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TRANSLATION OF THE ANSWER OF THE LORD in heaven. It was at a time when the great desu

BACON, THEN ATTORNEY-GENERAL, TO THE lation of the plague was in the city, and when UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, WHEN HE WAS

myself was ill of a dangerous and tedious sickSWORN OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL TO THE KING.

The first time that I found any degree of Your letters were very acceptable to me; and health, nothing came sooner to my mind than to I give myself joy, upon your congratulation. acknowledge your majesty's great favour by my The thing itself will (I suppose) conduce to my most humble thanks. And because I see your mahonour and satisfaction, if I remain in the mind | jesty taketh delight in my writings, and, to say now am in; by unwearied study, and perpetual truth, they are the best fruits I now yield, I presume watchfulness, and pure affection, to promote the

to send your majesty a little discourse of mine, public good. Now, among the parts of the com

touching a war with Spain, which I writ about monwealth, there are none dearer to me than the two years since, which the king, your brother, universities and learning. And this, my manner liked well. It is written without bitterness or of life hitherto, and my writings do both declare. invective, as kings' affairs ought to be carried : If, therefore, any good fortune befalls me, you but, if I be not deceived, it hath edge enough. I may look upon it as an accession to yourselves. have yet some spirits left, and remnant of expe. Neither are you to believe, that my patronage is rience, which I consecrate to the king's service either quite removed from you, or so much as and your majesty's; for whom I pour out my daily diminished. For that part of an advocate which

prayers to God, that he would give your majesty concerneth the giving of counsel in causes

a fortune worthy your rare virtues ; which some semaineth entire. Also, (if any thing more good spirit tells me will be in the end. I do in weighty and urgent falleth out,) the very office all reverence kiss your majesty's hands, ever of pleading (the king's leave being obtained) is

resting still allowed me. And whatsoever shall be

Your majesty's most humble found wanting in my juridical patronage will be

and devoted servant, compensated by my inore ample authority. My

Francis ST. ALBAN. wishes are, that as I am translated from the business of private men and particular clients, to the governnient of the commonwealth ; so the TRANSLATION OF A LETTER OF THE LORD BAlatter part of my age (if my life be continued to

THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE me) may, from the public cares, be translated to leisure and study.

Also, this thought comes often into my mind, Francis, Baron of Verulam, and Viscount of St. amidst so many businesses and of such moment,

Albans, to the Indulgent Mother, the famous every year to lay aside some days to think on

University of Cambridge, health. you: that so, having the greater insight into your matters, I may the better consult your

I HERE repay you, according to my ability, the

debts of a son. advantage.

I exhort you, also, to do the same

thing with myself: that is, to bend Your most faithful and kind friend,


your FR. Bacon.

might towards the advancement of the sciences, July the 5th, 1616.

and to retain freedom of thought, together with humility of mind; and not to suffer the talent

which the ancients have deposited with you, to THE LORD CHANCELLOR BACON'S LETTER TO lie dead in a napkin. Doubtless, the favour of

THE QUEEN OF BOHEMIA," IN ANSWER TO ONE the Divine light will be present and shine amongst FROM HER MAJESTY, AND UPON SENDING TO

you, if, philosophy being submitted to religion,

you lawfully and dexterously use the keys of IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY,

I have received your majesty's gracious letter sense; and if, all study of opposition being laid from Mr. Secretary Morton, who is now a saint aside, every one of you so dispute with another

as if he were arguing with himself. Fare ye well.




