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Of th: Quickness of the Generation and Extinction is, at King's College, in Cambridge, a certain of Sound, and the time in which they are effected. wooden building, in which there hang bells, and
that when the bells ring, it is shaken. But All sound is exceeding quickly generated, and whatsoever that hidden motion be, which is quickly perishes. But the swiftness of its mo- sound, it appears that neither is it engendered tion and of its differences, appears a thing not so without perceptible motion in the first pulsation, wonderful. For the motion of the fingers upon a and that again by the perceptible motion of the lote, or of the breath in the pipe or flute, are found air it is carried or hindered. to be exceedingly swift: and the tongue itself A word quietly uttered, which at a distance (no very exquisite organ) goes through as many perhaps of thirty feet can be heard, will yet hardly motions as letters; but that sounds should not stir the flame of a candle, that is held within a only be so speedily generated but that they should foot of the mouth; whilst blowing a little strongly also, by their momentary force and impression, as with the mouth, shall make the flame to waver, it were, suddenly fill so great space, is matter at a much greater distance. worthy of the highest admiration. For instance, The sound of bells, and the like, comes louder, a man in the middle of a id, speaking aloud, is and goes off more dully, as the wind blows toheard for a quarter of a mile, in a round, and that wards the ear, or against the sound.
The same in articulate words, and these hanging in every happens in a shout, which being uttered against little portion of the air, and all in a space of time the wind, is not heard so far. far less, perhaps, than a minute.
It is delivered, that through vast shouts of To inquire of the space of time in which sound numbers applauding and cries of rejoicing, the air is conveyed. It can be found thus. Let a man has been so broken or rarefied, that birds flying stand in a steeple hy night; let another stand in over have fallen down. There runs an opinion the field, a mile off, perhaps, or as far as the bell that the noise of many bells ringing in populous can be heard, and let him have ready a torch cities is good against thunder and pestilence. lighted, but covered. Then let him in the steeple Some places and buildings are certainly reported strike the bell: then let the other, who stands in to be so vaulted, that if one speak in them, and the plain, as soon as he hears it, lift the torch : in (as the report hath it) against the wall, in one this way, by the space of time between the strik- part of the building, his words shall be better ing of the bell and the seeing of the torch, shall heard at some distance from the voice than close he that stands in the steeple discover the time of at hand. the motion of the sound.
I have observed, sitting in a coach with one In guns, the flame is seen sooner than the re- side of the boot down, and the other up, that a port is heard, although the flame follow the dis- beggar crying on the c'ɔsed side of the coach hath charging of the ball; so as the flash issues later, seemed to cry on the open side; so as the voice hut sooner strikes the sense. Whence it is rightly was plainly repercussed, and went round, or at gathered, that the beams visible are more speedily the least, whilst it sounded on all sides, it seemed diffused, and arrive, than the species or impres- to be heard on that side, on which it did best reach sions of sound.
If a candle be held to the wind-hole of a drum, of the Affinity, or Non-affinity, which Sound and the drum be beat, the flame is shaken and hath with the Motion, local and perceptible, of the extinguished. The same happens in winding of a Air in which it is carried.
hunter's horn, if the candle be brought near the Sound doth not appear manifestly and actually mouth of the horn, &c. to shake and trouble the air, as doth wind; but Even the exquisite differences which sound the motions of sound appear to be effected by takes, and carries them with it, show that these spiritual species; for thus we must speak, until delicate affections are not continued local motions. something more assured shall be found. For seals, in a matter fitly prepared, make exqui
So as I conceive that a very loud sound of one site impressions ; so as in the generation of sound . shouting, at a little distance from the very motion this same, perhaps, might happen. But the dila* of the breath, shall scarcely stir any trembling tation and continuance sort not, especially in aspen leaf, or straw, or flame.
liquids: but those exquisite differences we underBut in greater pulsations there is found a very stand of articulate voices and musical tones. hodily and actual motion of the air; but whether But of this matter altogether (videlicet, what that proceed from the motion itself which gene- relation and correspondency sound has to the rates sound, or from a collateral cause, or some local motion of the air) let inquiry.be more diliconcomitants, appeareth not. Thunder-claps gently made; not by the way, whether? (which sometimes make glass windows to tremble, and sort of question in matters of this kind has ruined even walls: I think, also, that ordnance let off, all,) but by the way, how far ? and that not by or explosions of mines, do the same.
