Imágenes de páginas

Of the Quickness of the Generation and Extinction is, at King's College, in Cambridge, a certain of Sound, and the time in which they are effected. wooden building, in which there hang beils, and` that when the bells ring, it is shaken. But whatsoever that hidden moticn be, which is sound, it appears that neither is it engendered without perceptible motion in the first pulsation, and that again by the perceptible motion of the air it is carried or hindered.

All sound is exceeding quickly generated, and quickly perishes. But the swiftness of its motion and of its differences, appears a thing not so wonderful. For the motion of the fingers upon a lute, or of the breath in the pipe or flute, are found to be exceedingly swift: and the tongue itself (no very exquisite organ) goes through as many motions as letters; but that sounds should not only be so speedily generated but that they should | also, by their momentary force and impression, as it were, suddenly fill so great space, is matter worthy of the highest admiration. For instance, a man in the middle of a field, speaking aloud, is heard for a quarter of a mile, in a round, and that in articulate words, and these hanging in every little portion of the air, and all in a space of time far less, perhaps, than a minute.

To inquire of the space of time in which sound is conveyed. It can be found thus. Let a man stand in a steeple by night; let another stand in the field, a mile off, perhaps, or as far as the bell can be heard, and let him have ready a torch lighted, but covered. Then let him in the steeple strike the bell then let the other, who stands in the plain, as soon as he hears it, lift the torch in this way, by the space of time between the striking of the bell and the seeing of the torch, shall he that stands in the steeple discover the time of the motion of the sound.

In guns, the flame is seen sooner than the report is heard, although the flame follow the discharging of the ball; so as the flash issues later, but sooner strikes the sense. Whence it is rightly gathered, that the beams visible are more speedily diffused, and arrive, than the species or impressions of sound.

Of the Affinity, or Non-affinity, which Sound hath with the Motion, local and perceptible, of the

Air in which it is carried.

Sound doth not appear manifestly and actually to shake and trouble the air, as doth wind; but the motions of sound appear to be effected by spiritual species; for thus we must speak, until something more assured shall be found.

So as I conceive that a very loud sound of one shouting, at a little distance from the very motion of the breath, shall scarcely stir any trembling aspen leaf, or straw, or flame.

But in greater pulsations there is found a very bodily and actual motion of the air; but whether that proceed from the motion itself which generates sound, or from a collateral cause, or some concomitants, appeareth not. Thunder-claps sometimes make glass windows to tremble, and even walls: I think, also, that ordnance let off, or explosions of mines, do the same.

A word quietly uttered, which at a distance perhaps of thirty feet can be heard, will yet hardly stir the flame of a candle, that is held within a foot of the mouth; whilst blowing a little strongly with the mouth, shall make the flame to waver, at a much greater distance.

The sound of bells, and the like, comes louder, and goes off more dully, as the wind blows towards the ear, or against the sound. The same happens in a shout, which being uttered against the wind, is not heard so far.

It is delivered, that through vast shouts of numbers applauding and cries of rejoicing, the air has been so broken or rarefied, that birds flying over have fallen down. There runs an opinion that the noise of many bells ringing in populous cities is good against thunder and pestilence.

Some places and buildings are certainly reported to be so vaulted, that if one speak in them, and (as the report hath it) against the wall, in one part of the building, his words shall be better heard at some distance from the voice than close at hand.

I have observed, sitting in a coach with one side of the boot down, and the other up, that a beggar crying on the closed side of the coach hath seemed to cry on the open side; so as the voice was plainly repercussed, and went round, or at the least, whilst it sounded on all sides, it seemed to be heard on that side, on which it did best reach

the sense.

If a candle be held to the wind-hole of a drum, and the drum be beat, the flame is shaken and extinguished. The same happens in winding of a hunter's horn, if the candle be brought near the mouth of the horn, &c.

Even the exquisite differences which sound takes, and carries them with it, show that these delicate affections are not continued local motions. For seals, in a matter fitly prepared, make exquisite impressions; so as in the generation of sound. this same, perhaps, might happen. But the dilatation and continuance sort not, especially in liquids: but those exquisite differences we understand of articulate voices and musical tones.

