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and powerful tides; but if in the opposite direc- fixed bodies can agree with liquid and fluid—that tion, weak and scarcely perceptible. For the Red is, not that they move towards the poles, but are Sea hath a considerable tide; and the Persian pointed and turned towards the poles. For since Gulf, with a yet more entire westward direction, every revolving sphere, which has fixed poles, a still stronger. But the Mediterranean, the participates of the nature of movable and fixed; greatest of all gulfs, and its parts, the Tuscan, after, by its consistency or self-determining naPontic, and Propontic Seas, and in like manner ture, the rotatory force is bound up, still the the Baltic, all which tend eastward, are almost force and tendency to direct itself remains, is destitute of tide, or have only languid ones. But augmented and gathered into one; so that directhis difference is most conspicuous in certain parts tion and verticity to the poles in hard bodies of the Mediterranean, which, so long as they tend is the same with the revolution on their poles in eastwards or turn towards the north, as in the fluids. Tuscan Sea and the others we have mentioned, The third inquiry remains. Whence and how are pacific and without much tide. But, after ariseth that reciprocal action of the tides, once ia getting a westerly direction, which takes place in six hours, which coincides with a quarter of the the Adriatic, it requires a remarkably large tide. diurnal mo with that difference to which we To which we may also add this, that in the Medi- have adverted. To understand this, let us supterranean the slight reflux which is found begins pose that the whole globe was covered with from the ocean, the flow from the opposite direc- water, as in the general deluge; we conceive the tion, so that the water follows rather a course waters, as forming a complete and unbroken from the east than the natural refluence of the globe, would always roll in a progression from ocean. The three instances only we shall use for east to west each day to a certain extent: not the present, in reference to this second inquiry. certainly a great space, on account of the remis
There may be added to these another species of sion and deliberation of that motion as it approof, agreeing with those already advanced, but proaches the earth, seeing the waters were noof a more difficult nature. It is this: that an where obstructed or confined. Let us suppose, argument may be sought for proof of this mo- again, that the whole land was an island, and tion from east to west, not only from the consent that it extended longitudinally between south and ing motion of the heavens, of which we have north, which confirmation and position most realready spoken, where this motion is, as it were, strain and obstruet the motion from east to west; in full flower and strength,—but also from the we think that the waters would keep on in their earth when it seems wholly to cease; so that it direct and natural course for a certain time, but, is really a direction of the universe, and pervades reverberated by the shores of that island, would all things from the zenith to the interior parts of roll back in equal intervals; that there would be, the earth. Now, we apprehend that this conver- therefore, only one infiux of the sea a day, and in sion takes place from east to west (as in reality like manner only one reflux, and that to each of it is found to do) upon the south and north poles. these about twelve hours would be apportioned. And Gilbertus has, with great care and accuracy, And let us now suppose what is true and inatteraccomplished for us this discovery, that the whole of-fact, that the land is divided into two islands, earth and nature, so far as we call it terrestrial, those, namely, of the new and old world; for have an inclination or popularity not softened Australia, by its position, does not much alter the down, but rigid, and, as Gilbertus himself calls it, effect; as neither does Greenland nor Nova Zem. robust, latent, but betraying itself in many nice bla, and that these two islands extend through experiments towards the north and south. And nearly three zones of the world, between which this observation we thus modify and correct, that two cceans, the Atlantic and Southern, flow, and this ought to be asserted only of the exterior these nowhere find a thoroughfare, except towards formation about the surface of the earth, and the poles; we think it necessarily follows, that ought not to be extended to the bowels of the these two ramparts impart and communicate the earth; for that the earth is a magnet was at one character or double reaction to the entire mass of time conceived,-a light imagination,--for it can waters. Whence arises that motion in the quarnot be that the inward parts of the earth resemble' ter of a day,--so that the waters being cooped in any substance which the eye of man hath seen: on both sides, the ebb and flow of the sea would rince all the substances among which we live are become visible twice a day, since there is a loosened, subdued, or broken up by the sun and double advance, and also a double recoil. Now, heavenly bodies, so that they cannot possibly if these two islands were extended through the agree with those which have had their seat in a waters like cylinders or columns, of equal dimenplace where the influence of the heavenly bodies sions, and with rectilinear shores, that motion dors not penetrate ;—but, which is our present might be easily perceptible, and might be pointed subiect, the more superficial crusts or formations out to any one, which now seems to be perplexed of the earth appear to agree with the conversions and obscured by so great a variety of position of of the sun, air, and waters, as far as solid and land and sea. For it is not difficult to form some
