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Of th: Quickness of the Generation and Extinction is, at King's College, in Cambridge, a certain of Sound, and the time in which they are effected. wooden building, in which there hang bells, and

that when the bells ring, it is shaken. But All sound is exceeding quickly generated, and whatsoever that hidden motion be, which is quickly perishes. But the swiftness of its mo- sound, it appears that neither is it engendered tion and of its differences, appears a thing not so without perceptible motion in the first pulsation, wonderful. For the motion of the fingers upon a and that again by the perceptible motion of the lote, or of the breath in the pipe or flute, are found air it is carried or hindered. to be exceedingly swift: and the tongue itself A word quietly uttered, which at a distance (no very exquisite organ) goes through as many perhaps of thirty feet can be heard, will yet hardly motions as letters; but that sounds should not stir the flame of a candle, that is held within a only be so speedily generated but that they should foot of the mouth; whilst blowing a little strongly also, by their momentary force and impression, as with the mouth, shall make the flame to waver, it were, suddenly fill so great space, is matter at a much greater distance. worthy of the highest admiration. For instance, The sound of bells, and the like, comes louder, a man in the middle of a id, speaking aloud, is and goes off more dully, as the wind blows toheard for a quarter of a mile, in a round, and that wards the ear, or against the sound.

The same in articulate words, and these hanging in every happens in a shout, which being uttered against little portion of the air, and all in a space of time the wind, is not heard so far. far less, perhaps, than a minute.

It is delivered, that through vast shouts of To inquire of the space of time in which sound numbers applauding and cries of rejoicing, the air is conveyed. It can be found thus. Let a man has been so broken or rarefied, that birds flying stand in a steeple hy night; let another stand in over have fallen down. There runs an opinion the field, a mile off, perhaps, or as far as the bell that the noise of many bells ringing in populous can be heard, and let him have ready a torch cities is good against thunder and pestilence. lighted, but covered. Then let him in the steeple Some places and buildings are certainly reported strike the bell: then let the other, who stands in to be so vaulted, that if one speak in them, and the plain, as soon as he hears it, lift the torch : in (as the report hath it) against the wall, in one this way, by the space of time between the strik- part of the building, his words shall be better ing of the bell and the seeing of the torch, shall heard at some distance from the voice than close he that stands in the steeple discover the time of at hand. the motion of the sound.

I have observed, sitting in a coach with one In guns, the flame is seen sooner than the re- side of the boot down, and the other up, that a port is heard, although the flame follow the dis- beggar crying on the c'ɔsed side of the coach hath charging of the ball; so as the flash issues later, seemed to cry on the open side; so as the voice hut sooner strikes the sense. Whence it is rightly was plainly repercussed, and went round, or at gathered, that the beams visible are more speedily the least, whilst it sounded on all sides, it seemed diffused, and arrive, than the species or impres- to be heard on that side, on which it did best reach sions of sound.

the sense.

If a candle be held to the wind-hole of a drum, of the Affinity, or Non-affinity, which Sound and the drum be beat, the flame is shaken and hath with the Motion, local and perceptible, of the extinguished. The same happens in winding of a Air in which it is carried.

hunter's horn, if the candle be brought near the Sound doth not appear manifestly and actually mouth of the horn, &c. to shake and trouble the air, as doth wind; but Even the exquisite differences which sound the motions of sound appear to be effected by takes, and carries them with it, show that these spiritual species; for thus we must speak, until delicate affections are not continued local motions. something more assured shall be found. For seals, in a matter fitly prepared, make exqui

So as I conceive that a very loud sound of one site impressions ; so as in the generation of sound . shouting, at a little distance from the very motion this same, perhaps, might happen. But the dila* of the breath, shall scarcely stir any trembling tation and continuance sort not, especially in aspen leaf, or straw, or flame.

liquids: but those exquisite differences we underBut in greater pulsations there is found a very stand of articulate voices and musical tones. hodily and actual motion of the air; but whether But of this matter altogether (videlicet, what that proceed from the motion itself which gene- relation and correspondency sound has to the rates sound, or from a collateral cause, or some local motion of the air) let more diliconcomitants, appeareth not. Thunder-claps gently made; not by the way, whether? (which sometimes make glass windows to tremble, and sort of question in matters of this kind has ruined even walls: I think, also, that ordnance let off, all,) but by the way, how far ? and that not by or explosions of mines, do the same.

