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blow to that enemy that ought ever to be hateful wars is peace, so she might have had peace when to all true English hearts. I should have sold she would, and with what conditions she would, all this for private profit; therefore, though I ask and have included or left out whom she would. pardon of her majesty, and pray your lordships For, she only, by this course, shonld force bi... to mediate it for me, that I was carried by this to wish for peace, and she had the means in her zeal so fast that I forgot those reverend forms hands to make the conditions: ard as easy it had which I should have used, yet I had rather have been to have done this as to have performed my heart out of my body than this zeal out of my lesser services. The objections against this will heart. And now, as I have laid before your be hazard and charge. Hazard, to hold any lordships my past carriage, and entering into this thing of his that is so mighty a king: and action, so I beseech your lordships give me leave charge, to send such supplies from time to time to prepare you to a favourable construction of as will be needful. For hazard, it is not the that which I shall do hereafter; in which suit I hazard of the state or the whole, as are the am resolved neither to plead the hazarding of hazards of a defensive war, whensoever we are life, nor spending of my substance in a public enforced to fight, but it is only a hazard of some service; to the end that I might find your lord- few, and such commanders, as shall be set out ships (who are public persons) more favourable for such a service. And those also that shall be judges: but will confess, that I receive so much so hazarded, shall be in less danger than if they favour and honour by this trust and employment, were put into any frontier places of France, as, when I have done all I can, I shall still be or of the Low Countries, for they should not be behindhand. This suit only I make, that your left in any part of the main or continent of Spain lordships will neither have too great an expecta- or Portugal, where the enemy might bring an tion of our actions, nor too little, lest all we do army to attempt them; (though I doubt not but seem either nothing, or to be done by chance. I after he had once tried what it were to besiege know we must be tied to do more than shall be two or three thousand English, in a place well for her majesty's service, nor no less; in which fortified, and where they had a port open, he straight way, though it be hard for so weak a would grow quickly weary of those attempts ;) man as myself to walk upright, yet the example but they should be so lodged as the seat and of our raw soldiers may comfort an insufficient strength of the place should warrant their safety, general; for they, till they grow perfect in all so that to pull her majesty's men out of it should their orders and motions, are so afraid to be out, be a harder task than to conquer any country that and with such a continual heedfulness, observe stands on firm land by him: and to let English both themselves and those that are near them, quietly possess it, should so much prejudice him, that they do keep almost as good order at the first as he were not able to endure it. And, for as ever after. I am sure I am as distrustful of charge, there need not so much be expended but myself as they, and because I have more sense that it might easily be borne. And the place of duty, I shall be more industrious. For sea- being well chosen, and the war well conducted, service, the judgment of my honourable compa- in a short time there would not only arise nion shall be my compass; and for land, his enough to pay the charge, but the great profit to assent, and the advice of those her majesty hath her majesty, and wealth to our country would named as counsellors at war shall be my war- grow from the place that should be held, for in a ranties. It will be honour to her majesty, and a short time a great part of the golden Indian great assurance to her state, if we either bring stream might be turned from Spain to England, home wealth or give the King of Spain a blow by and her majesty be made to give law 10 all the

But to have made a continual diversion, world by sea without her charge. Besides, this and to have left, as it were, a thorn sticking fearful enemy, which is now a terror to all Chrisin his foot, had been a work worthy of such a tendom, should be so weakened in strength, requeen, and of such a preparation. For then her putation, and purse, as her majesty should forever majesty should have heard no more of his inten- after have an easy enemy of him. It may be, tions for Ireland, and attempts upon the coast of your lordships will desire to know the place France, or his drawing of ships or galleys into that should be attempted; the means, first to take these narrow seas, but should at once have deliver- it, then to hold it; the commodity or advantage er all Christendom from his fearful usurpation. that might grow to this estate by it, but that Wherein, as she had been great in fame for such with your lordships' leave shall be reserved till a genera! preservation, so she had been as great iny next. This is only to beseech you, for our in power in making all the enemies of Spain in dear sovereign's sake, for the glory and weliare Christendom to depend upon her. She should of her, and her estate, that you will think upon be head of the party; she only might be said to this general proposition; and if your lordships taake the wars with Spain, because she made find it reasonable, that you will move it to the them to purpose, and they all but as her assistants queen; by whom if I be commanded to set down and dependants. And, lastly, as the end of the the hypothesis, or to descend unto particulars, 1



