENT. MY LORD,
SIR FRANCIS BACON TO MR. ROBERT KEMPE,
UPON THE DEATH OF QUEEN ELIZABETH. No man can expound my doings better than your lordship, which makes me need to say the
Mr. Kempe, this alteration is so great, as you less; only I humbly pray you to believe that I might justly conceive some coldness of my affecaspire to the conscience and commendation of tion towards you, if you should hear nothing from " bonus civis” and “ bonus vir;” and that though me, I living in this place. It is in vain to tell I love some things better, I confess, that I love your you, with what a wonderful still and calmo this lordship; yet, I love few persons better, both for wheel is turned round, which, whether it be a gratitude's sake, and for virtues, which cannot remnant of her felicity that is gone, or a fruit of hurt, but by accident. Of which my good affec- his reputation that is coming, I will not detertion it may please your lordship to assure your-mine; for, I cannot but divide myself, between self, of all the true effects and offices that I can her memory and his name. Yet, we account it yield: for as I was ever sorry your lordship but as a fair morn before sunrising, before lus should fly with waxen wings, doubting Icarus's majesty's presence ; though, for my part, I see « fortune; so, for the growing up of your own not whence any weather should arise.
The | feathers, be they ostriches or other kind, no man Papists are contained with fear enough, and hope shall be more glad; and this is the axle-tree, too much. The French is thought to turn his whereupon I have turned, and shall turn. Which practice upon procuring some disturbance in having already signified unto you by some near Scotland, where crowns may do wonders. But means, having so fit a messenger for mine own this day is so welcome to the nation, and the time letter, I thought good to redouble also by writing. so short, as I do not fear the effect. My Lord of And so I commend you to God's protection. Southampton expecteih release by the next deI'rom Gray's Inn, etc.
spatch, and is already much visited, and much Fr. Bacon.
well wished. There is continual posting, by | men of good quality towards the king, the rather,
July 19. 600.
I think, because this springtime it is but a kind portunity can possibly minister or offer. And of sport. It is hoped, that as the state here hath that is, the causes of Ireland, if they be taken by performed the part of good attorneys, to deliver the right handle: for if the wound be not ripped the king quiet possession of his kingdom; so the up again, and come to a festered sense, by new king will redeliver them quiet possession of their foreign succours, I think that no physician will go places, rather filling places void, than removing on much with letting blood " in declinatione men placed.
morbi," but will intend to purge and corroborate. So, etc. To which purpose I send you mine opinion, with
out labour of words in the enclosed, and sure I
am, that if you shall enter into the matter accordSIR FRANCIS BACON TO MR. DAVID FOULES IN ing to the vivacity of your own spirit, nothing SCOTLAND, UPON THE ENTRANCE OF HIS MA
can make unto you a more gainful return; for JESTY'S REIGN.
you shall make the queen's felicity complete, Sir, the occasion awaketh in me the remem
which now (as it is) is incomparable; and for brince of the constant and mutual good offices yourself, you shall make yourself as good a pawhich passed between my good brother and triot as you are thought a politic, and to have no yourself; whereunto, as you know, I was not
less generous ends than dexterous delivery of altogether a stranger, though the time and design yourself towards your ends; and as well to have (as between brethren) made me more reserved. true arts and grounds of government, as the fa. But well do I bear in mind the great opinion cility and felicity of practice and negotiation ; which my brother (whose judgment I much and to be as well seen in the periods and tides of reverence) would often express to me of the extra-estates, as in your own circle and way; than the ordinary sufficiency, dexterity, and temper, which which I suppose nothing can be a better addition he had found in you, the business and service and accumulation of honour unto you. of the king our sovereign lord. This latter bred
This, I hope, I may in privateness write, either in me an election, as the former gave an induce as a kinsinan, that may be bold, or as a scholar, ment, for me to address myself to you, and to that hath liberty of discourse, without committing make this signification of my desire, towards a
of any absurdity. If not, I pray your honour to mutual entertainment of good affection and cor
believe, I ever loved her majesty and the state, respondence between us, hoping that some good
and now love yourself; and there is never any effect may result of it, towards the king's service, vehement love without some absurdity, as the and that for our particulars
, though occasion give Spaniard well saith, desuario con la calentura.” you the precedence, of furthering my being known So, desiring your honour's pardon, I ever con
tinue, etc. by good note unto the king; so, no long time will intercede, before I, on my part, shall have some
Fr. Bacon. means given to requite your favours, and verify vour commendation. And so, with my loving commendations, (good Mr. Foules,) I leave you
SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE LORD TREASURER,
TOUCHING HIS SPEECH IN PARLIAMENT. to God's goodness. From Gray's Inn, this 23th of March.
