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your lordship see deep. ier into it than I do, that
TO SIR ROBERT CECIL you would not have it done in effect, yet, in my Sin-1 forbear not to put in papur as much as opinion, you may serve your turn by the pretence I thought to have spoken to your honour to-day. of it, and stay it nevertheless.
if I could have stayed, knowing that if you The third impression is of a popular reputa- honcur should make other use of it than is due to tion; which, because it is a thing good in itself, good meaning, and then I am persuaded you will: being obtained as your lordship obtaineth it, that yet to persons of judgment, and that know me is, "bonis artibus," and besides well governed, otherwise, it will rather appear (as it is) a preis one of the flowers of your greatness both pre- cise honesty, and this same, "suum cuique trisent and to come; it would be handled tenderly. buere," than any hollowness to any. It is my The only way is, to quench it verbis and not luck still to be akin to such things as I neither rebus; and therefore to take all occasions to the like in nature, nor would willingly meet with in queen, to speak against popularity and popular my course, but yet cannot avoid, without show of courses vehemently, and to tax it in all others : base timorousness, or else of unkind, or suspibut, nevertheless, to go on in your honourable cious strangeness. commonwealth courses as you do. And, there
Some hiatus in the copy. fore, I will not advise you to cure this by dealing And I am of one spirit still. I ever liked the in monopolies or any oppressions. Only if in Galenists that deal with good compositions, and parliament your lordship be forward for treasure not the Paracelsians, that deal with these fine in respect to the wars, it becometh your person separations: and in music, I ever loved easy airs, well. And if her majesty object popularity to that go full all the parts together; and not those you at any time, I would say to her, a parliament strange points of accord and discord. This I will show that, and so feed her with expectation. write not, I assure your honour officiously, except
The fourth impression of the inequality be- it be according to Tully's offices, that is, honestly tween your estate of means and your greatness and morally: For though, I thank God, I acof respects, is not to be neglected; for, believe it, count upon the proceeding in the queen's service, my lord, that till her majesty find you careful of or not proceeding both ways, and therefore neither your estate, she will not only think you more mean to fawn or retire, yet I naturally desire good like to continue chargeable to her, but also have opinion with any person which for fortune or a conceit that you have higher imaginations. spirit is to be regarded, much more with a secreThe remedies are, first, to profess it in all speeches tary of the queen’s, and a cousin-german, and one to her; next, in such suits wherein both honour, with whom I have ever thought myself to have gift
, and profit may be taken to communicate some sympathy of nature, though accidents have freely with her majesty, by way of inducing her not suffered it to appear.' Thus not doubting of to grant that it will be this benefit to you. Last- your honourable interpretation and usage of that ly, to be plain with your lordship, for the gentle. I have written, 1 commend you to the Divine premen are such as I am beholding to, nothing can servation. From Gray's Inn. make the queen or the world think so much that you are come to a provident care of your estate as the altering of some of your officers; who though they be as true to you as one hand to the other, yet, "opinio veritate major.” But if, in IT MAY PLEASE your Good LONDSHIP, respect of the bonds, they may be entered into I pray God her majesty's weighing be not like for your lordship, you cannot so well dismiss the weight of a balance, “gravia deorsumi, levia yourself of them, this cannot be done but with sursum.” But I am as far from being altered in time.
devotion towards her as I am from distrust that For the fifth and last, which is of the advantage she will be altered in opinion towards me when of a favourite, as severed from the rest it cannot she knoweth me better. For myself, I have lost hurt; so joined with them it maketh her majesty some opinion, some time, and some means; this more fearful and shadowy, as not knowing her is my account: but then for opinion it is a blast own strength. The only remedy to this is, to that goeth and cometh; for time, it is true, it give way to some other favourite, as in particular goeth anıl cometh not; but yet I have learned you shall find her majesty inclined, so as the that it may be redeemed. subject hath no ill, nor dangerous aspect towards
For means, I value that most; and the rather, yourself; for, otherwise, whosoever shall tell me because I ain purposed not to follow the practice that
you may not have singular use of a favourite of the law; if her majesty command me in any at your devotion, I will say he understandeth not particular, I shall be ready to do her willing ser. the queen's affection, nor your lordship’s condi- vice; and my reason is only because it drinketh tion. And so, I rest.
too much time, which I have dedicated to better October 4, 1596
purposes. But, even for that point of' estate and
TO MY LORD OF ESSEX.