* A. D. 1625


I find that the ancients (as Cicero, Demosthenes, TRANSLATION OF A LETTER OF THE LORD BA. Plinius Secundus, and others) have preserved

CON'S TO THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, both their orations and their epistles. In imitation UPON HIS SENDING TO THEIR PUBLIC LIBRARY of whom, I have done the like to my own, which,

nevertheless, I will not publish while I live; but Geeing I am your son, and your disciple, it I have been bold to bequeath them to your lordwill much please me to repose in your bosom the ship, and Mr. Chancellor of the Duchy. My issue which I have lately brought forth into the speeches, perhaps, you will think fit to publish. world; for, otherwise, I should look upon it as an The letters, many of them, touch too much upon exposed child. Let it not trouble you that the late matters of state to be published ; yet, I way in which I go is new : such things will, of was willing they should not be lost. I have, necessity, happen in the revolutions of several also, by my will, erected two lectures in perpeages. However, the honour of the ancients is tuity, in either university; one with an endowsecured: that, I mean, which is due to their wit. ment of £200 per annum, apiece. They are to for, faith is only due to the word of God, and to be for natural philosophy, and the sciences thereexperience. Now, for bringing back the sciences upon depending; which foundations I have reto experience is not a thing to be done : but to

quired my executors to order by the advice and raise them anew from experience, is indeed a very direction of your lordship, and my Lord Bishop difficult and laborious, but not a hopeless under- of Coventry and Litchfield. These be my thoughts taking God prosper you and your studies.

now. I rest
Your most loving son,

Your lordship's most
Francis Verulam, Chancel.

affectionate to do you service.





bans, 10 the most famous College of the Holy Most Reverend Father, and Undivided Trinity in Cambridge, health. I must confess myself to be a letter in your

The progress of things, together with them- debt; but the excuse which I have, is too, too selves, are to be ascribed to their originals. just. For I was kept from doing you right by Wherefore, seeing I have derived from your foun- a very sore disease, from which I am not yet pertains my first beginnings in the sciences, I thought fectly delivered. fit to repay to you the increases of them. I hope, I am now desirous to communicate to your also, it may so happen that these things of ours fatherhood the designs I have touching those may the more prosperously thrive among you, writings which I form in my head, and begin; being replanted in their native soil. Therefore, I not with hope of bringing them to perfection, but likewise exhort you that ye yourselves, so far as out of desire to make experiment, and because I is consistent with all due modesty and reverence am a servant to posterity; for these things require to the ancients, be not wanting to the advance- some ages for the ripening of them. ment of the sciences: but that, next to the study I judged it most convenient to have them trans. of those sacred volumes of God, the holy Scrip- lated in the Latin tongue, and to divide them into tures, ye turn over that great volume of the works certain tomes. of God, his creatures, with inhe utmost diligence, The first tome consisteth of the books of the and before all other books, which ought to be Advancement of Learning, which, as you underlooked on only as commentaries on those texts. stand, are already finished and published; and Farewell

contain the Partition of Sciences, which is the first part of my Instauration.

The Novum Organum should have immediately THE LORD CHANCELLOR BACON'S LETTER TO followed, but I interposed my moral and political

DR. WILLIAMS, THEN LORD BISHOP OF LINCOLN, writings, because they were more in readiness. CONCERNING HIS SPEECHES, &c.

And for them, they are these following. The My very good Lord,

first is, The History of Henry the 7th, King of I am much bound to your lordship for your England. Then follows that book which you honourable promise to Dr. Rawley. He chooseth have called in your tongue, “ Saggi Morali." rather to depend upon the same in general than to But I give a graver name to that book; and it is pitch upon any particular; which modesty of to go under the title of Sermones Fideles, (faith- . choice I commend.

ful sayings,] or Interiora Rerum, (the inside of


chings.] Those Essays will be increased in Secondly, I am thus persuaded because of its their number, and enlarged in the handling of infipite usefulness; for which reason it may be them.

ascribed to divine encouragement. Also that tome will contain the book of the I pray your fatherhood to commend me to that Wisdom of the Ancients. And this tome (as I most excellent man, Signor Molines, to whose said) doth, as it were interlope, and doth not stand most delightful and prudent letters I will return in the order of the Instauration.

answer shortly, if God permit. Farewell, most After these shall follow the Organum Novum, reverend father. to which a second part is yet to be added which I

Your most assured friend, have already comprised and measured in the idea

Francis Sr. ALBAN. of it. And thus the second part of my Instauration will be finished.