will ofier my project with this condition, that if I yet neither do I repent me of safe counsel; neither advise any thing that the council of war shall do I judge of the whole play by the first act. But think dangerous, it may be rejected; or if myself whether I counsel you the best, or for the best. be actor in any thing belonging to this project, duty bindeth me to offer to you my wishes. I wherein her majesty receives dishonour, that I said to your lordship last time; “ Martha, Martha, may answer it with my life. And yet your attendis ad plurima, unum sufficit.” Win the lordships know I am matched with those in queen; if this be not the beginning, of any other whom I have no particular interest; but I must course I see no end. And I wiil not now speak attribute their assenting to me, to my good hap, of favour of affection, but of other correspondence to take the better part. In my lord with whom I and agreeableness, which, whensoever it shall be juined, I find so much honour and service, as conjoined with the other of affection, I durst I doubt not but our unity in affection will inake wager my life (let them make what prosopopæus a unity in council, action, and governinent. I they will of her majesty's nature) that in you she have troubled your lordships with a tedious letter, will come to the question of "quid fiet homini, betin in a day of leisure, and finished in the quem rex vult honorare ?" But how is it now? midst of our troublesome business. I pray your A man of a nature not to be ruled, that hath the lordships pardon the errors in it, and keep so advantage of my affection and knoweth it, of an honourable opinion of me as I be not condemned estate not grounded to his greatness, of a popular by you upon any complaints, advertisements, or reputation, of a military dependence: I demand reports, till I have given answer to them. For whether there can be a more dangerous image as the nature of my place is subject to envy and than this represented to any monarch living, much detraction, so a little body full of sharp humours more to a lady, and of her majesty's apprehensi on? is hardest kept in temper; and all the discontent- And is it not more evident than demonstration ed humours of an army do make their greatest itself, that whilst this impression continueth in her quarrel to him that commands the army, not so majesty's breast, you can find no other condition much for his faults as for because he bridles than inventions to keep your estate bare and low; their's. And so commending your good lordships crossing and disgracing your actions, extenuating to God's divine protection, I rest

and blasting of your merit, carping with contempt At your lordships' commandment, at your nature and fashions; breeding, nourishing,

Robert Essex. and fortifying such instruments as are most

factious against you, repulses and scorns of your friends and dependants that are true and steadfast,

winning and inveigling away from you such as TO MY LORD OF ESSEX, FROM MR. BACON.

are flexible and wavering, thrusting you into MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD,

odious employments and offices to supplant your I will no longer dissever part of that, which I reputation, abusing you, and feeding you with meant to have said to your lordship at Barnhelmes, dalliances and demonstrations, to divert you from from the exordium, which I then made. Where- descending into the serious consideration of your unto I will only add this; that I humbly desire own case; yea, and percase venturing you in your lordship before you give access to my poor perilous and desperate enterprises. Herein it advice, to look about, even jealously a little, if may please your lordship to understand me; for I you will, and to consider: First, whether I have mean nothing less than that these things shoull be not reason to think that your fortune comprehend-plotted and intended as in her majesty's royal eth mine: Next, whether I shift my counsel and mind towards you; I know the excellency of her do not “ constare mihi;” for I am persuaded there nature too well. But I say, wheresoever the forare some would give you the same counsel now, merly described impression is taken in any king's which I shall, but that they should derogate from breast towards a subject, these other recited inthat which they have said heretofore: Thirdly, conveniences must of necessity of politic consewhether you have taken hurt at any time by my quences follow; in respect of such instruments careful and devoted counsel. For although I as are never failing about princes, which spy into temember well your lordship once told me that their humours and conceits, and second them; you having submitted upon my well-meant motion and not only second them, but in seconding at Nonsuch, (the place where you renewed a increase them; yea, and many times without their treaty with her majesty of obsequious kindness,) knowledge pursue them further than themselves she had taken advantage of it; yet I suppose you would. Your lordship will ask the question do since believe, that it did much attemper a cold wherewith the Athenians were wont to interrupt malignant humour then growing upon her majesty their orators when they exaggerated their dangers; toward your lordship, and hath done you good in "quid igitur agendum est ?" consequence. And for being against it, now I will tell your lordship, “quæ mihi nunc in lately, that you should not estrange yourself, mentum veniunt;" supposing, nevertheless, that although I give place to none in true gratulation, yourself, out of your own wisdom upon the crise


with this plainness and liberty represented to you, or in commending fit persons for service for war will find out better expedients and remedies. I it had been in season. And here, my lord, I wish a cure applied to every of the five former pray mistake me not. I am not to play now the impressions, which I will take not in order, but as part of a gown-man, that would franie you best to I think they are of weight.