arguments discursive, but by opposite experimente And I remember, if I mistake not, that there and crucial instances.



so produced, as it hath some communication with of the Communication of the Air percussed and the body of the flute, or pipe. For there is one elided with the ambient Air, and Bodies, or sound produced in a trumpet of wood, another in their Spirits.

one of brass ; another, I judge, if the trumpet In the striking of a bell, the sound given by were lined within, or perhaps even covered, on chiming upon the bell with a hammer on the out- the outside, with silk or cloth: one perchance if side, and by the tongue within, is of the same the trumpet were wet, another if dry. I contone. So that the sound yielded by the chiming ceive, likewise, in virginals, or the viol, if the upon the outside, cannot be generated by the col board upon which the strings are strained were lision of the air between the hammer and the of brass, or of silver, it should yield a somewha: outside of the bell, since it is according to the different sound. But of all these things let there concave of the bell within. And if it were a flat be better inquiry. plate of brass, and not concave, the sound should, Further, in respect of the communication, it I think, be different.

would be inquired, what the diversity and ineIf there be a rift in the bell, it gives a hoarse quality of bodies may do; as if three bells should sound, not pleasant or grateful.

be made to hang, the one within the other, with It would be known how the thickness of the some space of air interposed, and the outer hell percussed body may affect the sound, and how were chimed upon with a hammer, what sound it far forth: as if, of the same concave, one bell should give, in respect of a single bell. should be thicker, another thinner. I have proved Let a bell be covered on the outside with cloth in a bell of gold, that it gave an excellent sound, or silk, and let it be noted, when the bell is nothing worse, yea, better, than a bell of silver or struck by the tongue within, what that covering of brass. But money of gold rings not so well as shall do to the sound. money of silver.

If there were in a viol a plate of brass, or of Empty casks yield a deep and resounding silver, pierced with holes, in place of that of sound, full ones a dull and dead sound. But in wood, it would be seen what this shall do to the the viol, and the lute, and other such, although sound. the first percussion be between the string and the There are used in Denmark, and are even exterior air, yet that air straight communicates brought hither, drums of brass, not of wood, less with the air in the belly, or concave of the viol than those of wood, and they give, I think, a or lute. Wherefore, in instruments of this kind is louder sound. ever some perforation made, that the outward air The agitation of the air by great winds shall may communicate with the confined air, without not, I think, yield much sound, if woods, waves, which, the sound would be dull and dead. buildings, or the like be away; yet is it received

Let there be a trial made of the nightingale- that, before tempests, there be sonie murmurings pipe, that it be filled with oil, and not with water; made in woods, albeit to the sense the blast be and let it be noted, how much softer or more not yet perceived, nor do the leaves stir.* obtuse the sound shall be. When sound is created between the breath and

* Three chapters are deficient, wbich there wanted lel. the percussed air, as in a pipe, or flute, it is yet sure to completing.

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ABDUCTION of women made a capital offence, i. 333. Advice upon importing foreign goods, ij. 386 ; tu
Abel and Cain, contemplation of action figured in, ministers, ii. 376; concerning Indian wealth, ij. 387
i, 175.

Adulteration of metals, ii. 459.
Abimelech, ii. 270.

Advocates, i. 58.
A bjuration and exiles, cases of and proceedings therein, Æneas Sylvius, his saying of the Christian religion,
ii. 165.

i. 121.
Abner, murder of by Jacob, not forgotten, ii. 322. Æsculapius and Circe, exposition of, credulity by fable
Absolution, ii. 426.

of, i. 203.
Abridgments of laws, opinion on the use of them, Æsop's fable of the two sons digging for gold, i. 172.
ii. 233.

Affections, effect upon the minds and spirits of men,
Abuse of excommunication, ii. 428.

ii. 129; their impediments to knowledge. i. 94 :
Abuses in the penal laws, ii. 237.

inquiry touching, i. 225.
Acceleration and clarification of liquors, ii. 47. Affectation. No affectation in passion, i. 45; to use
Accessaries to duels before the fact, ii. 299.

studies too much for ornament is affectation, i. 55.
Accident assistance to eloquence, ii. 337.

