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blow to that enemy that ought ever to be hateful wars is peace, so she might have had peace when to all true English hearts. I should have sold she would, and with what conditions she would, all this for private profit; therefore, though I ask and have included or left out whom she would. pardon of her majesty, and pray your lordships For, she only, by this course, should force hi to mediate it for me, that I was carried by this to wish for peace, and she had the means in her zeal so fast that I forgot those reverend forms hands to make the conditions: and as easy it had which I should have used, yet I had rather have been to have done this as to have performed my heart out of my body than this zeal out of my lesser services. The objections against this will heart. And now, as I have laid before your be hazard and charge. Hazard, to hold any lordships my past carriage, and entering into this thing of his that is so mighty a king: and action, so I beseech your lordships give me leave charge, to send such supplies from time to time to prepare you to a favourable construction of as will be needful. For hazard, it is not the that which I shall do hereafter; in which suit I hazard of the state or the whole, as are the am resolved neither to plead the hazarding of hazards of a defensive war, whensoever we are life, nor spending of my substance in a public enforced to fight, but it is only a hazard of some service; to the end that I might find your lord- few, and such commanders, as shall be set out ships (who are public persons) more favourable for such a service. And those also that shall be judges: but will confess, that I receive so much so hazarded, shall be in less danger than if they favour and honour by this trust and employment, were put into any frontier places of France, as, when I have done all I can, I shall still be or of the Low Countries, for they should not be behindhand. This suit only I make, that your left in any part of the main or continent of Spain lordships will neither have too great an expecta- or Portugal, where the enemy might bring an tion of our actions, nor too little, lest all we do army to attempt them; (though I doubt not but seem either nothing, or to be done by chance. I after he had once tried what it were to besiege know we must be tied to do more than shall be two or three thousand English, in a place well for her majesty's service, nor no less; in which fortified, and where they had a port open, he straight way, though it be hard for so weak a would grow quickly weary of those attempts;) man as myself to walk upright, yet the example but they should be so lodged as the seat and of our raw soldiers may comfort an insufficient strength of the place should warrant their safety, general; for they, till they grow perfect in all so that to pull her majesty's men out of it should their orders and motions, are so afraid to be out, be a harder task than to conquer any country that and with such a continual heedfulness, observe stands on firm land by him: and to let English both themselves and those that are near them, quietly possess it, should so much prejudice him, that they do keep almost as good order at the first as he were not able to endure it. And, for as ever after. I am sure I am as distrustful of charge, there need not so much be expended but myself as they, and because I have more sense that it might easily be borne. And the place of duty, I shall be more industrious. For sea- being well chosen, and the war well conducted, service, the judgment of my honourable compa- in a short time there would not only arise nion shall be my compass; and for land, his enough to pay the charge, but the great profit to assent, and the advice of those her majesty hath her majesty, and wealth to our country would named as counsellors at war shall be my war- grow from the place that should be held, for in a ranties. It will be honour to her majesty, and a short time a great part of the golden Indian great assurance to her state, if we either bring stream might be turned from Spain to England, home wealth or give the King of Spain a blow by and her majesty be made to give law to all the But to have made a continual diversion, world by sea without her charge. Besides, this and to have left, as it were, a thorn sticking fearful enemy, which is now a terror to all Chrisin his foot, had been a work worthy of such a tendom, should be so weakened in strength, requeen, and of such a preparation. For then her putation, and purse, as her majesty should forever majesty should have heard no more of his inten- after have an easy enemy of him. It may be, tions for Ireland, and attempts upon the coast of your lordships will desire to know the place France, or his drawing of ships or galleys into that should be attempted; the means, first to take these narrow seas, but should at once have deliver- it, then to hold it; the commodity or advantage en all Christendom from his fearful usurpation. that might grow to this estate by it, but that Wherein, as she had been great in fame for such with your lordships' leave shall be reserved till a genera! preservation, so she had been as great my next. This is only to beseech you, for our in power in making all the enemies of Spain in dear sovereign's sake, for the glory and welfare Christendom to depend upon her. She should of her, and her estate, that you will think upon be head of the party; she only might be said to this general proposition; and if your lordships Inake the wars with Spain, because she made find it reasonable, that you will move it to the them to purpose, and they all but as her assistants queen; by whom if I be commanded to set down and dependants. And, lastly, as the end of the the hypothesis, or to descend unto particulars, I