But of this matter altogether (videlicet, what relation and correspondency sound has to the local motion of the air) let inquiry-be more diligently made; not by the way, whether? (which sort of question in matters of this kind has ruined all,) but by the way, how far? and that not by arguments discursive, but by opposite experiments

And I remember, if I mistake not, that there and crucial instances.

Of the Communication of the Air percussed and elided with the ambient Air, and Bodies, or their Spirits.

In the striking of a bell, the sound given by chiming upon the bell with a hammer on the outside, and by the tongue within, is of the same tone. So that the sound yielded by the chiming upon the outside, cannot be generated by the collision of the air between the hammer and the outside of the bell, since it is according to the concave of the bell within. And if it were a flat plate of brass, and not concave, the sound should, I think, be different.

so produced, as it hath some communication with the body of the flute, or pipe. For there is one sound produced in a trumpet of wood, another in one of brass; another, I judge, if the trumpet were lined within, or perhaps even covered, on the outside, with silk or cloth: one perchance if the trumpet were wet, another if dry. I conceive, likewise, in virginals, or the viol, if the board upon which the strings are strained were of brass, or of silver, it should yield a somewhat different sound. But of all these things let there be better inquiry.

Further, in respect of the communication, it would be inquired, what the diversity and ine

If there be a rift in the bell, it gives a hoarse quality of bodies may do; as if three bells should sound, not pleasant or grateful.

It would be known how the thickness of the percussed body may affect the sound, and how far forth as if, of the same concave, one bell should be thicker, another thinner. I have proved in a bell of gold, that it gave an excellent sound, nothing worse, yea, better, than a bell of silver or of brass. But money of gold rings not so well as money of silver.

Empty casks yield a deep and resounding sound, full ones a dull and dead sound. But in the viol, and the lute, and other such, although the first percussion be between the string and the exterior air, yet that air straight communicates with the air in the belly, or concave of the viol or lute. Wherefore, in instruments of this kind is ever some perforation made, that the outward air may communicate with the confined air, without which, the sound would be dull and dead.

Let there be a trial made of the nightingalepipe, that it be filled with oil, and not with water; and let it be noted, how much softer or more obtuse the sound shall be.

When sound is created between the breath and the percussed air, as in a pipe, or flute, it is yet

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be made to hang, the one within the other, with some space of air interposed, and the outer bell were chimed upon with a hammer, what sound it should give, in respect of a single bell.


Let a bell be covered on the outside with cloth silk, and let it be noted, when the bell is struck by the tongue within, what that covering shall do to the sound.

If there were in a viol a plate of brass, or of silver, pierced with holes, in place of that of wood, it would be seen what this shall do to the sound.

There are used in Denmark, and are even brought hither, drums of brass, not of wood, less than those of wood, and they give, I think, a louder sound.

The agitation of the air by great winds shall not, I think, yield much sound, if woods, waves, buildings, or the like be away; yet is it received that, before tempests, there be some murmurings made in woods, albeit to the sense the blast be not yet perceived, nor do the leaves stir.*

Three chapters are deficient, which there wanted leisure to completing.


ABDUCTION of women made a capital offence, i. 333. | Advice upon importing foreign goods, ii. 386; to
Abel and Cain, contemplation of action figured in, ministers, ii. 376; concerning Indian wealth, ii. 387
Adulteration of metals, ii. 459.
Advocates, i. 58.

i. 175.
Abimelech, ii. 270.

Abjuration and exiles, cases of and proceedings therein, Æneas Sylvius, his saying of the Christian religion,
ii. 165.

Abner, murder of by Jacob, not forgotten, ii. 322.
Absolution, ii. 426.

i. 121.

Esculapius and Circe, exposition of, credulity by fable
of, i. 203.

Abridgments of laws, opinion on the use of them, Esop's fable of the two sons digging for gold, i. 172.

ii. 233.

Abuse of excommunication, ii. 428.

Abuses in the penal laws, ii. 237.

Acceleration and clarification of liquors, ii. 47.
Accessaries to duels before the fact, ii. 299.

Accident assistance to eloquence, ii. 337.
Account, matters of, ii. 482.