arguments discursive, but by opposite experimente And I remember, if I mistake not, that there and crucial instances.
so produced, as it hath some communication with of the Communication of the Air percussed and the body of the flute, or pipe. For there is one elided with the ambient Air, and Bodies, or sound produced in a trumpet of wood, another in their Spirits.
one of brass ; another, I judge, if the trumpet In the striking of a bell, the sound given by were lined within, or perhaps even covered, on chiming upon the bell with a hammer on the out- the outside, with silk or cloth: one perchance if side, and by the tongue within, is of the same the trumpet were wet, another if dry. I contone. So that the sound yielded by the chiming ceive, likewise, in virginals, or the viol, if the upon the outside, cannot be generated by the col board upon which the strings are strained were lision of the air between the hammer and the of brass, or of silver, it should yield a somewha: outside of the bell, since it is according to the different sound. But of all these things let there concave of the bell within. And if it were a flat be better inquiry. plate of brass, and not concave, the sound should, Further, in respect of the communication, it I think, be different.
would be inquired, what the diversity and ineIf there be a rift in the bell, it gives a hoarse quality of bodies may do; as if three bells should sound, not pleasant or grateful.
be made to hang, the one within the other, with It would be known how the thickness of the some space of air interposed, and the outer hell percussed body may affect the sound, and how were chimed upon with a hammer, what sound it far forth: as if, of the same concave, one bell should give, in respect of a single bell. should be thicker, another thinner. I have proved Let a bell be covered on the outside with cloth in a bell of gold, that it gave an excellent sound, or silk, and let it be noted, when the bell is nothing worse, yea, better, than a bell of silver or struck by the tongue within, what that covering of brass. But money of gold rings not so well as shall do to the sound. money of silver.
If there were in a viol a plate of brass, or of Empty casks yield a deep and resounding silver, pierced with holes, in place of that of sound, full ones a dull and dead sound. But in wood, it would be seen what this shall do to the the viol, and the lute, and other such, although sound. the first percussion be between the string and the There are used in Denmark, and are even exterior air, yet that air straight communicates brought hither, drums of brass, not of wood, less with the air in the belly, or concave of the viol than those of wood, and they give, I think, a or lute. Wherefore, in instruments of this kind is louder sound. ever some perforation made, that the outward air The agitation of the air by great winds shall may communicate with the confined air, without not, I think, yield much sound, if woods, waves, which, the sound would be dull and dead. buildings, or the like be away; yet is it received
Let there be a trial made of the nightingale- that, before tempests, there be sonie murmurings pipe, that it be filled with oil, and not with water; made in woods, albeit to the sense the blast be and let it be noted, how much softer or more not yet perceived, nor do the leaves stir.* obtuse the sound shall be. When sound is created between the breath and
* Three chapters are deficient, wbich there wanted lel. the percussed air, as in a pipe, or flute, it is yet sure to completing.
ABDUCTION of women made a capital offence, i. 333. Advice upon importing foreign goods, ij. 386 ; tu
Adulteration of metals, ii. 459.
Advocates, i. 58.
of, i. 203.
Affections, effect upon the minds and spirits of men,
ii. 129; their impediments to knowledge. i. 94 :
inquiry touching, i. 225.
studies too much for ornament is affectation, i. 55.
Affidavits before masters of chancery, ii. 483.
Affluence. Greatness too often ascribed to affluence
Agathocles, conduct to the captive Syracusans, i. 114.
Age and youth prejudiced, vii. 41.
48; heat in age excellent for business, i. 48; Alon-
figured in Abel and Cain, i. 175; and contempla- Agesilaus, excellent though deformed, i. 49; saying of
his, i. 115; called home from Persia upon a war
saying thereon, ii. 223.
Agricultural experiments, ii. 464.
Agues, what yines best for, ii. 10; use of hartshorn
in, ii. 91.
Air, transmutation of into water. ii. 10, 19; Jiversity
cent of, ii. 10; condensation of by cold, ii. 11,
aptness to corrupt, ii, 109; commixture of with
flame, ii. 11; effect of the inspissation of the, ii.
internal points of separation with Scotland, ii. 160. unequal bodies in the, ii. 107; experiment touching
487; to imitate the Spaniards, the beaver, &c., ii. i. 439.
Air and water, experiments as to weight in, ii. 463.
Airs, experiment touching, ii. 249.