will offer my project with this condition, that if I advise any thing that the council of war shall think dangerous, it may be rejected; or if myself be actor in any thing belonging to this project, wherein her majesty receives dishonour, that I may answer it with my life. And yet your lordships know I am matched with those in whom I have no particular interest; but I must attribute their assenting to me, to my good hap, to take the better part. In my lord with whom I joined, I find so much honour and service, as I doubt not but our unity in affection will make a unity in council, action, and government. I have troubled your lordships with a tedious letter, begun in a day of leisure, and finished in the midst of our troublesome business. I pray your lordships pardon the errors in it, and keep so honourable opinion of me as I be not condemned by you upon any complaints, advertisements, or reports, till I have given answer to them. For as the nature of my place is subject to envy and detraction, so a little body full of sharp humours is hardest kept in temper; and all the discontented humours of an army do make their greatest quarrel to him that commands the army, not so much for his faults as for because he bridles their's. And so commending your good lordships to God's divine protection, I rest

At your lordships' commandment,



I will no longer dissever part of that, which I meant to have said to your lordship at Barnhelmes, from the exordium, which I then made. Whereunto I will only add this; that I humbly desire your lordship before you give access to my poor advice, to look about, even jealously a little, if you will, and to consider: First, whether I have not reason to think that your fortune comprehendeth mine: Next, whether I shift my counsel and do not "constare mihi;" for I am persuaded there are some would give you the same counsel now, which I shall, but that they should derogate from that which they have said heretofore: Thirdly, whether you have taken hurt at any time by my careful and devoted counsel. For although I remember well your lordship once told me that you having submitted upon my well-meant motion at Nonsuch, (the place where you renewed a treaty with her majesty of obsequious kindness,) she had taken advantage of it; yet I suppose you do since believe, that it did much attemper a cold malignant humour then growing upon her majesty toward your lordship, and hath done you good in consequence. And for being against it, now lately, that you should not estrange yourself, although I give place to none in true gratulation,

yet neither do I repent me of safe counsel; neither do I judge of the whole play by the first act. But whether I counsel you the best, or for the best. duty bindeth me to offer to you my wishes. I said to your lordship last time; "Martha, Martha, attendis ad plurima, unum sufficit." Win the queen; if this be not the beginning, of any other course I see no end. And I will not now speak of favour of affection, but of other correspondence and agreeableness, which, whensoever it shall be conjoined with the other of affection, I durst wager my life (let them make what prosopopaus they will of her majesty's nature) that in you she will come to the question of "quid fiet homini, quem rex vult honorare?" But how is it now? A man of a nature not to be ruled, that hath the advantage of my affection and knoweth it, of an estate not grounded to his greatness, of a popular reputation, of a military dependence: I demand whether there can be a more dangerous image than this represented to any monarch living, much more to a lady, and of her majesty's apprehension? And is it not more evident than demonstration itself, that whilst this impression continueth in her majesty's breast, you can find no other condition than inventions to keep your estate bare and low; crossing and disgracing your actions, extenuating and blasting of your merit, carping with contempt at your nature and fashions; breeding, nourishing, and fortifying such instruments as are most factious against you, repulses and scorns of your friends and dependants that are true and steadfast, winning and inveigling away from you such as are flexible and wavering, thrusting you into odious employments and offices to supplant your reputation, abusing you, and feeding you with dalliances and demonstrations, to divert you from descending into the serious consideration of your own case; yea, and percase venturing you in perilous and desperate enterprises. Herein it may please your lordship to understand me; for I mean nothing less than that these things should be plotted and intended as in her majesty's royal mind towards you; I know the excellency of her nature too well. But I say, wheresoever the formerly described impression is taken in any king's breast towards a subject, these other recited inconveniences must of necessity of politic consequences follow; in respect of such instruments as are never failing about princes, which spy into their humours and conceits, and second them; and not only second them, but in seconding increase them; yea, and many times without their knowledge pursue them further than themselves would. Your lordship will ask the question wherewith the Athenians were wont to interrupt their orators when they exaggerated their dangers; "quid igitur agendum est ?"