Affidavits before masters of chancery, ii. 483.
Account, matters of, ii. 482.

Affluence. Greatness too often ascribed to affluence
Achaians, comparison of the state of to a tortoise, by of commodities, ii. 222.
Titus Quintius, ii. 224.

Agathocles, conduct to the captive Syracusans, i. 114.
Achelous, or battle, i. 302.

Age and youth prejudiced, vii. 41.
Actæon and Pentheus, or a curious man, i. 294. Age will not be defied, i. 39; essay on youth and, i.
Action, the chief part of an orator, i. 23.

48; heat in age excellent for business, i. 48; Alon-
Action and contemplation, union between, i. 173, 174; zo of Arragon's commendation of age, i. 113.

figured in Abel and Cain, i. 175; and contempla- Agesilaus, excellent though deformed, i. 49; saying of
tion, i. 220.

his, i. 115; called home from Persia upon a war
Actions, all men drawn into by pleasure, hor.our, and against Sparta by Athens and Thebes, ii. 223; his
profit, ii. 185.

saying thereon, ii. 223.
Active, force of quantity in the, ii. 460.

Agricultural experiments, ii. 464.
Actium, battle of, decided the empire of the world, Agrippina, preference of empire, i. 183.
i. 38.

Agues, what yines best for, ii. 10; use of hartshorn
Actor, Vibulenus, his artifice, i. 218.

in, ii. 91.
Adam's employment in Paradise, i. 175.

Air, transmutation of into water. ii. 10, 19; Jiversity
Adam, fall of, set forth by the fable of Pan, i. 290. of infusions in, ii. 9; in wate, cause of quick as-
Adamites, heresy of, ii. 443.

cent of, ii. 10; condensation of by cold, ii. 11,
Adjournment should be to a day certain, ii. 495.

aptness to corrupt, ii, 109; commixture of with
Admirally, against the, ii. 495.

flame, ii. 11; effect of the inspissation of the, ii.
Admiralties and merchandising several, one of the 127; touching the nature of, ii. 119; flying of

internal points of separation with Scotland, ii. 160. unequal bodies in the, ii. 107; experiment touching
Admonished how to dispose of part of his riches, ii. the congealing of, ii. 54; the theory of Anaximenes

487; to imitate the Spaniards, the beaver, &c., ii. i. 439.

Air and water, experiments as to weight in, ii. 463.
Adoration the highest honour amongst the heathens, Air and sound, ii. 28.
i. 177.

Airs, experiment touching, ii. 249.
Adrian, a learned prince, i. 178.

Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, promismg
Adrian de Castello, the pope's legate, made Bishop of to move his majesty to take off the restraint upon

Hereford, i. 335 ; his conspiracy against Leo from a his not coming within the verge of the court, ii.
prediction of an astrologer, i. 335.

Adrian VI., advice to him respecting Pasquil, i. 109. Albans, the Lord St., to a friend, believing his own
Adrian, the bounty of his disposition, ii. 234.

danger less than he found it, iii. 190.
Adrian, the philosopher's answer who contended with Albans, the Lord St., to the same humble servant, em
with him, i. 116.

ploying him to do a good office with a great man,
Advancement in life. i. 231; of learning, notice of, ii. 190.

i. 292 ; of learning, Bacon's observations on, ii. Albans, from Lord St., praying that the king will let

him die out of a cloud and suffer his honours to be
Adversity, strength of, ii. 488; Essay of, i. 14.

transmitted, iii. 188.
Advertisement touching holy war, ii. 436; touching Albans, from Lord St., to the king, thanking him for
church controversies, ii. 411,

bis liberty, iii. 184.
Vol. III.-69


2 z 2

Ailans, from Lord St., to the king, praying for a con., Alphonso the Wise compiled the digest of the laws
tinuance of the king's kindness, iii. 84.

of Spain, ii. 235.
Albans, Lord St., to a most dear friend, in whom he Alteration of religion by Elizabeth, ii. 445.
notes an entireness and impatient attention to do Alterations which may be called majors, ii. 114.
him service, iii. 19.