TO MY LORD OF CANTERBURY.
TO MY LORD OF ESSEX.
means, I partly lean to 'Thales' opinion, “ that a facta placebunt :" be it so, yet remember, thil
Your lordship's to obey your honourable
IT MAY PLEASE YOUR Grace,
I have considered the objections, perused the statutes, and framed the alterations, which I
send, still keeping myself within the brevity My SINGULAR GOOD LORD,
of a letter and form of a narration, not entering Your lordship's so honourable minding my poor into a form of argument or disputation; for, in fortune the last year in the very entrance into my poor conceit, it is somewhat against the that great action, (which is a time of less leisure,) majesty of princes' actions to make too curious and in so liberal an allowance of your care as to and striving apologies; but rather to set them write three letters to stir me up friends in your forth plainly, and so as there may appear an absence; doth, after a sort, warrant me not to harmony and constancy in them, so that one part object to myself your present quantity of affairs, upholdeth another. And so I wish your grace whereby to silence myself from petition of the all prosperity. From my poor lodging, this, etc. like favour. I brake with your lordship myself
Your grace's most dutiful at the Tower, and I take it my brother hath since
pupil and servant. renewed the same motion touching a fortune I was in thought to attempt “ in genere economico." " In genere politico," certain cross winds have blown contrary. My suit to your lordship is for your several letters to be left with me dor- My SINGULAR GOOD LORD, mant, to the gentlewoman, and either of the The message it pleased your lordship to send parents; wherein I do not doubt but as the me was to me delivered doubtfully; whether beams of your favour have often dissolved the your lordship said you would speak with me at coldness of my fortune, so in this argument your the Star Chamber or with Mr. Philip. Jf with lordship will do the like with your pen. My me, it is needless, for gratitude imposeth upon desire is also, that your lordship would vouchsafe me satisfaction ; if with Mr. Philip, it will be too onto me, as out of your care, a general letter to late, because somewhat must, perchance, be done my lord keeper for his lordship’s holding me, that day. This doubt not solved, maketh me from you recommended, both in the course of write again; the rather, because I did liberally, my practice, and in the course of my employment but yet privately affirm, your lordship would in her majesty's service. Wherein, if your lord write ; which, if I make not good, it may be a ship shall in any antithesis or relation, affirm that discouragement. Your lordship's letter, though liis lordship shall have no less hope of me than it have the subject of honour and justice, yet it of any other whom he may cherish, I hope your shall have the secrecy of a thing done upon affeclordship shall engage yourself for no impossibi- tion. I shall ever, in a firm duty, submit my lity. Lastly and chiefly, I know not whether I occasions, though great, to your lordships shall attain to see your lordship before your noble respects, though small; and this is my resolujourney; for ceremonies are things infinitely tion, that when your lordship doth for me, you inferior to my love and to my zeal; this let me, shall increase my obligation; when you refuse to with your allowance, say unto you by pen. It is do for me, you shall increase my merit. So, true that, in my well meaning advices, out of my leaving the matter wholly to your lordship's love to your lordship, and perhaps out of the state pleasure, I commend your lordship to the preserof mine own mind, I have sometimes persuaded vation of the Divine Majesty. From Gray's Inn. a course differing : "ac tibi pro tutis insignia Your lordship's eyer most humbly bounden.
TO MY LORD OF ESSEX.
LETTERS FROM THE BACONIANA.