Achaians, comparison of the state of to a tortoise, by
Titus Quintius, ii. 224.

Achelous, or battle, i. 302.

Acteon and Pentheus, or a curious man, i. 294.
Action, the chief part of an orator, i. 23.

Action and contemplation, union between, i. 173, 174;
figured in Abel and Cain, i. 175; and contempla-
tion, i. 220.

Actions, all men drawn into by pleasure, hor.our, and
profit, ii. 185.

Active, force of quantity in the, ii. 460.

Affections, effect upon the minds and spirits of men,

ii. 129; their impediments to knowledge. i. 94:
inquiry touching, i. 225.

Affectation. No affectation in passion, i. 45; to use
studies too much for ornament is affectation, i. 55.
Affidavits before masters of chancery, ii. 483.
Affluence. Greatness too often ascribed to affluence
of commodities, ii. 222.

Agathocles, conduct to the captive Syracusans, i. 114.
Age and youth prejudiced, vii. 41.

Age will not be defied, i. 39; essay on youth and, i.
48; heat in age excellent for business, i. 48; Alon-
zo of Arragon's commendation of age, i. 113.
Agesilaus, excellent though deformed, i. 49; saying of
his, i. 115; called home from Persia upon a war
against Sparta by Athens and Thebes, ii. 223; his
saying thereon, ii. 223.

Agricultural experiments, ii. 464.

Actium, battle of, decided the empire of the world, Agrippina, preference of empire, i. 183.
i. 38.

Actor, Vibulenus, his artifice, i. 218.

Adam's employment in Paradise, i. 175.

Adam, fall of, set forth by the fable of Pan, i. 290.
Adamites, heresy of, ii. 443.

Adjournment should be to a day certain, ii. 495.
Admiralty, against the, ii. 495.

Admiralties and merchandising several, one of the
internal points of separation with Scotland, ii. 160.
Admonished how to dispose of part of his riches, ii.
487; to imitate the Spaniards, the beaver, &c., ii.

Adoration the highest honour amongst the heathens,
i. 177.

Adrian, a learned prince, i. 178.

Adrian de Castello, the pope's legate, made Bishop of
Hereford, i. 335; his conspiracy against Leo from a
prediction of an astrologer, i. 335.

Adrian VI., advice to him respecting Pasquil, i. 109.
Adrian, the bounty of his disposition, ii. 234.
Adrian, the philosopher's answer who contended with
with him, i. 116.

Advancement in life. i. 231; of learning, notice of,
i. 292; of learning, Bacon's observations on, ii.


Adversity, strength of, ii. 488; Essay of, i. 14.
Advertisement touching holy war, ii. 436; touching
church controversies, ii. 411.
VOL. III.-69

Agues, what wines best for, ii. 10; use of hartshorn
in, ii. 91.

Air, transmutation of into water, ii. 10, 19; Jiversity
of infusions in, ii. 9; in wato, cause of quick as-
cent of, ii. 10; condensation of by cold, ii. 11,
aptness to corrupt, ii. 109; commixture of with
flame, ii. 11; effect of the inspissation of the, ii.
127; touching the nature of, ii. 119; flying of
unequal bodies in the, ii. 107; experiment touching
the congealing of, ii. 54; the theory of Anaximenes
i. 439.

Air and water, experiments as to weight in, ii. 463.
Air and sound, ii. 28.

Airs, experiment touching, ii. 249.
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, promising
to move his majesty to take off the restraint upon
his not coming within the verge of the court, iii.


Albans, the Lord St., to a friend, believing his own
danger less than he found it, iii. 190.

Albans, the Lord St., to the same humble servant, em-
ploying him to do a good office with a great man,
iii. 190.

Albans, from Lord St., praying that the king will let
him die out of a cloud and suffer his honours to bo
transmitted, iii. 188.

Albans, from Lord St., to the king, thanking him for
his liberty, iii. 184.



Albans, from Lord St., to the king, praying for a con-
tinuance of the king's kindness, iii. 84.

Albans, Lord St., to a most dear friend, in whom he
notes an entireness and impatient attention to do
him service, iii. 19.

Albans, Lord St., to the Lord Treasurer Marlborough,
expostulating about his unkindness and injustice,
iii. 191.

Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, promising
to supply his decayed cables, iii. 187.

Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, touching
his book, iii. 187.

Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, thanking
him for a parabien, iii. 188.

Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, touching
his application to the king, iii. 188.
Albans, to the Lord St., from the Bishop of Lincoln,
upon the orations of Cicero, Demosthenes, and the
works of his lordship, iii. 188.

Albans, to the Lord St., from the Marquis of Bucking-
ham, expressing the king's willingness to see his
book, but refusing to let him remain in London, iii.

Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, iii. 185.
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, concerning
York House, iii. 185.

Albert Durer, his mode of painting, i. 49.
Alchymists follow wrong principles to make gold, ii.
49; their philosophy, or the Grecians', all now re-
ceived, i. 79; means used by, more monstrous than
the end, i. 199; errors of in forming science, i.

Alchymy, white and red, ii. 459; advantages of to
science, i. 172.

Alcibiades, of high spirit, yet beautiful, i. 49; advice
to Pericles, studying how to give in his accounts,
i. 109.

Alcohol, a powder made of, ii. 99.

Alphonso the Wise compiled the digest of the laws
of Spain, ii. 235.

Alteration of religion by Elizabeth, ii. 445.
Alterations which may be called majors, ii. 114.
Altham, Baron, reverend judge, ii. 477.
Alva, Duke of, general arrest made by him of Eng
lishmen, ii. 260; a chief instrument in the rebellion
in the north of England, ii. 260.
Amalgamatizing metals, ii. 461, 462.
Amazons, ii. 442.

Ambassadors, how to choose, ii. 382.
Amber, flies get a durable sepulchre in, ii. 24.
Ambition, essay on, i. 44; of man, God's first judg
ment on the, i. 175.

Amiens, Spaniards beaten out of, ii. 200, 213.
Anabaptists, ii. 442; revived the opinion of Henkus,
i. 220; religion of, ii. 314.
Anacharsis, saying of his, i. 120.
Analysis. See Notes by the Editor, i. 244–254.
Anatomy, much deficient, i. 204.
Anaxagoras, his precept concerning truth, i. 82; his
remark upon the Athenians who had condemned
him to death, i. 116.

Ancient history only fragments, i. 189.
Ancient philosophers, their theories concerning primi-
tive matter, i. 437.

Ancients, inventors consecrated by the, i. 207; ho-
nours of the, to eminent men, i. 177; consecrated
inventors of arts amongst the gods, i. 177; hoped
to prolong life by medicine, i. 307; wisdom of the,
i. 287-313; took up experiments on credit, ii. 13.
Andrada, Manuel, a Portuguese, revolted from Don
Antonio to the King of Spain, ii. 217; advertises
Mendoza that he had won Dr. Lopez to the King of
Spain's service, ii. 218; Lopez's secret conference
with him, ii. 218; got out of prison by Lopez, ii.
218; brings Lopez a jewel from the King of Spain,
ii. 218; moves Lopez to poison Queen Elizabeth,
ii. 218; goes to Calais and writes to the Count de
Fuentes, ii. 218.

Andrews, Bishop, ii. 435.
Angels, worship of, i. 195.
Anger, essay on, i. 59; causes of, i. 59; makes dull
men witty, but keeps them poor, i. 124; effects of,
ii. 96.

Alexander, body of, found, ii. 104; Livy's saying of
him, i. 84; his conquest of Persia, ii. 223; Livy's
judgment of him, ii. 223; his opinion of the cause
of Calisthenes' eloquence in his speeches on the
Macedonians, ii. 229, 235; melancholy in his lat-
ter years, i. 27; his conduct at Arbela, i. 36; not
just to deny credit to his acts, i. 99; his saying of
Craterus and Hephæstion, i. 113; saying of Anti-Animate bodies and plants, difference between, ii. 81.
pater, i. 113; his answer to Parmenio, i. 114, 117; Annals and journals, their use, i. 191.
cleanliness of, ii. 8; an instance of excellence in Annihilation, impossibility of, ii. 24.
arms and learning, i. 164; his admiration of Ho- Anointing, experiment touching, ii. 99.
mer, i. 179; education of, i. 179; preferred learning Answers, if insufficient, defendant to pay costs, ii. 483;
to empire, i. 179; his observation relating to Dio- to bills in chancery, ii. 483.
genes, i. 179; his wit in speeches, i. 179; Cassan- Ant, its character, i. 208.
der's subtle answer to, i. 179; his distinction be- Antalcidas, his answer to an Athenian, i. 116.
tween love of him and love of the king, i. 180; Antarctic hemisphere, dusky spots in, what are causes
answer to Parmenio's counsel, i. 180; an instance of, ii. 585.
of the conjunction between learning and military
power, i. 179.