conjecture what degree of velocity it is proper to and with the hour of reflux on the coast of Africa ascribe to that motion of the waters, and what and Florida ? distances it may describe in one day. For, if Let it be inquired, how far the hour of tide on there be selected, in order to form a judgment of the coast of Peru differs from the hour of tide at this matter, some of those coasts which are less the coast of New Spain; and particularly what mountainous, or low lying, and which are con- are the differences of the hour of tide at either tiguous to the open sea, and then the measure of shore of the Isthmus of Darien, in America; the space of the globe interjacent between the ex- again, how far the hour of tide on the coast of treme points of the flux and reflux, and that space Peru corresponds with the hour of tide on the be quadrupled on account of the four movements coast of China ? of the tide each day, and that number again Let it be inquired respecting the largeness of doubled on account of the tides at the opposite the tides on different coasts, not merely respecting shores of the same ocean; and to this number their periods or hours. For, although the largethere be something added over and above on ac- ness of tides is generally caused by the deprescount of the height of the shores, which always sions of the shores, yet, notwithstanding, they rise to a certain elevation above the channel of are closely connected with the true principle of the sea; that calculation will give the space the motion of the sea, according as it is favourable which this sphere of water, were it free from ob- or adverse. struction, and moving in progression round the Let inquiry be made with respect to the Caspian caveloped globe of earth, would describe in one sea, which is formed by considerable bodies of day, which certainly would not be great. water locked up, without any outlet into the
Now, with respect to that difference which ocean, if they are subject to ebb and flow, and coincides with the measure of the moon's motion, what? our conjecture being that the waters of and forms the period of a lunar month ; we think the Caspian Sea may have one tide a day, not that the explanation is this, that the period of six two, and such that the eastern shores of it are hours is not the exact measure of this reaction, deserted by the sea, while the western are over. just as the diurnal motion of any of the planets is flowed. not accomplished in twenty-four hours precisely, And let inquiry be made, whether the increase and least of all that of the moon. Wherefore, the of the tide at new and full moons and at thr, measure of the ebb and flow of the tide is not a equinoxes, takes place at the same time in difquarter of the motion of the fixed stars, which ferent parts of the world, and when we say at is twenty-four hours, but a quarter of the diurnal the same time, we do not mean at the same hour, motion of the moon.
for the hours vary, according to the rapidity of the
waters' motion towards the shores, as we have DIRECTIONS.
said,) but in the same day. Let it be inquired, whether the hour of the tide Limits. The inquiry is not extended to a full
a on the coast of Africa be before the hour of tide explanation of the harmony of the monthly moabout the Straits of Gibraltar. Let it be inquired tion of the sea with the moon's motion, whether whether the hour of the tide about Norway is that takes place from a subordinate or a joint before the hour of the tide about Sweden, and cause. that, in like manner, before the hour of the tide Relations. The present inquiry is connected at Graveling?
with the inquiry whether the earth revolves with Let it be inquired, whether the hour of the the diurnal motion of the heavens. For if the tide on the coast of Brazil be before the hour of tide is, so to speak, the last stage of the gradual the tide on the coast of New Spain and Florida ? diminution of the diurnal motion, it will follow,
Let it be inquired, whether the hour of the tide that the globe of the earth is immovable, or al at the shores of China is not found nearly the least that its motion is slower by far than that same with the hour of tide on the coast of Peru, of the water.
W. G. G
THE ABECEDARIUM NATURÆ,
BY ARCHBISHOP TENNISON.
PUBLISHED IN THE BACONIANA, 1679.
THE SAME IN ENGLISH BY THE PUBLISHER.
A Fragment of a Book written by the Lord Verulam, and entitled, The Alphabel of Nature.
Steing so many things are produced by the negatives subjoined to affirmatives, conduce much earth and waters ; so many things pass through to the information of the understanding: it is fit The air, and are received by it; so many things that an inquisition be made concerning being, and are changed and dissolved by fire; other inquisi- not being. That is the seventy-third in order, vions would be less perspicuous, unless the nature and reckoned the fourfold Alpha. of those masses which so often occur, were well Conditions of beings. The fourfold Alpha; or, known and explained. To these we add inquisi- concerning being, and not being. tions concerning celestial bodies, and meteors, Now, possible and impossible, are nothing else seeing they are some of greater masses, and of but conditions potential to being, or not potential the number of catholic bodies. *
to being. Of this the seventy-fourth inquisition
consists, and is accounted the fourfold Beta. Greater Masses.