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR GOOD LORDSHIP,
I was sorry to find by your lordship's speech yesterday, that my last speech in Parliament,
delivered in discharge of my conscience, my duty SIR FRANCIS BACON TO SIR ROBERT CECIL, AF- to God, her majesty, and my country, was offen
TER DEFEAT OF THE SPANIARDS IN IRELAND: sive: if it were misreported, I would be glad to FOR REDUCING THAT KINGDOM TO CIVILITY,
your lordship, to disavow any thing I said
not; if it were misconstrued, I would be glad to IT MAY PLEASE your Honour,
expound my words, to exclude any sense I meant As one that wisheth you all increase of honour, not; if my heart be misjudged by imputation of and as one that cannot leave to love the state, popularity, or opposition, I have great wrong, what interest soever I have, or may come to have and the greater, because the manner of my speech in it, and as one that now this dead vacation time did most evidently show that I spake most simhave some leisure “ad aliud agendum,” I will ply, and only to satisfy my conscience, and not presume to propound unto you that which, though with any advantage or policy to sway the case, you cannot but see, yet I know not whether you and my terms carried all signification of duty and apprehend and esteem it in so high a degree that zeal towards her majesty and he service. It is very is, for the best action of importation to yourself, true, that from the beginning, whatsoever was a of sound honour and merit to her majesty, and double subsidy I did wish might for precedent's this crown, without ventosity or popularity, that sake appear to be extraordinary,and for discontent's the riches of any occasion, or the tide of any op- sake might not have been levied upon the poorer
WITH SOME REASONS ENCLOSED.
BOOK DE SAPIENTIA VETERUM.
sort, though otherwise I wished it as rising as I enclosed, because I greatly desire so far forth to think this will prove, or more. This was my preserve my credit with you, as thus: that whereas mind, I confess it: and therefore I most humbly lately (perhaps out of too much desire, which inpray your lordship, first, to continue me in your duceth too much belief) I was bold to say, that I own good opinion, and then, to perform the part thought it as easy for your majesty to come out of of an honourable good friend, towards your poor want, as to go forth of your gallery, your majesty servant and ally, in drawing her majesty to accept would not take me for a dreamer, or a projector. of the sincerity and simplicity of my zeal, and to I send your majesty therefore some grounds of hold me in her majesty's favour, which is to me my hopes. And for that paper which I have dearer than my life, and so, etc.
gathered of increasements “sperate :" I beseech Your lordship's most humble in all duty. you to give me leave to think, that if any of the
Fr. Bacon. particulars do fail, it will be rather for want of
workmanship in those that shall deal in them, than want of materials in the things themselves.
The other paper hath many discarding cards; and A LETTER TO MR. MATTHEW, UPON SENDING HIS I send it chiefly, that your majesty may be the
less surprised by projectors, who pretend some
times great discoveries and inventions, in things Mr. Matthew,
that have been propounded and perhaps after a I do very heartily thank you
better fashion, long since. God Almighty prethe 21th of August, from Salamanca; and in re
serve your majesty. compense thereof, I send you a little work of
Your majesty's most humble and mine, that hath begun to pass the world. They
devoted servant and subject. tell me my Latin is turned into silver, and become April 25, 1610. current. Had you been here you had been my inquisitor, before it came forth. But I think the greatest inquisitor in Spain will allow it. But
A LETTER TO TIE KING, TOUCHING THE LORD one thing you must pardon me, if I make no haste to believe, that the world should be grown to such an ecstasy, as to reject truth in philosophy, IT MAY PLEASE YOUR most excellent Majesty. because the author dissenteth in religion; no Your worthy chancellor, I fear, goeth his last more than they do by Aristotle, or Averrois. My day. God hath hitherto used to weed out such great work goeth forward, and after my manner, I servants as grew not fit for your majesty, but now alter even when I add: so that nothing is finished he hath gathered to himself a true sage or salvia till all be finished. This I have written in the out of your garden; but your majesty's service midst of a term and parliament, thinking no time must not be mortal. so precious, but that I should talk of these mat- L'pon this heavy accident, I pray your majesty, ters with so good and dear a friend. And so, in all humbleness and sincerity, to give me leave with my wonted wishes, I leave you to God's to use a few words. I must never forget, when I goodness.
moved your majesty for the attorney's place, it From Gray's Inn, Febr. 17, 1610.