I will tell your lordship, "quæ mihi nunc in mentum veniunt;" supposing, nevertheless, that yourself, out of your own wisdom upon the ense

with this plainness and liberty represented to you, will find out better expedients and remedies. I wish a cure applied to every of the five former impressions, which I will take not in order, but as I think they are of weight.

For the removing the impression of your nature to be opiniatre and not ruleable; first, and above all things I wish that all matters past, which cannot be revoked, your lordship would turn altogether upon insatisfaction, and not upon your nature or proper disposition. This string you cannot upon every apt occasion harp upon too much. Next, whereas I have noted you to fly and avoid (in some respect justly) the resemblance or imitation of my Lord of Leicester and my Lord Chancellor Hatton; yet I am persuaded (howsoever I wish your lordship as distant as you are from them in points of favour, integrity, magnanimity and merit,) that it will do you much good between the queen and you to allege them (as oft as you find occasion) for authors and patterns. For I do not know a readier mean to make her majesty think you are in your right way. Thirdly, when at any time your lordship upon occasion happen in speeches to do her majesty right, (for there is no such matter as flattery amongst you all,) I fear you handle it, "magis in speciem adornatis verbis, quam ut sentire videaris." So that a man may read formality in your countenance; whereas your lordship should do it familiarly, "et oratione fida." Fourthly, your lordship should never be without some particulars afoot, which you should seem to pursue with earnestness and affection; and then let them fall upon taking knowledge of her majesty's opposition and dislike. Of which the weightiest sort may be if your lordship offer to labour in the behalf of some that you favour for some of the places now void; choosing such a subject as you think her majesty is like to oppose unto: and if you will say, that this is "Conjunctum cum alienâ injurià;" I will not answer, "hæc non aliter constabunt ;" but I say, commendation from so good a mouth doth not hurt a man, though you prevail not. A less weighty sort of particulars may be the pretence of some journeys which at her majesty's request your lordship might relinquish; as if you would pretend a journey to see your living and estate towards Wales or the like; for as for great foreign journeys of employment and service, it standeth not with your gravity to play or stratagem with them. And the lightest sort of particulars, which yet are not to be neglected, are in your habits, apparel, wearings, gestures, and the like.

or in commending fit persons for service for wars it had been in season. And here, my lord, I pray mistake me not. I am not to play now the part of a gown-man, that would franie you best to mine own turn. I know what I owe you: I am infinitely glad of this last journey, now it is past: the rather, because you may make so honourable a full point for a time. You have property good enough in that greatness. There is none can of many years ascend near you in competition. Besides, the disposing of the places and affairs both concerning the wars (you increasing in other greatness) will of themselves flow to you; which will preserve that dependence in full measure. It is a thing that of all things I would have you retain, the times considered. And the necessity of the service, for other reason I know none. But, I say, keep it in substance, but abolish it in shows to the queen. For her majesty loveth peace. Next, she loveth not charge. Thirdly, that kind of dependence maketh a suspected greatness. Therefore, "Quod instat agamus." Let that be a sleeping honour a while, and cure the queen's mind on that point. Therefore, again, whereas I heard your lordship designing to yourself the earl marshal's place, or place of master of the ordnance, I did not in my mind so well like of either; because of their affinity with a martial greatness. But of the places now void, in my judgment and discretion, I would name you to the place of lord privy seal. For, first, it is the third person of the great officers of the crown. Next, it hath a kind of superintendence over the secretary. It hath also an affinity with the court of wards, in regard of the fees from the liveries. And it is a fine honour, quiet place, and worth a thousand pounds by year. And my lord admiral's father had it, who was a martial man. And it fits a favourite to carry her majesty's image in seal, who beareth it best expressed in heart. But my chief reason is, that which I first alleged, to divert her majesty from this impression of a martial greatness. In concurrence whereof, if your lordship shall not remit any thing of your former diligence at the Star Chamber; if you shall continue such intelligences as are worth the cherishing; if you shall pretend to be as bookish and contemplative as ever you were; all these courses have both their advantages and uses in themselves otherwise, and serve exceeding aptly to this purpose. Whereunto I add one expedient more stronger than all the rest; and for mine own confident opinion, void of any prejudice or danger of diminution of your greatness; and that The impression of greatest prejudice next, is is, the bringing in of some martial man to be of that of a military dependence. Wherein I can- the council, dealing directly with her majesty in not sufficiently wonder at your lordship's course, it, as for her service and your better assistance; that you say, the wars are your occupation, and choosing, nevertheless, some person that may be go in that course; whereas, if I might have ad-known net to come in against you by any former vised your lordship, you should have left that division. I judge the fittest to be my Lord person at Plymouth; more than when in counsel Mountjoy, or my Lord Willoughby. And if

your lordship see deep.ier into it than I do, that you would not have it done in effect, yet, in my opinion, you may serve your turn by the pretence of it, and stay it nevertheless.