mine own turn. I know what I owe you : I am For the removing the impression of your nature infinitely glad of this last journey, now it is past: to be opiniatre and not ruleable; first, and above the rather, because you may make so honourable all things I wish that all matters past, which can- a full point for a time. You have property good not be revoked, your lordship would turn alto- enough in that greatness. There is none can of gether upon insatisfaction, and not upon your many years ascend near you in competition. Benature or proper disposition. This string you sides, the disposing of the places and affairs boih cannot upon every apt occasion harp upon too concerning the wars (you increasing in other much. Next, whereas I have noted you to fiy greatness) will of themselves flow to you; which and avoid (in some respect justly) the resem- will preserve that dependence in full measure. It blance or imitation of my Lord of Leicester and is a thing that of all things I would have you my Lord Chancellor Hatton; yet I am persuaded retain, the times considered. And the necessity (howsoever I wish your lordship as distant as you of the service, for other reason I know none. are from them in points of favour, integrity, But, I say, keep it in substance, but abolish it in magnanimity and merit,) that it will do you much shows to the queen. For her majesty loveth good between the queen and you to allege them peace. Next, she loveth not charge. Thirdly, (as oft as you find occasion) for authors and that kind of dependence maketh a suspected patterns. For I do not know a readier mean to greatness. Therefore, “Quod instat agamus." make her majesty think you are in your right way. Let that be a sleeping honour a while, and cure Thirdly, when at any time your lordship upon the queen's mind on that point. Therefore, again, occasion happen in speeches to do her majesty whereas I heard your lordship designing to yourright, (for there is no such matter as flattery self the ear] marshal's place, or place of master amongst you all,) I fear you handle it, “ magis in of the ordnance, I did not in my mind so well speciem adornatis verbis, quam ut sentire videaris." | like of either; because of their affinity with a So that a man may read forinality in your coun- martial greatness. But of the places now void, in tenance; whereas your lordship should do it my judgment and discretion, I would name you familiarly, "et oratione fida.” Fourthly, your to the place of lord privy seal. For, first, it is the lordship should never be without some particulars third person of the great officers of the crown. afoot, which you should seem to pursue with Next, it hath a kind of superintendence over the earnestness and atřection; and then let them fall secretary. It hath also an affinity with the court upon taking knowledge of her majesty's opposition of wards, in regard of the fees from the liveries. and dislike. Of which the weightiest sort may And it is a fine honour, quiet place, and worth a be if your lordship ofier to labour in the behalf of thousand pounds by year. And my lord admi. some that you favour for some of the places now ral's father had it, who was a martial man. And void; choosing such a subject as you think her it fits a favourite to carry her majesty's image in majesty is like to oppose unto: and if you will seal, who beareth it best expressed in heart. say, that this is “Conjunctum cum alienâ injurià;" But my chief reason is, that which I first alleged, I will not answer, “hæc non aliter constabunt;" to divert her majesty from this impression of a but I say, commendation from so good a mouth martial greatness. In concurrence whereof, if doth not hurt a man, though you prevail not. A your lordship shall not remit any thing of your less weighty sort of particulars may be the pre- former diligence at the Star Chamber; if you shall tence of some journeys which at her majesty's continue such intelligences as are worth the request your lordship might relinquish ; as if you cherishing; if you shall pretend to be as bookish would pretend a journey to see your living and and contemplative as ever you were; all these estate towards Wales or the like; for as for great courses have both their advantages and uses in foreign journeys of employment and service, it themselves otherwise, and serve exceeding aptly standeth not with your gravity to play or stratagem to this purpose. Whereunto I add one expedient with them. And the lightest sort of particulars, more stronger than all the rest; and for mine which yet are not to be neglected, are in your own confident opinion, void of any prejudice nr habits, apparel, wearings, gestures, and the like. danger of diminution of your greatness; and that