Conditions of beings. The fourfold Beta; or, The sixty-seventh inquisition. The threefold concerning possible and impossible. Tau, or concerning the earth.
Also, much, little; rare, ordinary; are condiThe sixty-eighth inquisition. The threefold tions potential to being in quantity of them let l'psilon, or concerning the water.
the seventy-fifth inquisition consist, and be acThe sixty-ninth inquisition. The threefold counted the fourfold Gamma. Phi, or concerning the air.
Conditions of beings. The fourfold Gamma; or, 'The seventieth inquisition. The threefold Chi, concerning much and little. or concerning the fire.
Durable and transitory, eternal and momentary, The seventy-first inquisition. The threefold are potential to being in duration. Of these let L'si, or concerning celestial bodies.
the seventy-sixth inquisition consist, and be called The seventy-second inquisition. The threefold the fourfold Delta. Omega, or concerning meteors.
Conditions of beings. The fourfold Delta; or,
concerning durable and transitory. Conditions of Entities.
Natural and monstrous, are potential to being, There yet remain, as subjects of our inqniry, either by the course of nature, or by its deviations in our alphabet, the conditions of beings, which from it. Of these let the seventy-seventh inquisiseem, as it were, transcendentals, and such as tion consist, which is accounted the fourfold touch very little of the body of nature. Yet, by Epsilon. that manner of inquisition which we use, they Conditions of beings. The fourfold Epsilon; will considerably illustrate the other objects. or, concerning what is natural or monstrous.
First, therefore ; seeing (as Democritus excel- Natural and artificial, are potential to being, lently observed) the nature of things is in the either with or without the operation of man. Of plenty of matter, and variety of individuals large, these let the seventy-eighth inquisition consist, and (as he affirmeth) infinite; but in its coitions and be accounted the fourfold Zeta. and species so finite, that it may seem narrow Conditions of beings. The fourfold Zeta; ot, and poor; seeing so few species are found, either of that which is natural and artificial. in actual being or impossibility, that they scarce We have not subjoined examples in the explica. make up a muster of a thousand; and seeing tion of the order of this our alphabet: for the See the distribucion, in l. 2, c. 3, de Augm.
Scient. p. 134; of examples.
inquisitions themselves contain the whole array 135, 136. Ed. Lugd. Bat. 1. 3, c. 4, p. 231. Intellect. p. 88, 89.
It is by no means intended, that the titles, ac
And c. 4.
cording to which the order of this alphabet is selves to us in the quality of inquirers, and not disposed, should have so much authority given to of judges. Such canons and axioms are profitathem, as to be taken for true and fixed partitions ble, though they appear not yet manifest, and of things. That were to profess we already upon all accounts true. knew the things after which we inquire; for no Lastly: we meditate sometimes certain essays man does truly dispose of things into their several of interpretation, though such as are low and of classes, who does not beforehand very well under- small advance, and by no means to be honoured stand the nature of them. It is sufficient, if(in our opinion) with the very name of interprethese titles be conveniently adapted to the order of tation. inquiry; the thing which is at present designed. For, what need have we of arrogance or impos
ture, seeing we have so often professed that we The Rule or Form of the Alphabet. have, not such a supply of history and experiAfter this manner we compose and dispose our ments as is needful; and that, without these, the alphabet :
interpretation of nature cannot be brought to perWe begin solely with history and experiments. fection. Wherefore, it is enough for us if we These, if they exhibit an enumeration and series are not wanting to the beginning of things. of particular things, are disposed into tables ;
Now, for the sake of perspicuity and order, we otherwise, they are taken separately and by prepare our way by avenues, which are a kind of themselves.
prefaces to our inquisitions. Likewise, we interBut, seeing we are often at a loss for history pose bonds of connection, that our inquisitions and experiments, especially such as are lucife may not seem abrupt and disjointed. rous, or instructive, and, as we call them, in
Also, we suggest for use some hints of practice. stances of the cross ;* by which the understanding Furthermore, we propose wishes of such things might be helped in the knowledge of the true as are hitherto only desired and not had, together causes of things : we propose the task of making with those things which border on them, for the new experiments. These may serve as his exciting the industry of man's mind. tory in design. For what else is to be done by
Neither are we ignorant that those inquisitions us who are but breaking the ice ?
