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Of the Quickness of the Generation and Extinction is, at King's College, in Cambridge, a certain of Sound, and the time in which they are effected. wooden building, in which there hang beils, and` that when the bells ring, it is shaken. But whatsoever that hidden moticn be, which is sound, it appears that neither is it engendered without perceptible motion in the first pulsation, and that again by the perceptible motion of the air it is carried or hindered.
All sound is exceeding quickly generated, and quickly perishes. But the swiftness of its motion and of its differences, appears a thing not so wonderful. For the motion of the fingers upon a lute, or of the breath in the pipe or flute, are found to be exceedingly swift: and the tongue itself (no very exquisite organ) goes through as many motions as letters; but that sounds should not only be so speedily generated but that they should | also, by their momentary force and impression, as it were, suddenly fill so great space, is matter worthy of the highest admiration. For instance, a man in the middle of a field, speaking aloud, is heard for a quarter of a mile, in a round, and that in articulate words, and these hanging in every little portion of the air, and all in a space of time far less, perhaps, than a minute.
To inquire of the space of time in which sound is conveyed. It can be found thus. Let a man stand in a steeple by night; let another stand in the field, a mile off, perhaps, or as far as the bell can be heard, and let him have ready a torch lighted, but covered. Then let him in the steeple strike the bell then let the other, who stands in the plain, as soon as he hears it, lift the torch in this way, by the space of time between the striking of the bell and the seeing of the torch, shall he that stands in the steeple discover the time of the motion of the sound.
In guns, the flame is seen sooner than the report is heard, although the flame follow the discharging of the ball; so as the flash issues later, but sooner strikes the sense. Whence it is rightly gathered, that the beams visible are more speedily diffused, and arrive, than the species or impressions of sound.
Of the Affinity, or Non-affinity, which Sound hath with the Motion, local and perceptible, of the
Air in which it is carried.
Sound doth not appear manifestly and actually to shake and trouble the air, as doth wind; but the motions of sound appear to be effected by spiritual species; for thus we must speak, until something more assured shall be found.
So as I conceive that a very loud sound of one shouting, at a little distance from the very motion of the breath, shall scarcely stir any trembling aspen leaf, or straw, or flame.
But in greater pulsations there is found a very bodily and actual motion of the air; but whether that proceed from the motion itself which generates sound, or from a collateral cause, or some concomitants, appeareth not. Thunder-claps sometimes make glass windows to tremble, and even walls: I think, also, that ordnance let off, or explosions of mines, do the same.
A word quietly uttered, which at a distance perhaps of thirty feet can be heard, will yet hardly stir the flame of a candle, that is held within a foot of the mouth; whilst blowing a little strongly with the mouth, shall make the flame to waver, at a much greater distance.
The sound of bells, and the like, comes louder, and goes off more dully, as the wind blows towards the ear, or against the sound. The same happens in a shout, which being uttered against the wind, is not heard so far.
It is delivered, that through vast shouts of numbers applauding and cries of rejoicing, the air has been so broken or rarefied, that birds flying over have fallen down. There runs an opinion that the noise of many bells ringing in populous cities is good against thunder and pestilence.
Some places and buildings are certainly reported to be so vaulted, that if one speak in them, and (as the report hath it) against the wall, in one part of the building, his words shall be better heard at some distance from the voice than close at hand.
I have observed, sitting in a coach with one side of the boot down, and the other up, that a beggar crying on the closed side of the coach hath seemed to cry on the open side; so as the voice was plainly repercussed, and went round, or at the least, whilst it sounded on all sides, it seemed to be heard on that side, on which it did best reach
If a candle be held to the wind-hole of a drum, and the drum be beat, the flame is shaken and extinguished. The same happens in winding of a hunter's horn, if the candle be brought near the mouth of the horn, &c.
Even the exquisite differences which sound takes, and carries them with it, show that these delicate affections are not continued local motions. For seals, in a matter fitly prepared, make exquisite impressions; so as in the generation of sound. this same, perhaps, might happen. But the dilatation and continuance sort not, especially in liquids: but those exquisite differences we understand of articulate voices and musical tones.
But of this matter altogether (videlicet, what relation and correspondency sound has to the local motion of the air) let inquiry-be more diligently made; not by the way, whether? (which sort of question in matters of this kind has ruined all,) but by the way, how far? and that not by arguments discursive, but by opposite experiments
And I remember, if I mistake not, that there and crucial instances.