was your own sole act; more than that, Somerset, when he knew your majesty had resolved it, thrust himself into the business for a fee. And there
fore I have no reason to pray to saints. A LETTER TO THE KING, TOUCHING MATTER OF
I shall now again make obligation to your majesty, first, of my heart, then, of my service,
thirdly, of my place of attorney, which I think is IT MAY PLEASE your Majesty,
honestly worth £6000 per annum, and, fourthly, I may remember what Tacitus saith, by occa- of my place of the Star Chamber, which is worth sion that Tiberius was often and long absent from £1600 per annum; and with the favour and coun. Rome, “ in Urbe, et parva et magna negotia im- tenance of a chancellor, much more. peratorem simul premunt.” But saith he, “in I hope I may be acquitted of presumption, if I Recessu, dimissis rebus minoris momenti, sum- think of it, both because my father had the place, inæ rerum magnarum magis agitantur.” This which is some civil inducements to my desire; inaketh me think, it shall be no incivility to trouble and I pray God your majesty may have twenty no your majesty with business, during your abode worse years in your greatness, than Queen Elizafrom London, knowing your majesty's meditations beth had in her model, (after my father's placing) are the principal wheel of your estate, and being and chiefly, because, if the chancellor's place arranted by a former commandment, which I went to the law, it was ever conferred upon some received from you.
of the learned counsel, and never upon a judge. I do now only send your majesty these papers For Audley was raised from kiny's sergeant, my
REVENUE AND PROFIT.
father from attorney of the wars, Bromley from | hearts by advancing. For I see your people can solicitor, Puckering from sergeant, Egerton from better skill of " concretum” than " abstractum," master of the rolls, having newly left the attor- and that the waves of their affections flow rather ney's place. Now I beseech your majesty, let after persons than things. So that acts of this me put you the present case truly. If you take nature (if this were one) do more good than my Lord Coke, this will follow: first, your ma- twenty bills of grace. jesty shall put an overruling nature into an over- If God call my lord, the warrants and commisruling place, which may breed an extreme; next, sions which are requisite for the taking the seal, you shall blunt his industries in matter of finances, and for the working with it, and for the reviving which seemeth to aim at another place. And, of warrants under his hand, which die with him, lastly, popular men are no sure mounters for your and the like, shall be in readiness. And in this majesty's saddle. If you take my Lord Hubbard, time presseth more, because it is the end of a term, you shall have a judge at the upper end of your and almost the beginning of the circuits : so that council-board, and another at the lower end; the seal cannot stand still. But this may be done, whereby your majesty will find your prerogative as heretofore, by commission, till your majesty pent. For, though there should be emulation be- hath resolved of an officer. God ever preserve tween them, yet as legists they will agree, in your majesty. nagnifying that wherein they are best, he is no Your majesty's most humble subject, statesman, but an economist, wholly for himself.
and bounden servant. So as your majesty (more than an outward form) Feb. 12, 1615. will find little help in him, for the business. If you take my Lord of Canterbury, I will say no more, but the chancellor's place requires a whole A LETTER TO THE KING, OF MY LORD CHANCELAnd to have both jurisdictions, spiritual
AMENDMENT, AND THE DIFFERENCE and temporal, in that height, is fit but for a king.
For myself, I can only present your majesty with “ gloria in obsequio;" yet I dare promise, IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT Majesty, that if I sit in that place, your business shall not I do find (God be thanked) a sensible amendmake such short terms upon you, as it doth ; but ment in my lord chancellor; I was with him yeswhen a direction is once given, it shall be pursued terday in private conference, about half an hour, and performed; and your majesty shall only be and this day again, at such times as he did seal, troubled with the true care of a king, which is to which he endured well almost the space of an think what you would have done in chief, and not hour, though the vapour of the wax be offensive how, for the passages.
to him. He is free from a fever, perfect in his I do presume, also, in respect of my father's powers of memory and speech, and not hollow in memory, and that I have been always gracious in his voice nor looks. He hath no panting, nor the Lower House, I have interest in the gentle labouring respiration, neither are his couglis dry men of England, and shall be able to do some or weak. But whosoever thinketh his disease to good effect, in rectifying that body of Parliament be but melancholy, maketh no true judgment of men, which is “ cardo rerum.” For, let me tell it, for it is plainly a formed and deep cough, with your majesty, that that part of the chancellor's a pectoral surcharge, so that, at times, he doth place, which is to judge in equity, between party almost “animam agere.” I forbear to advertise and party, that same “ regnum judiciale,” (which, your majesty of the care I took to liave commissince my father's time, is but too much enlarged,) sioners in readiness, because Master Secretary concerneth your majesty least, more than the ac- Lake hath let me understand he signified as much quitting your conscience for justice. But it is the to your majesty. But I hope there shall be no other parts of a moderator, amongst your council, use of them for this time. of an overseers over your judges, of a planter of And, as I am glad to advertise your majesty of fit justices, and governors in the country, that im- the amendment of your chancellor's person, so I porteth your affairs in these times most.