Altham, Baron, reverend judge, ii. 477.
Albans, Lord St., to the Lord Treasurer Marlborough, Alva, Duke of, general arrest made by him of Eng.

expostulating about his unkindness and injustice, lishmen, ii. 260; a chief instrument in the rebellion
ii. 191.

in the north of England, ii. 260.
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, promising Amalgamatizing metals, ii. 46!, 462.
to supply his decayed cables, iii. 187.

Amazons, ii. 442.
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, touching Ambassadors, how to choose, ii. 382.
his book, iii. 187.

Amber, flies get a durable sepulchre in, ii. 24.
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, thanking Ambition, essay on, i. 44; of man, God's first judg-
him for a parabien, iii. 188.

ment on the, i. 175.
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, touching Amiens, Spaniards beaten out of, ii. 200, 213.
his application to the king, iii. 188.

Anabaptists, ii. 442; revived the opinion of Henkus,
Slbans, to the Lord St., from the Bishop of Lincoln, i. 220; religion of, ii. 314.

upon the orations of Cicero, Demosthenes, and the Apacharsis, saying of his, i, 120.
works of his lordship, iii. 188.

Analysis. See Notes by the Editor, i. 244-254.
Albans, to the Lord St., from the Marquis of Bucking- Anatomy, much deficient, i. 204.

ham, expressing the king's willingness to see his Anaxagoras, his precept concerning truth, i. 82 ; his
book, but refusing to let him remain in London, iii. remark upon the Athenians who had condemned

him to death, i. 116.
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, iii. 185. Ancient history only fragments, i. 189.
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, concerning Ancient philosophers, their theories concerning primi-
York House, iii. 185.

tive matter, i. 437.
Albert Durer, his mode of painting, i. 49.

Ancients, inventors consecrated by the, i. 207; ho
Alchymists follow wrong principles to make gold, ii. nours of the, to eminent men, i. 177; consecrated

49; their philosophy, or the Grecians', all now re- inventors of arts amongst the gods, i. 177; hoped
ceived, i. 79; means used by, more monstrous than to prolong life by medicine, i. 307; wisdom of the,
the end, i. 199 ; errors of in forming science, i. i. 287–313; took up experiments on credit, ii. 13.

Andrada, Manuel, a Portuguese, revolted from Don
Alchymy, white and red, ii. 459; advantages of to Antonio to the King of Spain, ii. 217; advertises
science, i. 172.

Mendoza that he had won Dr. Lopez to the King of
Alcibiades, of high spirit, yet beautiful, i. 49; advice Spain's service, ii. 218; Lopez's secret conference

to Pericles, studying how to give in his accounts, with him, ii. 218; got out of prison by Lopez, ii.
i. 109

218; brings Lopez a jewel from the King of Spain,
Alcohol, a powder made of, ii. 99.

ii. 218; moves Lopez to poison Queen Elizabeth,
Alexander, body of, found, ii. 104; Livy's saying of ii. 218; goes to Calais and writes to the Count de

him, i. 84; his conquest of Persia, ii. 223; Livy's Fuentes, ii. 218.
judgment of him, ii. 223; his opinion of the cause Andrews, Bishop, ii. 435.
of Calisthenes' eloquence in his speeches on the Angels, worship of, i. 195.
Macedonians, ii. 229, 235; melancholy in his lat- Anger, essay on, i. 59; causes of, i. 59; makes dull
ter years, i. 27; his conduct at Arbela, i. 36; not men witty, but keeps them poor, i, 124; effects of,
just to deny credit to his acts, i. 99; his saying of ii. 96.
Craterus and Hephæstion, i. 113; saying of Anti- Animate bodies and plants, difference between, ü. 81.
pater, i. 113; his answer to Parmenio, i. 114, 117; Annals and journals, their use, i. 191.
cleanliness of, ii. 8; an instance of excellence in Annihilation, impossibility of, ii. 24.
arms and learning, i. 164; his admiration of Ho- Anointing, experiment touching, ii. 99.
mer, i. 179; education of, i. 179; preferred learning Answers, if insufficient, defendant to pay costs, ii. 483;
to empire, i. 179; his observation relating to Dio- to bills in chancery, ii. 483.
genes, i. 179; his wit in speeches, i. 179; Cassan- Ant, its character, i. 208.
der's subtle answer to, .i. 179; his distinction be- Antalcidas, his answer to an Athenian, i. 116.
tween love of him and love of the king, i. 180; Antarctic hemisphere, dusky spots in, what are causes
answer to Parmenio's counsel, i. 180; an instance of, ii. 585.
of the conjunction between learning and military | Ante-nati and post-nati of Scotland, ii. 144, 154, 159,
power, i. 179.