SIR, I forbear not to put in paper as much as I thought to have spoken to your honour to-day. if I could have stayed, knowing that if your honour should make other use of it than is due to good meaning, and then I am persuaded you will; yet to persons of judgment, and that know me otherwise, it will rather appear (as it is) a precise honesty, and this same, "suum cuique tribuere," than any hollowness to any. It is my luck still to be akin to such things as I neither like in nature, nor would willingly meet with in my course, but yet cannot avoid, without show of base timorousness, or else of unkind, or suspi

Some hiatus in the copy.

The third impression is of a popular reputa tion; which, because it is a thing good in itself, being obtained as your lordship obtaineth it, that is, "bonis artibus," and besides well governed, is one of the flowers of your greatness both present and to come; it would be handled tenderly. The only way is, to quench it verhis and not rebus; and therefore to take all occasions to the queen, to speak against popularity and popular courses vehemently, and to tax it in all others: but, nevertheless, to go on in your honourable cious strangeness. commonwealth courses as you do. And, therefore, I will not advise you to cure this by dealing in monopolies or any oppressions. Only if in parliament your lordship be forward for treasure in respect to the wars, it becometh your person well. And if her majesty object popularity to you at any time, I would say to her, a parliament will show that, and so feed her with expectation. The fourth impression of the inequality between your estate of means and your greatness of respects, is not to be neglected; for, believe it, my lord, that till her majesty find you careful of your estate, she will not only think you more like to continue chargeable to her, but also have a conceit that you have higher imaginations. The remedies are, first, to profess it in all speeches to her; next, in such suits wherein both honour, gift, and profit may be taken to communicate freely with her majesty, by way of inducing her to grant that it will be this benefit to you. Lastly, to be plain with your lordship, for the gentlemen are such as I am beholding to, nothing can make the queen or the world think so much that you are come to a provident care of your estate as the altering of some of your officers; who though they be as true to you as one hand to the other, yet, "opinio veritate major." But if, in respect of the bonds, they may be entered into for your lordship, you cannot so well dismiss yourself of them, this cannot be done but with time.

For the fifth and last, which is of the advantage of a favourite, as severed from the rest it cannot hurt; so joined with them it maketh her majesty more fearful and shadowy, as not knowing her own strength. The only remedy to this is, to give way to some other favourite, as in particular you shall find her majesty inclined, so as the subject hath no ill, nor dangerous aspect towards yourself; for, otherwise, whosoever shall tell me that you may not have singular use of a favourite at your devotion, I will say he understandeth not the queen's affection, nor your lordship's condition. And so, I rest. October 4, 1596

And I am of one spirit still. I ever liked the Galenists that deal with good compositions, and not the Paracelsians, that deal with these fine separations: and in music, I ever loved easy airs, that go full all the parts together; and not those strange points of accord and discord. This I write not, I assure your honour officiously, except it be according to Tully's offices, that is, honestly and morally: For though, I thank God, I account upon the proceeding in the queen's service, or not proceeding both ways, and therefore neither mean to fawn or retire, yet I naturally desire good opinion with any person which for fortune or spirit is to be regarded, much more with a secretary of the queen's, and a cousin-german, and one with whom I have ever thought myself to have some sympathy of nature, though accidents have not suffered it to appear. Thus not doubting of your honourable interpretation and usage of that I have written, I commend you to the Divine preservation. From Gray's Inn.



I pray God her majesty's weighing be not like the weight of a balance, "gravia deorsum, levia sursum." But I am as far from being altered in devotion towards her as I am from distrust that she will be altered in opinion towards me when she knoweth me better. For myself, I have lost some opinion, some time, and some means; this is my account: but then for opinion it is a blast that goeth and cometh; for time, it is true, it goeth and cometh not; but yet I have learned that it may be redeemed.