Alien enemy, law respecting, ii. 169.

Alien friend, may have movable goods and personal
actions, but not freehold, or leasehold, or actions
real or mixed, ii. 169.

Alienations, office of compositions for, iii. 319.
Aliment of man, i. 202.
Aliments, change of, ii. 18.

Allegiance, cannot be applied to the law or kingdom,
but to the person of the king, ii. 176; must be un-
conditionai, ii. 391.

Alliance with Holland, ii. 383.

Almonds, oil of, mixed with spirits of wine, ii. 465.
Alonzo of Arragon, saying about books, i. 113.
Alphabet of Nature, rule and form of, iii. 531.

Ante-nati and post-nati of Scotland, ii. 144, 154, 159,


Anticipations of the second philosophy, iii. 521.
Antigonus, answer and saying of, i. 114, 117.
Anti-masques, their composition, i. 45.
Antimony, as to dissolving, ii. 460.

Antinomiæ, contrary cases to be noted in reducing the
common law, ii. 232.

Antiochia, wholesome air of, ii. 128.
Antiochus, his incitement to Prusias to war against
the Romans, ii. 204.

Antipathy and sympathy of men's spirits, ii. 137; se-
cret virtue of, ii. 132, 137; of things, iii. 465,
Antiquity, overweening affection for, i. 172; like
Fame, head muffled, i. 189; law of, ii. 421; the
uttermost is like fame, that muffles her head anc

tells tales, i. 84; admiration of an impediment to
knowledge, i. 94; knowledge not to be sought in
the obscurity of, but in the light of nature, ii. 547.
Antipater, of all Alexander's lieutenants, wore no pur-
ple, i. 113; his sayings of Demades, i. 114;
Antisthenes' opinion what was most necessary, i. 120.
Antitheta, examples of, i. 217.

Antoninus Pius, a learned prince, i. 178.
Antonio, King, mortal enemy to the King of Spain,
ii. 217; his retinue, therefore, free from all suspicion
of conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth, ii. 217; yet
suspected by some of her majesty's counsel, ii. 217.
Antonio, Don, enterprise to settle him in the kingdom
of Portugal failed, ii. 210.

Antonius, Marcus, transported by love, i. 18.

Antonius' mind weakened by the Egyptian soothsayer,
ii. 129.

Ants, instinct of, ii. 93.

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Art, duty of to exalt nature, i. 208; of memory, visible
images in the, ii. 131; the time extent of, ii. 572.
Articulation of sounds, ii. 35.

Arts, military, flourish most while virtue grows, i. 205;
liberal, flourish when virtue is in state, i. 205; volup-
tuary, flourish when virtue declines, i. 205; history
of, deficient. i. 188.

Arts and methods, error of over-early reduction of
science into, i. 173.

Antwerp, English merchants spoiled and put to their Arts, intellectual, are four, Invention, Judgment, Me-
ransom at the sack of, ii. 260.

Anytus' accusation against Socrates, i. 164.
Apelles, his mode of painting, i. 49.
Ape's heart, what good for, ii. 134.

Aphorisms, iii, 427; the way of delivering ancient
wisdom, iii. 222; the pith of sciences, i. 214; know-
ledge when in, is in growth, i. 173.
Apollonius's judgment of Nero, ii. 277; reason for
Nero's overthrow, delight in solitude, i. 34.

Apollonius of Tyana, ii. 124.

mory, Tradition, i. 207.

Arts and sciences, invention deficient, i. 207; their
flourishing condition under the reign of King James,
ii. 285.