The impression of greatest prejudice next, is is, the bringing in of some martial man to be of that of a military dependence. Wherein I can- the council, dealing directly with her majesty in not sufficiently wonder at your lordship's course, it, as for her service and your better assistance; that you say, the wars are your occupation, and choosing, nevertheless, some person that may be ft in that course; whereas, if I might have ad- known not to come in against you by any former vised your lordship, you should have left that division. I judge the fittest to be my Lord person at Plymouth; inore than when in counsel Mountjoy, or my Lord Willoughby. And if

your lordship see deep:ier into it than I do, that

TO SIR ROBERT CECIL.. you would not have it done in effect, yet, in my SIR, I forbear not to put in paper as much as opinion, you may serve your turn by the pretence I thought to have spoken to your honour to-day. of it, and stay it nevertheless.

if I could have stayed, knowing that if you The third impression is of a popular reputa- honcur should make other use of it than is due to tion; which, because it is a thing good in itself, good meaning, and then I am persuaded you will; being obtained as your lordship obtaineth it, that yet to persons of judgment, and that know me is, "bonis artibus,” and besides well governed, otherwise, it will rather appear (as it is) a preis one of the flowers of your greatness both pre- cise honesty, and this same, “ suum cuique trisent and to come; it would be handled tenderly. buere,” than any hollowness to any. It is my The only way is, to quench it verbis and not luck still to be akin to such things as I neither rebus; and therefore to take all occasions to the like in nature, nor would willingly meet with in queen, to speak against popularity and popular my course, but yet cannot avoid, without show of courses vehemently, and to tax it in all others : base timorousness, or else of unkind, or suspibut, nevertheless, to go on in your honourable cious strangeness. commonwealth courses as you do. And, there

Some hiatus in the copy. fore, I will not advise you to cure this by dealing And I am of one spirit still. I ever liked the in monopolies or any oppressions. Only if in Galenists that deal with good compositions, and parliament your lordship be forward for treasure not the Paracelsians, that deal with these fine in respect to the wars, it becometh your person separations: and in music, I ever loved easy airs, well. And if her majesty object popularity to that go full all the parts together; and not those you at any time, I would say to her, a parliament strange points of accord and discord. This I will show that, and so feed her with expectation. write not, I assure your honour officiously, except

The fourth impression of the inequality be- it be according to Tully's offices, that is, honestly tween your estate of means and your greatness and morally: For though, I thank God, I acof respects, is not to be neglected; for, believe it, count upon the proceeding in the queen's service, my lord, that till her majesty find you careful of or not proceeding both ways, and therefore neither your estate, she will not only think you more mean to fawn or retire, yet I naturally desire good like to continue chargeable to her, but also have opinion with any person which for 'fortune or a conceit that you have higher imaginations. spirit is to be regarded, much more with a secreThe remedies are, first, to profess it in all speeches tary of the queen’s, and a cousin-german, and one to her; next, in such suits wherein both honour, with whom I have ever thought myself to have gift, and profit may be taken to communicate some sympathy of nature, though accidents have freely with her majesty, by way of inducing her not suffered it to appear. Thus not doubting of to grant that it will be this benefit to you. Last- your honourable interpretation and usage of that ly, to be plain with your lordship, for the gentle I have written, I commend you to the Divine premen are such as I am beholding to, nothing can servation. From Gray's Inn. make the queen or the world think so much that you are come to a provident care of your estate as the altering of some of your officers; who though they be as true to you as one hand to the other, yet, " opinio veritate major.” But if, in IT MAY PLEASE your good LondSHIP, respect of the bonds, they may be entered into I

pray God her majesty's weighing be not like for your lordship, you cannot so well dismiss the weight of a balance, “gravia deorsum, levia yourself of them, this cannot be done but with sursum. But I am as far from being altered in time.

devotion towards her as I am from distrust that For the fifth and last, which is of the advantage she will be altered in opinion towards me when of a favourite, as severed from the rest it cannot she knoweth me better. For myself, I have lost hurt; so joined with them it maketh her majesty some opinion, some time, and some means; this more fearful and shadowy, as not knowing her is my account: but then for opinion it is a blast own strength. The only remedy to this is, to that goeth and cometh; for time, it is true, it give way to some other favourite, as in particular goeth anıl cometh not; but yet I have learned you shall find her majesty inclined, so as the that it may be redeemed. subject hath no ill, nor dangerous aspect towards For means, I value that most; and the rather, yourself; for, otherwise, whosoever shall tell me because I ain purposed not to follow the practice that you may not have singular use of a favourite of the law: if her majesty command me in any at your devotion, I will say he understandeth not particular, I shall be ready to do her willing sessi the queen's affection, nor your lordship’s condi- vice; and my reason is only because it drinketh tion. And so, I rest.