As for the third part of the Instauration, that is to say, the Natural History, it is plainly a work TRANSLATION OF A LETTER OF THE LORD BAfor a king or a pope, or for some college or order;

CON'S, IN FRENCII, TO THE MARQUESS FIAT, and cannot be by personal industry performed as RELATING TO HIS ESSAYS. it ought.

Those portions of it, which have already seen My LORD AMBASSADOR, MY Son, the light, to wit, concerning winds, and touching

Seeing that your excellency makes and treats life and death, they are not pure history, by rea- of marriages, not only betwixt the princes of son of the axioms and larger observations which France and England, but also betwixt their lan. are interposed. But they are a kind of mixed guages, (for you have caused my book of the Adwritings, composed of natural history, and a rude vancement of Learning to be translated into and imperfect instrument, or help, of the under- French,) I was much inclined to make you a prestanding.

sent of the last book which I published, and And this is the fourth part of the Instauration. which I had in readiness for you. Wherefore that fourth part shall follow, and shall

I was sometimes in doubt whether I ought to contain many examples of that instrument, more have sent it to you, because it was written in the exact, and much more fitted to rules of induction. English tongue. But now, for that very reason 1

Fifthly, there shall follow a book to be entitled send it to you. It is a recompilement of my by us, Prodromus Philosophiæ Secundæ, [the Essays, Moral and Civil; but in such manner forerunner of Secondary Philosophy.]

This enlarged and enriched both in number and weight, shall contain our inventions about new axioms to that it is in effect a new work. I kiss your hands, be raised from the experiments themselves, that and remain they which were before as pillars lying uselessly

Your most affectionate and along may be raised up. And this we resolve on

most humble servant, etc. for the fifth part of our Instauration.

Lastly, there is yet behind the Secondary Philosophy itself, which is the sixth part of the Instauration. Of the perfecting this I have cast TRANSLATION OF A LETTER FROM THE UNIVER. away all hopes; but in future ages perhaps the

SITY OF OXFORD TO THE LORD BACON, UPON design may hud again. Notwithstanding, in our Prodromie, (or presatory works,] such I mean only, which touch almost the universals of nature, Most noBLE, AND MOST LEARNED VISCOUNT, there will be laid no inconsiderable foundations Your honour could have given nothing more of this matter.

agreeable, and the University could have received Our meanness, you see, attempteth great things; nothing more acceptable than the sciences. And placing our hopes only in this, that they seem to those sciences which she formerly sent forth poor, proceed from the providence and immense good- of low stature, unpolished, she hath received eleness of God.

gant, tall, and, by the supplies of your wit, by And I am by two arguments thus persuaded. which alone they could have been advanced, most

First, I think thus, from that zeal and con- rich in dowry. She esteemeth it an extraordinary stancy of my mind, which has not waxed old in favour to have a return with usury, made of that this design, nor after so many years grown cold by a stranger, if so near a relation may be called and indifferent. I remember that about forty a stranger, which she bestows as a patrimony years ago I composed a juvenile work about these upon her children. And she readily acknow:hings, which with great confidence and a pom- ledgeth, that though the muses are born in Ox pous title, I called Temporis Partum Maximum,* ford they grow elsewhere. Grown they are, anu (or the most considerable birth of time.) under your pen, who, like some mighty Hercules,

in learning have by your own hand further * Or, it may be Masculum, as I find it read elsewhere. advanced those pillars in the learned world, which Vol. JII.-9

F 2



by the rest of that world were supposed immo- was slain before all worlds; without which etervable.

nal counsel of his, it was impossible for him to We congratulate you, you most accomplished have descended to any work of creation; but he combatant, who, by your most diligent patronage should have enjoyed the blessed and individual of the virtues of others, have overcome other society of Three Persons in Godhead, only, forpatrons; and, by your own writings, yourself. ever." For, by the eminent height of your honour, you This point I have heard some divines question, advanced only learned men, now at last, o whether God, without Christ, did pour his love ravishing prodigy! you have also advanced upon the creature ? and I had sometime a dispute learning itself.