Alien enemy, law respecting, ii. 169.

Anticipations of the second philosophy, üi. 521.
Alien friend, may have movable goods and personal Antigonus, answer and saying of, i. 114, 117.

actions, but not freehold, or leasehold, or actions Anti-masques, their composition, i. 45.
real or mixed, ii. 169.

Antimony, as to dissolving, ii. 460.
Alienations, office of compositions for, iii. 319. Antinomiæ, contrary cases to be noted in reducing the
Aliment of man,
i. 202.

common law, ii. 232.
Aliments, change of, ii. 18.

Antiochia, wholesome air of, ii. 128.
Allegiance, cannot be applied to the law or kingdom, Antiochus, his incitement to Prusias to war against

but to the person of the king, ii. 176; must be un- the Romans, ii. 204.
conditionai, ii. 391.

Antipathy and sympathy of men's spirits, ii. 137; se-
Alliance with Holland, ii. 383.

cret virtue of, ii. 132, 137 ; of things, iii. 465.
Almonds, oil of, mixed with spirits of wine, ii. 465. Antiquity, overweening affection for, i. 172; like
Alonzo of Arragon, saying about books, i. 113.

Fame, head muffled, i. 189; law of, ü. 421; the
Alphabet of Nature, rule and form of, iii. 531.

ultermost is like fame, that muffles her head and

tells tales, i. 84; admiration of an impediment to Armada, ill success of the Spanish, ii. 200; account
knowledge, i. 94; knowledge not to be sought in of it, ii. 208.

the obscurity of, but in the light of nature, ii. 547. Arms, the importance of to nations, i. 38; Aourish
Antipater, of all Alexander's lieutenants, wore no pur. in the youth of a state, i. 62 ; and learning, com-
ple, i. 113; his sayings of Demades, i. 114;

parison of in advancing men, i. 183.
Antisthenes' opinion what was most necessary, i. 120. Arragon, united with Castile, but not naturalized, ii.
Antitheta, examples of, i. 217.

155; its rebellion suppressed, and subsequent incor-
Antoninus Pius, a learned prince, i. 178.

poration with Castile, ii. 155.
Antonio, King, mortal enemy to the King of Spain, Arthur, King, i. 199.

ii. 217; his retinue, therefore, free from all suspicion Art, duty of lo exalt nature, i. 208; of memory, visible
of conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth, ii. 217; yet images in the, ii. 131 ; the time extent of, ii. 572.

suspected by some of her majesty's counsel, ii. 217. Articulation of sounds, ii. 35.
Antonio, Don, enterprise to settle him in the kingdom Arts, military, flourish most while virtue grows, i. 205;
of Portugal failed, ii. 210.

liberal, fourish when virtue is in state, i. 205 ; volup-
Antonius, Marcus, transported by love, i. 18.

tuary, flourish when virtue declines, i. 205; history
Antonias' mind weakened by the Egyptian soothsayer, of, deficient. i. 188.
ii. 129.

Arts and methods, error of over-early reduction of
Ants, instinct of, ii. 93.

science into, i. 173.
Antwerp, English inerchants spoiled and put to their | Arts, intellectual, are four, Invention, Judgment, Me-
ransom at the sack of, ii. 260.

mory, Tradition, i. 207.
Anytus' accusation against Socrates, i. 164.

Arts and sciences, invention deficient, i. 207; their
A pelles, his mode of painting, i. 49.

flourishing condition under the reign of King James,
Ape's heart, what good for, ii. 194.

ii. 285.
Aphorisms, iii. 427; the way of delivering ancient Arts of judgment, i. 210.

wisdom, iii. 222 ; the pith of sciences, i. 214; know- Arundel and Surrey, Earl of, from Lord Bacon, men.
ledge when in, is in growth, i. 173.

tioning his being taken ill and staying at his house.
Apollonius's judgment of Nero, ii. 277; reason for iii. 91.