TRANSLATION OF THE ANSWER OF THE LORD in heaven. It was at a time when the great desu-
The first time that I found any degree of Your letters were very acceptable to me; and health, nothing came sooner to my mind than to I give myself joy, upon your congratulation. acknowledge your majesty's great favour by my The thing itself will (I suppose) conduce to my most humble thanks. And because I see your mahonour and satisfaction, if I remain in the mind I
jesty taketh delight in my writings, and, to say now am in; by unwearied study, and perpetual truth, they are the best fruits I now yield, I presume watchfulness, and pure affection, to promote the
to send your majesty a little discourse of mine, public good. Now, among the parts of the com- touching a war with Spain, which I writ about monwealth, there are none dearer to me than the two years since, which the king, your brother, universities and learning. And this, my manner liked well. It is written without bitterness or of life hitherto, and my writings do both declare. invective, as kings' affairs ought to be carried : If, therefore, any good fortune befalls me, you but, if I be not deceived, it hath edge enough. I may look upon it as an accession to yourselves. have yet some spirits left, and remnant of expeNeither are you to believe, that my patronage is rience, which I consecrate to the king's service either quite removed from you, or so much as and your majesty's; for whom I pour out my daily diminished. For that part of an advocate which
prayers to God, that he would give your majesty concerneth the giving of counsel in causes
a fortune worthy your rare virtues; which some remaineth entire. Also, (if any thing more good spirit tells me will be in the end. I do in weighty and urgent falleth out,) the very office all reverence kiss your majesty's hands, ever of pleading the king's leave being obtained) is
Your majesty's most humble
and devoted servant, compensated by my inore ample authority. My
FRANCIS ST. ALBAN. wishes are, that as I am translated from the business of private men and particular clients, to the government of the commonwealth ; so the TRANSLATION OF A LETTER OF tule LORD BAlatter part of
my age (if my life be continued to me) may, from the public cares, be translated to UPON HIS SENDING TO THEIR PUBLIC LIBRARY leisure and study.
HIS BOOK OF TIIE ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING. Also, this thought comes often into my mind, Francis, Baron of Verulam, and Viscount of St. amidst so many businesses and of such moment,
Albans, to the Indulgent Mother, the famous every year to lay aside some days to think on
University of Cambridge, health.
I here repay you, according to my ability, the advantage.
debts of a son. I exhort you, also, to do the same Your most faithful and kind friend,
thing with myself: that is, to bend your whole Fr. Bacon.
might towards the advancement of the sciences, July the 5th, 1616.
and to retain freedom of thought, together with humility of mind; and not to suffer the talent
which the ancients have deposited with you, to THE LORD CHANCELLOR BACON'S LETTER TO lie dead in a napkin. Doubtless, the favour of THE QUEEN OF BOHEMIA," IN ANSWER TO ONE the Divine light will be present and shine amongst FROM HER MAJESTY, AND UPON SENDING TO
you, if, philosophy being submitted to religion,
you lawfully and dexterously use the keys of Ir
MAY PLEASE YOUR Majesty,
, all study of opposition being laid from Mr. Secretary Morton, who is now a saint aside, every one of you so dispute with another
as if he were arguing with himself.
THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
HER HIS BOOK ABOUT A WAR WITH SPAIN.
HIS NOVUM ORGANUM.