with Dr. Sharp,* of your university, who held, The ample munificence of this gift lays a bur- that the emanation of the Father's love to the den upon your clients, in the receiving of which creature, was immediate. His reason, amongst we have the honour; but, in the enjoying of it, others, was taken from that text, “So God loved the emolument will descend to late posterity. If, the world, that he gave his only begotten Son." therefore, we are not able of ourselves to return Something of that point I have written amongst sufficient and suitable thanks, our nephews of the my papers, which on the sudden I cannot light next age ought to give their assistance, and pay upon. But I remember that I held the point in the remainder, if not to yourself, to the honour of the negative; and that St. Austin, in his comyour name.

Happy they, but we, how much ment on the fifth chapter to the Romans, gathered more happy, &c., to whom you have pleased to by Beda, is strong that way. do the honour of sending a letter, written by no In page 2, line the 9th to the 13th,t are these other than by your own hand. To whom you words: have pleased to send the clearest instructions for “God, by the reconcilement of the Medireading (your works,) and for concord in our ator, turning his countenance towards his creastudies, in the front of your book; as if it were a tures, (though not in equal light and degree,) small thing for your lordship to enrich the muses made way unto the dispensation of his most holy out of your own stock, unless you taught them and secret will, whereby some of his creatures also a method of getting wealth. Wherefore this might stand and keep their state; others might, most accurate pledge of your understanding has possibly, fall and be restored ; and others might been, with the most solemn reverence, received fall, and not be restored in their estate, but yet in a very full congregation, both by the doctors remain in being, though under wrath and corrupand masters; and that which the common vote tion, all with respect to the Mediator; which is hath placed in our public library, every single the great mystery, and perfect centre of all God's person has gratefully deposited in his memory. ways

with his creatures, and unto which all his Your lordship's most devoted servant, other works and wonders do but serve and refer."

The University of Oxford. Here absolute reprobation seems to be defendFrom our Convocation House,

ed, in that the will of God is made the reason of December 20, 1623.

the non-restitution of some; at leastwise his lordThe superscription was thus : 76 the Right Honourable Francis, Baron of Veru- should fall; unless that may be meant of voluntas

ship seems to say, that 'twas God's will that some lum, and Viscount of St. Alban, our very good permissiva, [his will of permission.) Lord.

In page the second, at the end, I where he saith, Amongst the generations of men, he

elected a small flock," if that were added, " of A LETTER WRITTEN BY DR ROGER MAYNWAR- fallen men,” it would not be amiss; lest any ING TO DR. RAWLEY, CONCERNING THE LORD should conceive that his lordship had meant, the

decree had passed on massa incorrupta, [on Sir, I have, at your command, surveyed this mankind considered before the fall.? deep and devout tract of your deceased lord, and

In page the 4th, lines the 13th and 14th, are send back a few notes upon it.

these words: In the first page, line 7,* are these words: - Man made a total defection from God, pre

“I believe that God is so holy, pure, and suming to imagine, that the commandments and jealous, that it is impossible for him to be pleased prohibitions of God were not the rules of good in any creature, though the work of his own and evil, but that good and evil had their own lands; so that neither angel, man, nor world, principles and beginnings.” could stand, or can stand, one moment in his foyes, without beholding the same in the face of a * The same, I think, who was committed to the Tower Mediator; and, therefore, that before him, with having taught Hoskins his Allusion to the Sicilian Vespers whom all things are present, the Lamb of God See Reliqu. Wootton, p. 434.

+ That is, in Resuscitatio, p. 118, 1. 9, to "refer."

That is, ibid, p. 118, 1. 24, &c. • That is in Resuscitatio, p. 117, 1. 8, to “forever," in p. 118. & That is, ibid. p. 119, 1. 36, &c.