too much time, which I have dedicated to better October 4, 1598

purposes. But, even for that point of estate and








means, I partly lean to Thales' opinion, “ that a facta placebunt :” be it so, yet remember, thu
philosopher may be rich if he will." Thus your the signing of your naine is nothing unless it be
Jorviship seeth how I comfort myself; to the in- to some good patent or charter, whereby your
crease whereof I would fain please myself to country may be endowed with good and benefit;
believe that to be true which my lord treasurer which I speak both to move you to preserve your
writeth, wnich is, that it is more than a philoso- person, for further merit and service of her
pher morally can digest; but without any such majesty and your country, and likewise to refer
high conceit, I esteem it like the pulling out of this action to the same end. And so, in most
an aching tooth, which I remember when I was true and fervent prayers, I commend your lord-
a child, and had little philosophy, I was glad of ship, and your work in hand, to the preservation
when it was done. For your lordship, I do think and conduct of the Divine Majesty; so much the
imyself more beholding to you than to any man; more watchful, as these actions do more mani-
and I say, I reckon myself as a common, (not po- festly in show, though alike in truth, depend
pular but common,) and as much as is lawful to upon his Divine providence.
be enclosed as a common, so much your lordship
shall be sure to have.

Your lordship's to obey your honourable
commands more settled than ever.


I have considered the objections, perused the statutes, and framed the alterations, which I

send, still keeping myself within the brevity MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD,

of a letter and form of a narration, not entering Your lordship's so honourable minding my poor into a form of argument or disputation; for, in fortune the last year in the very entrance into my poor conceit, it is somewhat against the that great action, (which is a time of less leisure,) majesty of princes' actions to make too curious and in so liberal an allowance of your care as to and striving apologies; but rather to set them write three letters to stir me up friends in your forth plainly, and so as there may appear an absence; doth, after a sort, warrant me not to harmony and constancy in them, so that one part object to myself your present quantity of affairs, upholdeth another. And so I wish your grace whereby to silence myself from petition of the all prosperity. From my poor lodging, this, etc. like favour. I brake with your lordship myself

Your grace's most dutiful at the Tower, and I take it my brother hath since

pupil and servant. renewed the same motion touching a fortune I was in thought to attempt “ in genere economi

“ In genere politico," certain cross winds have blown contrary. My suit to your lordship is for your several letters to be left with me dor- My sinGULAR GOOD Lord, mant, to the gentlewoman, and either of the The message it pleased your lordship to send parents; wherein I do not doubt but as theme was to me delivered doubtfully ; whether beams of your favour have often dissolved the your lordship said you would speak with me at coldness of my fortune, so in this argument your the Star Chamber or with Mr. Philip. Jf with lordship will do the like with your pen. My me, it is needless, for gratitude imposeth upon desire is also, that your lordship would vouchsafe me satisfaction ; if with Mr. Philip, it will be too unto me, as out of your care, a general letter to late, because somewhat must, perchance, be done my lord keeper for his lordship’s holding me, that day. This doubt not solved, maketh me from you recommended, both in the course of write again; the rather, because I did liberally, my practice, and in the course of my employment but yet privately affirm, your lordship would in her majesty's service. Wherein, if your lord write ; which, if I make not good, it may be a ship shall in any antithesis or relation, affirm that discouragement. Your Jordship’s letter, though his lordship shall have no less hope of me than it have the subject of honour and justice, yet it of any other whom he may cherish, I hope your shall have the secrecy of a thing done upon affeclordship shall engage yourself for no impossibi- tion. I shall ever, in a firm duty, submit my lity. Lastly and chiefly, I know not whether I occasions, though great, to your lordship's shall attain to see your lordship before your noble respects, though small; and this is my resolujourney; for ceremonies are things infinitely tion, that when your lordship doth for me, you inferior to my love and to my zeal ; this let me, shall increase my obligation; when you refuse to with your allowance, say unto you by pen. It is do for me, you shall increase my merit. So, true that, in my well meaning advices, out of my leaving the matter wholly to your lordship's love to your lordship. and perhaps out of the state pleasure, I commend your lordship to the preserof mine own mind, I have sometimes persuaded vation of the Divine Majesty. From Gray's Inn. 8 course differing : "ac tibi pro tutis insignia Your lordship's ever most humbly bounden.



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