Nero's overthrow, delight in solitude, i. 34. Ashton, Abdy, chaplain to the Earl of Essex, ii. 363.
Apollonius of Tyana, ii. 124.

A ssertion and proof, i. 214.
Apophthegms, i. 107; account of, i. 9; loss of Cæsar's, Astringents, a catalogue of different sorts, hot and cold,
i. 192.

ii. 467; purgative, ii. 468.
Apothecaries, how they clarify syrups, ii. 8.

Astrologers, means used by, more monstrous than the
Apology for the Earl of Essex, ii. 333.

end, i. 199.
Apparel, vanity in should be avoided, ii. 386.

Astrologers’ judgment that the King of France should
Appendices to knowledge of the soul, i. 206; division be killed in a duel, i. 43.
of, divination, fascination, i. 206; of history, i. Astrology, Chaldean, i. 206.

Astronomer, predictions of, i. 206.
Appetite, or will of man, i. 218.

Astronomical observations, admonition respecting, i.
Appius Claudius transported by love, i. 18.

421; ii. 580.
Arbela, the number of the Persians at, i. 36.

Astronomy, theory of, i. 200; exemplified in the Book
Archidamus's answer to Philip of Macedon, i. 118. of Job, i. 175.
Arch-traitor Tyrone, the, ii. 349.

Atalanta and the golden ball, i. 174.
Archetype, the dignity of knowledge is to be sought in Atalanta, or gain, i. 304.
the, i, 174.

Atheism, learned men and times incline to, i. 163;
Ardes, Spaniards beaten out of, ii. 200, 213,

superficial knowledge of philosophy may incline the
Arguments in law, iii. 267.

mind to, i. 164; learned times have inclined to, i. 162;
Aristippus, answers of his, i. 113, 117, 118, 121; caused by ignorant preachers, ii. 427 ; meditations

answer as to the morigeration of learned men, i. upon, i. 6, 70; their disposition light, i. 71; Essay

of, i. 24 ; never perturbs states, i. 25.
Aristotle, ii. 198, 210, 212, 219, 221, 224, 226, 227; Athens, poisoned capital offenders, ii. 85; their Sex.

school of, i. 90; put all his opinions upon his own viri standing commissioners to watch the laws, ii.
authority, i. 99; full of ostentation, i. 57; goeth for 231, 235.
the best author, i. 72; character of, i. 72; admired Athletic, i. 205; philosophy relating to not inquired
the invariableness of the heavens, i. 79; saith our i. 205.
ancestors were gross, i. 84 ; said that we are be- Atlantis, New, i. 255.
holden to him for many of our articles of faith, Atlas, i. 210.
i. 123; remarks concerning the prolongation of life, Atmosphere, artificial, in New Atlantis, i. 267.
ii. 16; opinion of the colours of feathers, ii. 7; advice Atoms, equality or inequality of, i. 407.
in consumptions, ii. 16 ; framed new words in con- Attachment for not answering, ii. 481.
tradiction to ancient wisdom, i. 196; mentions the Attemus, the start of in Epicurus, a frivolous shin,
ancients only to confute them, i. 196 ; took the i. 71.
right course for glory in reproving the more ancient Attorney and -solicitor-general should not be ignorant
philosophers, i. 196; inquiry in physiognomy, i. in things though unconnected with their profession,
201; error in mixing philosophy with logic, i. 173 ; ii. 379.
his sparing use of feigned matter in history, i. 172; Attorney-general's place and commission, ii. 489.
observation on the power of the mind and reason, Attorney-general, abuse of to Mr. Bacon, ii. 497.
i. 206; emulation of, i. 216; followed the example Attraction, by similitude of substance, ii. 94 ; experi.
of Alexander in conquering all opinions as the other ment touching, ii. 121; experimental remarks or,
all-nations, i. 196 ; remarks on his system of natural ii. 466 ; by similitude of substance, ii. 121.
philosophy, i. 427; his custom to prefer the obscure, Attractive bodies, if in small quanuties, ü 466; ob-
ii. 581.

servations on, ii. 466.


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