For means, I value that most; and the rather, because I am purposed not to follow the practice of the law: if her majesty command me in any particular, I shall be ready to do her willing service; and my reason is only because it drinketh too much time, which I have dedicated to better purposes. But, even for that point of estate and


means, I partly lean to Thales' opinion, "that a philosopher may be rich if he will." Thus your lordship seeth how I comfort myself; to the increase whereof I would fain please myself to believe that to be true which my lord treasurer writeth, which is, that it is more than a philosopher morally can digest; but without any such high conceit, I esteem it like the pulling out of an aching tooth, which I remember when I was a child, and had little philosophy, I was glad of when it was done. For your lordship, I do think myself more beholding to you than to any man; and I say, I reckon myself as a common, (not popular but common,) and as much as is lawful to be enclosed as a common, so much your lordship shall be sure to have.

Your lordship's to obey your honourable commands more settled than ever.


MY SINGULAR good Lord, Your lordship's so honourable minding my poor fortune the last year in the very entrance into that great action, (which is a time of less leisure,) and in so liberal an allowance of your care as to write three letters to stir me up friends in your absence; doth, after a sort, warrant me not to object to myself your present quantity of affairs, whereby to silence myself from petition of the like favour. I brake with your lordship myself at the Tower, and I take it my brother hath since renewed the same motion touching a fortune I was in thought to attempt "in genere economico." "In genere politico," certain cross winds have blown contrary. My suit to your lordship is for your several letters to be left with me dormant, to the gentlewoman, and either of the parents; wherein I do not doubt but as the beams of your favour have often dissolved the coldness of my fortune, so in this argument your lordship will do the like with your pen. My desire is also, that your lordship would vouchsafe unto me, as out of your care, a general letter to my lord keeper for his lordship's holding me, from you recommended, both in the course of my practice, and in the course of my employment in her majesty's service. Wherein, if your lordship shall in any antithesis or relation, affirm that his lordship shall have no less hope of me than of any other whom he may cherish, I hope your lordship shall engage yourself for no impossibility. Lastly and chiefly, I know not whether I shall attain to see your lordship before your noble journey; for ceremonies are things infinitely inferior to my love and to my zeal; this let me, with your allowance, say unto you by pen. It is true that, in my well meaning advices, out of my love to your lordship, and perhaps out of the state of mine own mind, I have sometimes persuaded a course differing: "ac tibi pro tutis insignia

facta placebunt:" be it so, yet remember, th the signing of your name is nothing unless it be to some good patent or charter, whereby your country may be endowed with good and benefit; which I speak both to move you to preserve your person, for further merit and service of her majesty and your country, and likewise to refer this action to the same end. And so, in most true and fervent prayers, I commend your lordship, and your work in hand, to the preservation and conduct of the Divine Majesty; so much the more watchful, as these actions do more manifestly in show, though alike in truth, depend upon his Divine providence.


I have considered the objections, perused the statutes, and framed the alterations, which I send, still keeping myself within the brevity of a letter and form of narration, not entering into a form of argument or disputation; for, in my poor conceit, it is somewhat against the majesty of princes' actions to make too curious and striving apologies; but rather to set them forth plainly, and so as there may appear an harmony and constancy in them, so that one part upholdeth another. And so I wish your grace all prosperity. From my poor lodging, this, etc. Your grace's most dutiful pupil and servant.



'The message it pleased your lordship to send me was to me delivered doubtfully; whether your lordship said you would speak with me at the Star Chamber or with Mr. Philip. If with me, it is needless, for gratitude imposeth upon me satisfaction; if with Mr. Philip, it will be too late, because somewhat must, perchance, be done that day. This doubt not solved, maketh me write again; the rather, because I did liberally, but yet privately affirm, your lordship would write; which, if I make not good, it may be a discouragement. Your lordship's letter, though it have the subject of honour and justice, yet it shall have the secrecy of a thing done upon affection. I shall ever, in a firm duty, submit my occasions, though great, to your lordship's respects, though small; and this is my resolution, that when your lordship doth for me, you shall increase my obligation; when you refuse to do for me, you shall increase my merit. So, leaving the matter wholly to your lordship's pleasure, I commend your lordship to the preservation of the Divine Majesty. From Gray's Inn. Your lordship's ever most humbly bounden.

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