Consider whether this be a rule universal, that serving you upon all occasions, and in performthe commands and prohibitions of God are the ing towards you all offices, either of friendship or rules of good and evil: for, as St. Austin saith, observance. many things are prohibita quia mala, [for that I will, to the utmost of my power, take care to Teason forbidden because they are evil,] as those publish the remaining] labours of that illustrisins which the schools call specifical.

ous, hero, the Lord Verulam, esteeming it my In page 7, lines the 23d and 24th,* are these greatest happiness to have formerly served him, words:

and still to do so. And that I may avoid all sus- The three heavenly unities exceed all natural picion of being worse than iny word, I will unities; that is to say, the unity of the three perform my promise with all convenient speed. Persons in Godhead; the unity of God and man í desire that this friendship and mutual inwardin Christ, and the unity of Christ and the church, ness begun betwixt us may always continue, the Holy Ghost being the worker of both these and, if you please, live and flourish by letters, latter unities; for, by the Holy Ghost was Christ the badges and nourishers of it, even when you incarnate, and quickened in flesh; and by the are at Paris; a place which, if ever I lie so hap. Holy Ghost is man regenerate, and quickened in py, I will see for your sake, as well as for other spirit.”

reasons. Pray think not that I am free of my Here two of the unities are ascribed to the words and frugal of my deeds, but rather that my Holy Ghost. The first seems excluded; yet thick and very troublesome occasions, whilst I divines say, that “Spiritus Sanctus est amor, et was in the city, would not suffer nie to kiss your vinculum Patris et Filii;” (the Holy Ghost is hands. It remains that I heartily honour you, the love and the bond of the Father and the and retaliate your love, and wish you all the Son.]

good in the world, as being, In page 3, line the 13th, t are these words:

Sir, * Christ accomplished the whole work of the Your most faithful servant, redemption and restitution of man, to a state

and constant friend, superior to the angels."

William Rawler. This (superior) seems to hit upon that place, March the 9th, 1632. csúnyou, which argues but equality. Suarez (De Angelis, lib. 1, cap. 1) saith, that angels are superior to men, “Quod gradum intellectualem, et quoad immediatam habitationem ad TRANSLATION OF A LETTER WRITTEN BY MONDeum," (both in respect of the degree of their SIEUR ÆLIUS DEODATE, TO DR. RAWLEY, IN ANintellectual nature, and of the nearness of their SWER TO HIS OF MARCH THE 9h, 1632, TOUCHINO habitation to God.] Yet, St. Austin affirmeth, * Naturam humanam in Christo perfectiorem esse To the reverend his most honoured friend, Wilangelicâ," (that the human nature in Christ is

liam Rawley, Doctor of Divinity, and Chaplain more perfect than the angelical.] Consider of

to the King's Majesty. this. And thus far, not as a critic or corrector, but as a learner; for,


A few days ago, I received your most accept* Corrigere, res est tanto magis ardua, quanto Magnus, Aristarcho, major Homerus erat."

able and most desired letter, in which, to confort In haste,

me for the loss of your most agreeable company, Your servant,

(of which I was deprived by your sudden leaving Roger MAYNWARING.

the town,) you make me a new promise of a near and lasting friendship. Nothing could have happened to me more pleasing than this kindcess,

(which I shall diligently endeavour, to the utmost TRANSLATION OF A LETTER WRITTEN BY DR. to deserve ;) so much I value your own worth and

of my power, by all ways of love and observance, RAWLEY, TO MONSIEUR DEODATE, CONCERNING HIS PUBLISHING OF THE LORD BACON'S

the ever estimable memory of our most illustrious WORKS.

hero, a portion of whose spirit resides in your

breast. Most NOBLE AND DEAR SIR,

I so greedily expect the speedy edition of his I am now at last in the country, the spring and works, which you have promised, that I have Lent coming on. I am sorry that I had not the already almost devoured the whole of it in my opportunity of waiting on you before I left the hopes. Suffer not, I beseech you, any delay by town; but I am sure I shall never be wanting in

any means to obstruct this my earnest desiro:

seeing, especially, it much concerns yourself, as * That is, in Resuscitatio, p. 120, 1. 40, 41, &c. | That is, ibid, p. 121, lines 8 & 9.

you confess, upon many accounts, to promote it Luke xx. 36.

with all expedition.


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