Of the Communication of the Air percussed and elided with the ambient Air, and Bodies, or their Spirits.
In the striking of a bell, the sound given by chiming upon the bell with a hammer on the outside, and by the tongue within, is of the same tone. So that the sound yielded by the chiming upon the outside, cannot be generated by the collision of the air between the hammer and the outside of the bell, since it is according to the concave of the bell within. And if it were a flat plate of brass, and not concave, the sound should, I think, be different.
so produced, as it hath some communication with the body of the flute, or pipe. For there is one sound produced in a trumpet of wood, another in one of brass; another, I judge, if the trumpet were lined within, or perhaps even covered, on the outside, with silk or cloth: one perchance if the trumpet were wet, another if dry. I conceive, likewise, in virginals, or the viol, if the board upon which the strings are strained were of brass, or of silver, it should yield a somewhat different sound. But of all these things let there be better inquiry.
Further, in respect of the communication, it would be inquired, what the diversity and ine
If there be a rift in the bell, it gives a hoarse quality of bodies may do; as if three bells should sound, not pleasant or grateful.
It would be known how the thickness of the percussed body may affect the sound, and how far forth as if, of the same concave, one bell should be thicker, another thinner. I have proved in a bell of gold, that it gave an excellent sound, nothing worse, yea, better, than a bell of silver or of brass. But money of gold rings not so well as money of silver.
Empty casks yield a deep and resounding sound, full ones a dull and dead sound. But in the viol, and the lute, and other such, although the first percussion be between the string and the exterior air, yet that air straight communicates with the air in the belly, or concave of the viol or lute. Wherefore, in instruments of this kind is ever some perforation made, that the outward air may communicate with the confined air, without which, the sound would be dull and dead.
Let there be a trial made of the nightingalepipe, that it be filled with oil, and not with water; and let it be noted, how much softer or more obtuse the sound shall be.
When sound is created between the breath and the percussed air, as in a pipe, or flute, it is yet
be made to hang, the one within the other, with some space of air interposed, and the outer bell were chimed upon with a hammer, what sound it should give, in respect of a single bell.
Let a bell be covered on the outside with cloth silk, and let it be noted, when the bell is struck by the tongue within, what that covering shall do to the sound.
If there were in a viol a plate of brass, or of silver, pierced with holes, in place of that of wood, it would be seen what this shall do to the sound.
There are used in Denmark, and are even brought hither, drums of brass, not of wood, less than those of wood, and they give, I think, a louder sound.
The agitation of the air by great winds shall not, I think, yield much sound, if woods, waves, buildings, or the like be away; yet is it received that, before tempests, there be some murmurings made in woods, albeit to the sense the blast be not yet perceived, nor do the leaves stir.*
Three chapters are deficient, which there wanted leisure to completing.
GENERAL INDE X.
ABDUCTION of women made a capital offence, i. 333. | Advice upon importing foreign goods, ii. 386; to
Abjuration and exiles, cases of and proceedings therein, Æneas Sylvius, his saying of the Christian religion,
Abner, murder of by Jacob, not forgotten, ii. 322.
Esculapius and Circe, exposition of, credulity by fable
Abridgments of laws, opinion on the use of them, Esop's fable of the two sons digging for gold, i. 172.
Abuse of excommunication, ii. 428.
Abuses in the penal laws, ii. 237.
Acceleration and clarification of liquors, ii. 47.
Accident assistance to eloquence, ii. 337.
Achaians, comparison of the state of to a tortoise, by
Achelous, or battle, i. 302.
Acteon and Pentheus, or a curious man, i. 294.
Action and contemplation, union between, i. 173, 174;
Actions, all men drawn into by pleasure, hor.our, and
Active, force of quantity in the, ii. 460.
Affections, effect upon the minds and spirits of men,
ii. 129; their impediments to knowledge. i. 94:
Affectation. No affectation in passion, i. 45; to use
Agathocles, conduct to the captive Syracusans, i. 114.
Age will not be defied, i. 39; essay on youth and, i.
Agricultural experiments, ii. 464.
Actium, battle of, decided the empire of the world, Agrippina, preference of empire, i. 183.
Actor, Vibulenus, his artifice, i. 218.
Adam's employment in Paradise, i. 175.
Adam, fall of, set forth by the fable of Pan, i. 290.
Adjournment should be to a day certain, ii. 495.
Admiralties and merchandising several, one of the
Adoration the highest honour amongst the heathens,
Adrian, a learned prince, i. 178.