are sometimes mutually entangled; so that some For the mode of any more abstruse experiment, things of which we inquire, even the same things we explain it, lest any mistake arise about it; belong to several titles. But we will observe and to the intent, also, that we may excite others such measure, that (as far as may be) we may to excogitate better methods.
shun both the nauseousness of repetition, and the Also, we interspect certain admonitions and trouble of rejection, submitting, notwithstanding, cautions concerning such fallacies of things, and to either of these, when, in an argument so oberrors in invention, as we meet with in our way. scure, there is necessity of so doing, in order to
We subjoin our observations upon history and the more intelligible teaching of it. experiments, that the interpretation of nature
This is the form and rule of our alphabet. may be the more in readiness and at hand.
May God, the creator, preserver, and renewer Likewise, we lay down canons (but not such of the universe, protect and govern this work, as are fixed and determined) and axioms which both in its ascent to his glory, and in its desceni are, as it were, in embryo: such as offer them to the good of mankind, for the sake of his mercy
and good will to men, through his only Son, Im• See Nov. Organ., l. 2., Aph. 36.
manuel, God with us.
CATALOGUE OF BODIES, ATTRACTIVE AND NOT
BY ARCHBISHOP TENNISON.
PUBLISHED IN THE BACONIANA, 1678.
If there be made a turn-pin of any metal, after applied to a shiver, or a compass-needle, draws the fashion of a magnetic needle, and amber be best of all. applied to one end of it, after having been gently The electric virtue is as vigorous, for a time, in rubbed, the pin will turn.
its retention, as it was in its first attraction. Amber heated by the fire, be it warmish, hot, or Flame (amber being put within the sphere of set on fire, it does not draw.
its activity) is not drawn by it. A little bar of iron red-hot, flame, a lighted A drop of water, amber being applied towards candle, a hot coal, put nigh sheaves (or straws) it, is drawn into a cone. or turn-pins, (or compass needles,) do not draw. If electric bodies be rubbed too hard, their
Amber, in a greater mass, if it be polite, draws, attraction is thereby hindered. though not rubbed : in a lesser quantity, and in a Those bodies, which in a clear sky do scarce less polite mass, it draws not without rubbing. draw, in a thick air move not at all.
Crystal, lapis specularis, glass, and other such Water put upon amber choketh its attractive electric bodies, if burned, or scorched, draw not. force, though it draweth the water itself.
Pitch, the softer rosin, benjoin, asphaltum, Fat* so encompassing amber, that it toucheth camphire, galbanum, ammoniac, storax, assa, it, takes away its attraction; but being so put these draw not at all when the air is hot : but betwixt it and the object to be drawn, as not to when it is cooler, they draw weakly, and so that touch it, it doth not take it away. we can just perceive them to do so.
Oil put upon amber, hinders not its motion : Reeking air, blown-up amber, &c., from the neither doth amber, rubbed with the finger moistmouth, or from a moister atmosphere, chokethened with oil, lose its attractive virtue. the attractive virtue.
Amber, jeats, and the like, do more strongly If a paper, or a piece of linen, be put between excite, and longer retain the objects they draw, amber and chaff, there is no motion, or attraction although the rubbing be but little. But diamonds, made.
crystal, glass, ought to be rubbed longer, that Amber, or other electrics, warmed by the sun- they may appear hot, ere they be used for attracbeams, have not their attractive virtue so awaken- tion. ed, as by rubbing.
Flames nigh to amber, though the distance be Amber rubbed, and exposed to the beams of the very small, are not drawn by it. sun, retains its attractive force the longer; and Amber, &c., draw the smoke of a lamp newly does not so soon lose it, as it would do in the extinguished. shadow.
Amber draws smoke more strongly when it Heat derived from a burning-glass to amber, comes forth, and is more gross; and more weakly, &c., does not help its attraction.
when it ascends and becomes thinner. Sulphur, and hard wax, set on fire, do not A body drawn by electric bodies, is not mani. draw.
festly altered, but only leans itself upon them. Amber, when, immediately after rubbing, it is
* For hy Sarca, I suppose, he meaneth Sarcia.