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, promismg
Hereford, i. 335 ; his conspiracy against Leo from a his not coming within the verge of the court, ii.
danger less than he found it, iii. 190.
ploying him to do a good office with a great man,
i. 292 ; of learning, Bacon's observations on, ii. Albans, from Lord St., praying that the king will let
him die out of a cloud and suffer his honours to be
transmitted, iii. 188.
bis liberty, iii. 184.
2 z 2
Ailans, from Lord St., to the king, praying for a con., Alphonso the Wise compiled the digest of the laws
of Spain, ii. 235.
Altham, Baron, reverend judge, ii. 477.
expostulating about his unkindness and injustice, lishmen, ii. 260; a chief instrument in the rebellion
in the north of England, ii. 260.
Amazons, ii. 442.
Amber, flies get a durable sepulchre in, ii. 24.
ment on the, i. 175.
Anabaptists, ii. 442; revived the opinion of Henkus,
upon the orations of Cicero, Demosthenes, and the Apacharsis, saying of his, i, 120.
Analysis. See Notes by the Editor, i. 244-254.
ham, expressing the king's willingness to see his Anaxagoras, his precept concerning truth, i. 82 ; his
him to death, i. 116.
tive matter, i. 437.
Ancients, inventors consecrated by the, i. 207; ho
49; their philosophy, or the Grecians', all now re- inventors of arts amongst the gods, i. 177; hoped
Andrada, Manuel, a Portuguese, revolted from Don
Mendoza that he had won Dr. Lopez to the King of
to Pericles, studying how to give in his accounts, with him, ii. 218; got out of prison by Lopez, ii.
218; brings Lopez a jewel from the King of Spain,
ii. 218; moves Lopez to poison Queen Elizabeth,
him, i. 84; his conquest of Persia, ii. 223; Livy's Fuentes, ii. 218.
Anticipations of the second philosophy, üi. 521.
actions, but not freehold, or leasehold, or actions Anti-masques, their composition, i. 45.
Antimony, as to dissolving, ii. 460.
common law, ii. 232.
Antiochia, wholesome air of, ii. 128.
but to the person of the king, ii. 176; must be un- the Romans, ii. 204.
Antipathy and sympathy of men's spirits, ii. 137; se-
cret virtue of, ii. 132, 137 ; of things, iii. 465.
Fame, head muffled, i. 189; law of, ü. 421; the
ultermost is like fame, that muffles her head and
tells tales, i. 84; admiration of an impediment to Armada, ill success of the Spanish, ii. 200; account
the obscurity of, but in the light of nature, ii. 547. Arms, the importance of to nations, i. 38; Aourish
parison of in advancing men, i. 183.
155; its rebellion suppressed, and subsequent incor-
poration with Castile, ii. 155.
ii. 217; his retinue, therefore, free from all suspicion Art, duty of lo exalt nature, i. 208; of memory, visible
suspected by some of her majesty's counsel, ii. 217. Articulation of sounds, ii. 35.
liberal, fourish when virtue is in state, i. 205 ; volup-
tuary, flourish when virtue declines, i. 205; history
Arts and methods, error of over-early reduction of
science into, i. 173.
mory, Tradition, i. 207.
Arts and sciences, invention deficient, i. 207; their
flourishing condition under the reign of King James,
wisdom, iii. 222 ; the pith of sciences, i. 214; know- Arundel and Surrey, Earl of, from Lord Bacon, men.
tioning his being taken ill and staying at his house.
Nero's overthrow, delight in solitude, i. 34. Ashton, Abdy, chaplain to the Earl of Essex, ii. 363.
A ssertion and proof, i. 214.
ii. 467; purgative, ii. 468.
Astrologers, means used by, more monstrous than the
end, i. 199.
Astrologers’ judgment that the King of France should
Astronomer, predictions of, i. 206.
Astronomical observations, admonition respecting, i.
421; ii. 580.
Astronomy, theory of, i. 200; exemplified in the Book
Atalanta and the golden ball, i. 174.
Atheism, learned men and times incline to, i. 163;
superficial knowledge of philosophy may incline the
mind to, i. 164; learned times have inclined to, i. 162;
answer as to the morigeration of learned men, i. upon, i. 6, 70; their disposition light, i. 71; Essay
of, i. 24 ; never perturbs states, i. 25.
school of, i. 90; put all his opinions upon his own viri standing commissioners to watch the laws, ii.
servations on, ii. 466.