Arts of judgment, i. 210.

Arundel and Surrey, Earl of, from Lord Bacon, men-
tioning his being taken ill and staying at his house.
iii. 91.

Ashton, Abdy, chaplain to the Earl of Essex, ii. 363.
Assertion and proof, i. 214.

Apophthegms, i. 107; account of, i. 9; loss of Cæsar's, Astringents, a catalogue of different sorts, hot and cold,

i. 192.

Apothecaries, how they clarify syrups, ii. 8.
Apology for the Earl of Essex, ii. 333.
Apparel, vanity in should be avoided, ii. 386.
Appendices to knowledge of the soul, i. 206; division
of, divination, fascination, i. 206; of history, i.


Appetite, or will of man, i. 218.

Appius Claudius transported by love, i. 18.
Arbela, the number of the Persians at, i. 36.
Archidamus's answer to Philip of Macedon, i. 118.
Arch-traitor Tyrone, the, ii. 349.

Archetype, the dignity of knowledge is to be sought in
the, i. 174.

Ardes, Spaniards beaten out of, ii. 200, 213.
Arguments in law, iii. 267.

Aristippus, answers of his, i. 113, 117, 118, 121;
answer as to the morigeration of learned men, i.


Aristotle, ii. 198, 210, 212, 219, 221, 224, 226, 227;
school of, i. 90; put all his opinions upon his own
authority, i. 99; full of ostentation, i. 57; goeth for
the best author, i. 72; character of, i. 72; admired
the invariableness of the heavens, i. 79; saith our
ancestors were gross, i. 84; said that we are be-
holden to him for many of our articles of faith,
i. 123; remarks concerning the prolongation of life,
ii. 16; opinion of the colours of feathers, ii. 7; advice
in consumptions, ii. 16; framed new words in con-
tradiction to ancient wisdom, i. 196; mentions the
ancients only to confute them, i. 196; took the
right course for glory in reproving the more ancient
philosophers, i. 196; inquiry in physiognomy, i.
201; error in mixing philosophy with logic, i. 173;
his sparing use of feigned matter in history, i. 172;
observation on the power of the mind and reason,
i. 206; emulation of, i. 216; followed the example
of Alexander in conquering all opinions as the other
all nations, i. 196; remarks on his system of natural
philosophy, i. 427; his custom to prefer the obscure,
ii. 581.

ii. 467; purgative, ii. 468.

Astrologers, means used by, more monstrous than the
end, i. 199.

Astrologers' judgment that the King of France should
be killed in a duel, i. 43.
Astrology, Chaldean, i. 206.

Astronomer, predictions of, i. 206.

Astronomical observations, admonition respecting, 1.
421; ii. 580.

Astronomy, theory of, i. 200; exemplified in the Book
of Job, i. 175.

Atalanta and the golden ball, i. 174.

Atalanta, or gain, i. 304.

Atheism, learned men and times incline to, i. 163;
superficial knowledge of philosophy may incline the
mind to, i. 164; learned times have inclined to, i. 162;
caused by ignorant preachers, ii. 427; meditations
upon, i. 6, 70; their disposition light, i. 71; Essay
of, i. 24; never perturbs states, i. 25.
Athens, poisoned capital offenders, ii. 85; their Sex-
viri standing commissioners to watch the laws, ii.
231, 235.

Athletic, i. 205; philosophy relating to not inquired
i. 205.

Atlantis, New, i. 255.
Atlas, i. 210.

Atmosphere, artificial, in New Atlantis, i. 267.
Atoms, equality or inequality of, i. 407.
Attachment for not answering, ii. 481.
Attemus, the start of in Epicurus, a frivolous shift,
i. 71.
Attorney and solicitor-general should not be ignorant
in things though unconnected with their profession,
ii. 379.
Attorney-general's place and commission, ii. 489.
Attorney-general, abuse of to Mr. Bacon, ii. 497.
Attraction, by similitude of substance, ii. 94; experi
ment touching, ii. 121; experimental remarks on,
ii. 466; by similitude of substance, ii. 121.
Attractive bodies, if in small quantities, i 466; ob-

servations on, ii. 466.

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