am sorry to accompany it with an advertisement I will add also, that I hope, by my care, the of the sickness of your Chancery Court; though, inventive part of your council will be strength by the grace of God, that cure will be much ened, who now, commonly, do exercise rather easier than the other. It is true, I did lately their judgments than their inventions: and the write to your majesty, that for the matter of “ hainventive part cometh from projectors, and private beas corpora,” (which was the third matter in law men, which cannot be so well; in which kind my you had given me in charge,) I did think the comLord of Salisbury had a good method, if his ends munion of service between my lord chancellor, had been upright.
and my lord chief justice, in the great business To conclude, if I were the man I would be, I of examination, would so join them, as they should hope, that as your majesty hath of late won would not square at this time. But pardon me. hearts by depressing, you should in this leese no I humbly pray your majesty, if I have too rea
such an age.
sonable thoughts. And yet that which happened you, and long and happily may you serve his the last day of the term concerning certain indict, majesty. ments, in the nature of præmunire, preferred into
Your true and affectionate servant. the King's Bench, but not found, is not so much Feb. 10, 1615. as is noised abroad, though, I must say, it was "omni tempere nimium, et hoc tempore alienum.” Sir, I humbly thank you inward letter: And, therefore, I beseech your majesty not to give I have burned it as you commanded, but the flame any believing ear to reports, but to receive the it hath kindled in me will never be extinguished. truth from me that am your attorney-general, and ought to stand indifferent for jurisdictions of all courts; which, I account, I cannot give your majesty now, because I was then absent, and some
SIR FRANCIS BACON TO THE KING, CONCERNING
BENCII are now absent, which are properly and authenti
AGAINST THE CHANCERY. cally to inform me, touching that which passed. Neither let this any way disjoint your other busi- IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, ness ; for there is a time for all things, and this I was yesterday in the afternoon, with my lord very accident may be turned to good; not that I chancellor, according to your commandment, am of opinion that the same cunning maxim of which I received by the Mr. of the Horse, and "separa et impera," which sometimes holdeth in find the old man well comforted, both towards persons, can well take place in jurisdiction; but God and towards the world. And the same because some good occasion by this excess may middle comfort, which is a divine and humane, be taken, to settle that which would have been proceeding from your majesty, being God's lieumore dangerous, if it had gone on, by little and tenant on earth, I am persuaded hath been a great little. God preserve your majesty.
cause, that such a sickness hath been portable to Your majesty's most humble subject,
I did not fail in my conjecture, and most bounden servant. that this business of the Chancery hath stirred Feb. 151h, 1615.
him. He showeth to despise it, but yet he is full of it, and almost like a young duellist that findeth himself behindhand.
I will now (as your majesty requireth) give A LETTER TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, TOUCHING you a true relation of that which passed; neither
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE COURTs of will I decline your royal commandment, for deliCHANCERY AND KING'S BENCII.
vering my opinion also; though it be a tender Sir,
subject to write on. But I, that account my being I received this morning from you two letters but an accident to my service, will neglect no by the same bearer, the one written before the duty upon self-safety. First, it is necessary I let other, both after his majesty had received my your majesty know the ground of the difference last. In this difference between the two courts between the two courts, that your majesty may of Chancery and King's Bench, (for so I had rather the better understand the narrative. take it at this time, than between the persons of
There was a statute made 27 Ed. 3,
27 E. 3. my lord chancellor, and my lord chief justice,) I
Cap. 1, which (no doubt) in the prin
Cap. 1. marvel not, if rumour get way of true relation;
cipal intention thereof, was ordained for I know fame hath swift wings, especially that against those that sued to Rome, wherein there which hath black feathers; but within these two are words somewhat general, against any that days (for sooner I cannot be ready) I will write questioneth or impeacheth any judgment given in to his majesty both the narrative truly, and my the king's courts, in any other courts. Upon opinion sincerely, taking much comfort, that I these doubtful words (other courts) the controserve such a king, as hath God's property, in versy groweth; for the sounder interpretation discerning truly of men's hearts. I purpose to taketh them to be meant of those courts which, speak with my lord chancellor this day, and so to though locally they were not held at Rome, or exbibit that cordial of his majesty's grace, as I where the pope's chair was, but here within the hope this other accident will rather rouse and realm, yet in their jurisdiction had their depende raise his spirits, than deject him, or incline him ency upon the court of Rome; as were the court to a relapse; mean while, I commend the wit of of the legate here, and the courts of the archbia mean man, that said this other day, well, (saith shops and bishops, which were then but subordihe,) next term you shall have an old man come nate judgment seats, to that high tribunal of with a besom of worm wood in his hand, that will Rome. sweep away all this. For it is my lord chancel- And, for this construction, the opposition of the Jor's fashion, especially towards the summer, to words, (if they be well observed) between the carry a posy of wormwood. I write this letter in king's courts and other courts, maketh very much: baste, to return the messenger with it. God keep for it importeth as if those other courts were not