I find that the ancients (as Cicero, Demosthenes, TRANSLATION OF A LETTER OF THE LORD BA- Plinius Secundus, and others) have preserved
CON'S TO THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, both their orations and their epistles. In imitation UPON HIS SENDING TO THEIR PUBLIC LIBRARY of whom, I have done the like to my own, which,
nevertheless, I will not publish while I live; but Geeing I am your son, and your disciple, it I have been bold to bequeath them to your lordwill much please me to repose in your bosom the ship, and Mr. Chancellor of the Duchy. My issue which I have lately brought forth into the speeches, perhaps, you will think fit to publish. world; for, otherwise, I should look upon it as an The letters, many of them, touch too much upon exposed child. Let it not trouble you that the late matters of state to be published ; yet, I way in which I go is new : such things will, of
was willing they should not be lost. I have, necessity, happen in the revolutions of several also, by my will, erected two lectures in perpeages. However, the honour of the ancients is tuity, in either university; one with an endowsecured: that, I mean, which is due to their wit. ment of £200 per annum, apiece. They are to For, faith is only due to the word of God, and to be for natural philosophy, and the sciences thereexperience. Now, for bringing back the sciences
upon depending; which foundations I have reto experience is not a thing to be done : but to quired my executors to order by the advice and raise them anew from experience, is indeed a very direction of your lordship, and my Lord Bishop Jifficult and laborious, but not a hopeless under- of Coventry and Litchfield. These be my thoughts taking. God prosper you and your studies.
now. I rest
Your lordship's most
affectionate to do you service.
TRANSLATION OF A LETTER OF THE LORD BA.
A LETTER WRITTEN IN LATIN BY THE LORD BRIDGE, UPON HIS SENDING TO THEM HIS BOOK
VERULAM, TO FATHER FULGENTIO, THE VENEOF THE ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING,
TIAN, CONCERNING HIS WRITINGS; AND NOW Francis, Baron of Verulam, Viscount of St. Al. TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH BY THE PUBLISHER.
bans, 10 the most famous College of the Holy Most REVEREND FATHER, and Undivided Trinity in Cambridge, health. I must confess myself to be a letter in your
The progress of things, together with them- deht; but the excuse which I have, is too, too selves, are to be ascribed to their originals. just. For I was kept from doing you right by Wherefore, seeing I have derived from your foun- a very sorė disease, from which I am not yet pertains my first beginnings in the sciences, I thought|fectly delivered. fit to repay to you the increases of them. I hope, I am now desirous to communicate to your also, it may so happen that these things of ours fatherhood the designs I have touching those may the more prosperously thrive among you, writings which I form in my head, and begin ; being replanted in their native soil. Therefore, I not with hope of bringing them to perfection, but likewise exhort you that ye yourselves, so far as out of desire to make experiment, and because I is consistent with all due modesty and reverence am a servant to posterity; for these things require to the ancients, be not wanting to the advance- some ages for the ripening of them. ment of the sciences: but that, next to the study I judged it most convenient to have them trang. of those sacred volumes of God, the holy Scrip-lated in the Latin tongue, and to divide them into tures, ye turn over that great volume of the works certain tomes. of God, his creatures, with ine utmost diligence, The first tome consisteth of the books of the and before all other books, which ought to be Advancement of Learning, which, as you underlooked on only as commentaries on those texts. stand, are already finished and published; and Farewell
contain the Partition of Sciences, which is the first part of my Instauration.
The Novum Organum should have immediately THE LORD CHANCELLOR BACON'S LETTER TO followed, but I interposed my moral and political
DR. WILLIAMS, THEN LORD BISHOP OF LINCOLN, writings, because they were more in readiness. CONCERNING HIS SPEECHES, &c.
And for them, they are these following. The My very good LORD,
first is, The History of Henry the 7th, King of I am much bound to your lordship for your England. Then follows that book which you lionourable promise to Dr. Rawley. He chooseth have called in your tongue, “Saggi Morali." rather to depend upon the same in general than to But I give a graver name to that book; and it is pitch upon any particular; which modesty of to go under the title of Sermones Fideles, [faith- . choice I commend.
ful sayings,] or Interiora Rerum, [the inside of
RELATING TO HIS ESSAYS.
chings.] Those Essays will be increased in Secondly, I am thus persuaded because of its their number, and enlarged in the handling of infinite usefulness; for which reason it may be them.
ascribed to divine encouragement. Also that tome will contain the book of the I pray your fatherhood to commend me to that Wisdom of the Ancients. And this tome (as I most excellent man, Signor Molines, to whose siid) doth, as it were interlope, and doth not stand most delightful and prudent letters I will return in the order of the Instauration.
answer shortly, if God perinit. Farewell, most After these shall follow the Organum Novum, reverend father. to which a second part is yet to be added which I
Your most assured friend, have already comprised and measured in the idea
Francis Sr. ALBAN. of it. And thus the second part of my Instauration will be finished.