Adrian de Castello, the pope's legate, made Bishop of
Adrian VI., advice to him respecting Pasquil, i. 109.
Advancement in life. i. 231; of learning, notice of,
Adversity, strength of, ii. 488; Essay of, i. 14.
Agues, what wines best for, ii. 10; use of hartshorn
Air, transmutation of into water, ii. 10, 19; Jiversity
Air and water, experiments as to weight in, ii. 463.
Airs, experiment touching, ii. 249.
Albans, the Lord St., to a friend, believing his own
Albans, the Lord St., to the same humble servant, em-
Albans, from Lord St., praying that the king will let
Albans, from Lord St., to the king, thanking him for
Albans, from Lord St., to the king, praying for a con-
Albans, Lord St., to a most dear friend, in whom he
Albans, Lord St., to the Lord Treasurer Marlborough,
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, promising
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, touching
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, thanking
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, touching
Albans, to the Lord St., from the Marquis of Bucking-
Albans, to the Lord St., from Buckingham, iii. 185.
Albert Durer, his mode of painting, i. 49.
Alchymy, white and red, ii. 459; advantages of to
Alcibiades, of high spirit, yet beautiful, i. 49; advice
Alcohol, a powder made of, ii. 99.
Alphonso the Wise compiled the digest of the laws
Alteration of religion by Elizabeth, ii. 445.
Ambassadors, how to choose, ii. 382.
Amiens, Spaniards beaten out of, ii. 200, 213.
Ancient history only fragments, i. 189.
Ancients, inventors consecrated by the, i. 207; ho-
Andrews, Bishop, ii. 435.
Alexander, body of, found, ii. 104; Livy's saying of
Alien enemy, law respecting, ii. 169.
Alien friend, may have movable goods and personal
Alienations, office of compositions for, iii. 319.
Allegiance, cannot be applied to the law or kingdom,
Alliance with Holland, ii. 383.
Almonds, oil of, mixed with spirits of wine, ii. 465.
Ante-nati and post-nati of Scotland, ii. 144, 154, 159,
Anticipations of the second philosophy, iii. 521.
Antinomiæ, contrary cases to be noted in reducing the
Antiochia, wholesome air of, ii. 128.
Antipathy and sympathy of men's spirits, ii. 137; se-
tells tales, i. 84; admiration of an impediment to
Antoninus Pius, a learned prince, i. 178.
Antonius, Marcus, transported by love, i. 18.
Antonius' mind weakened by the Egyptian soothsayer,
Ants, instinct of, ii. 93.
Art, duty of to exalt nature, i. 208; of memory, visible
Arts, military, flourish most while virtue grows, i. 205;
Arts and methods, error of over-early reduction of
Antwerp, English merchants spoiled and put to their Arts, intellectual, are four, Invention, Judgment, Me-
Anytus' accusation against Socrates, i. 164.
Aphorisms, iii, 427; the way of delivering ancient
Apollonius of Tyana, ii. 124.
mory, Tradition, i. 207.
Arts and sciences, invention deficient, i. 207; their
Arts of judgment, i. 210.
Arundel and Surrey, Earl of, from Lord Bacon, men-
Ashton, Abdy, chaplain to the Earl of Essex, ii. 363.
Apophthegms, i. 107; account of, i. 9; loss of Cæsar's, Astringents, a catalogue of different sorts, hot and cold,
Apothecaries, how they clarify syrups, ii. 8.
Appetite, or will of man, i. 218.
Appius Claudius transported by love, i. 18.
Archetype, the dignity of knowledge is to be sought in
Ardes, Spaniards beaten out of, ii. 200, 213.
Aristippus, answers of his, i. 113, 117, 118, 121;
Aristotle, ii. 198, 210, 212, 219, 221, 224, 226, 227;
ii. 467; purgative, ii. 468.
Astrologers, means used by, more monstrous than the
Astrologers' judgment that the King of France should
Astronomer, predictions of, i. 206.
Astronomical observations, admonition respecting, 1.
Astronomy, theory of, i. 200; exemplified in the Book
Atalanta and the golden ball, i. 174.
Atalanta, or gain, i. 304.
Atheism, learned men and times incline to, i. 163;
Athletic, i. 205; philosophy relating to not inquired
Atlantis, New, i. 255.
Atmosphere, artificial, in New Atlantis, i. 267.
servations on, ii. 466.