As for the third part of the Instauration, that is to say, the Natural History, it is plainly a work TRANSLATION OF A LETTER OF THE LORD BAfor a king or a pope, or for some college or order; CON'S, IN FRENCII, TO THE MARQUES: FIAT, and cannot be by personal industry performed as it ought. Those portions of it, which have already seen
MY LORD AMBASSADOR, MY Son, the light, to wit, concerning winds, and touching
Seeing that your excellency makes and treats life and death, they are not pure history, by rea- of marriages, not only betwixt the princes of son of the axioms and larger observations which France and England, but also betwixt their lanare interposed. But they are a kind of mixed guages, (for you have caused my book of the Adwritings, composed of natural history, and a rude vancement of Learning to be translated into and imperfect instrument, or help, of the under- French,) I was much inclined to make you a prestanding
sent of the last book which I published, and And this is the fourth part of the Instauration. which I had in readiness for you. Wherefore that fourth part shall follow, and shall
I was sometimes in doubt whether I ought to contain many examples of that instrument, more have sent it to you, because it was written in the exact, and much more fitted to rules of induction. English tongue. But now,
for that very reason 1 Fifthly, there shall follow a book to be entitled send it to you. It is a recompilement of my by us, Prodromus Philosophiæ Secundæ, [the Essays, Moral and Civil; but in such manner forerunner of Secondary Philosophy.] This enlarged and enriched both in number and weight, shall contain our inventions about new axioms to that it is in effect a new work. I kiss your hands, be raised from the experiments themselves, that and remain they which were before as pillars lying uselessly
Your most affectionate and along may be raised up. And this we resolve on
most humble servant, etc. for the fifth part of our Instauration.
Lastly, there is yet behind the Secondary Philosophy itself, which is the sixth part of the Instauration. Of the perfecting this I have cast TRANSLATION OF A LETTER FROM THE UNIVER.
SITY OF OXFORD TO THE LORD BACON, UPON away all hopes; but in future ages perhaps the design may hud again. Notwithstanding, in our
MENTIS SCIENTIARUM. Prodromie, (or prefatory works,] such I mean only, which touch almost the universals of nature, Most noble, AND (-) MOST LEARNED Viscount, there will be laid no inconsiderable foundations
Your honour could have given nothing more of this matter.
agreeable, and the University could have received Our meanness, you see, attempteth great things; nothing more acceptable than the sciences. And placing our hopes only in this, that they seem to those sciences which she formerly sent forth poor, proceed from the providence and immense good- of low stature, unpolished, she hath received eleness of God.
gant, tall, and, by the supplies of your wit, by And I am by two arguments thus persuaded. which alone they could have been advanced, most
First, I think thus, from that zeal and con- rich in dowry. She esteemeth it an extraordinary staney of my mind, which has not waxed old in favour to have a return with usury, made of that this design, nor after so many years grown cold by a stranger, if so near a relation may be called and indifferent. I remember that about forty a stranger, which she bestows as a patrimony years ago I composed a juvenile work about these upon her children. And she readily acknowshings, which with great confidence and a pom. ledgeth, that though the muses are born in Ox pous title, I called Temporis Partum Maximum,* ford they grow elsewhere. Grown they are, anu (or the most considerable birth of time.) under your pen, who, like some mighiy Hercules,
in learning have hy your own hand further * Or, it may be Masculum, as I find it read elsewhere. advanced those pillars in the learned world, which VOL. III.-9
HIS SENDING TO THEM HIS BOOK DE AUG